Introduction supply side conditions affecting the structure:

IntroductionIn the United Kingdom, Bank of England has remained incharge of deciding prices of money and directing inflation since itsestablishment in 1694. the U.

S. on the other hand came up with a differentsystem and had chosen to pass far-off from the British classical, yet chose tomake the Federal Reserve in 1913 as the country’s economy developed (John,2013).They operated following a central banking”system” with three prominent landscapes: a central governing Board,a decentralized operating structure of 12 Reserve Banks, and a combination ofpublic and private characteristics. The impact of both theBoE and Federal Reserve on the finance segment is truly enormous.

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Many organisationsinterest rates are the same as every other country’s national central bank, inspite of the fact that as far as the genuine goods and way in which a representativebank from either state functions (John,2013).US account containers are accustomed to reimbursing for every transaction at anATM machine as act of charge from the provider, while withdrawals from mostautomatic transaction machines in the UK are probably unrestricted of charge (John,2013).This proposes in a few regards; United Kingdom’s banks are somewhat more opento their clients’ needs through providing consumers supplementary free facilities.This paper is aimed to have an understanding of the current banking sectoroperations in regards of all terms of performance measures in the United Statesof America.A.    Analysing the market structureThe utmost optimum way to define the Structure-conduct-performance(SCP) is that it is a paradigm that is used as an analytical instrument to makelinks between market structures, market conduct and market performance (Bain, 1959). Few market conditions influencethe structure of the organisationswithin an industry which leads to determining their strategic behaviouror conduct and resultingin  the performance of the firms in the industry collectively.

i)                  Listing at least two demands and twosupply side conditions affecting the structure:§  Demand SideAffecting: -1.  Open Markets OperationThe Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)is stimulating with regulating “open market operations,” the vital gearin an act where the Federal Reserve executes U.S. regulatory policy (The Fed, 2017).

Actionssimilar to those affect the federal funds rate, which thus affects general fiscaland credit situations, total demand, and the financial resources. Congressordered enactment that made the FOMC as a major aspect of the Federal ReserveSystem in 1933 and 1935. (The Fed,2017) 2.  Consumer SpendingIn any typical marketplace, the value of a productis set by the dealers and the customers pay. In the financial serviceindustries on the other hand, those who supply currency over savings supposedto get a rate of return, whereas individuals who request the suppliers byaccepting currencies are expected to have a payment rate of return. This rateof return has different and various type of forms, contingent upon the sort ofinvestment.

Consumer spending can have an impact on the structure of the marketbecause if the production increases then people will have more jobs and thereis going to be more money in the economy therefore there is going to be morespending, it’s like a virtuous cycle. §  Supply Side Affecting: – The Federal Reserve provides 5 over-all supply functions to indorseeffectiveness of the economy and most definitely the public interest; (The Fed, 2017).o   Conducts the nation’s monetary procedureTo advance greatestbusiness, stable costs, and direct long-haul loan returns in the economy; o   Promotes the stability of the financial classification pursues to minimalize and coversystemic risks over active nursing and meetings in the U.

S. and abroad; o   And encourages the safety and soundness of individual financial foundationsMonitors their impressionon the financial scheme entirely; o   Also, fosters payment and settlement system safety and productivity To concluded amenities forthe financial market and the nation’s government that enable U.S. dollartransactions and expenditures;o   And finally, promotes consumer protection and community progress Through consumer-focused administrationand investigation, examination and study of emerging customer matters and tendencies,public economic growth activities, and the management of consumer regulationsand protocols.    ii)                 Thenumber and size distribution of buyers and sellers (n-firmconcentration ratio) CR8 In a market, theremight be large number of buyers.

Correspondingly, a market may comprise ofnumerous little buyers or just a couple of buyers. The aggregate number ofbuyers influences the nature of transactions in the market. This sectionincludes a Concentration ratio as a tool of measurement of attentiveness in themarket place. In economics,a concentration ratio is a measure of the total production producedin an industry by a given number of firms in the industry (Investopedia, 2017).Most typical communal concentration ratios are the CR4 andthe CR8, describing the market share of the 4 and the 8 main businesses.

Specifically, for this evaluation I havetaken into account eight of the topmost firms in the sector and they have been accordinglyassessed. The total sales for the particular industry chosen is 536.99 billionUSD. First, I havedetermined the period I wanted to examine, and then calculated the marketshares separately by the findings of the total sales to the respective companyand divided it by the total sale of the industry as a whole. Second, I havetotaled the market shares all together in order to find out the concentrationratio to designate what kind of competition does the market operate in. The concentration ratio ranges from 0% to 100%, and a marketsconcentration ratio specifies the mark of opposition in the industry as a whole (Investopedia, 2017). The total market share of the picked-up firms is 93.10% whichspecifies to us that the mark of opposition or competition in the market isrelatively high.

High awareness happens when the concentration ratio arraysfrom 80% – 100%, a percentage that specifies the industry as an oligopoly (Investopedia,2017). Therefore, the commercial banking sector in the UnitedStates of America is set to be an oligopoly. Condition of Entry and ExistACCESSBarricades to entry in monetary service areamarkets incorporate licensure laws, capital requirements, access to financing,administrative compliance and security concerns (Investopedia, 2016).

Amongst numerous market sectors, the financial services segment has anextraordinarily association with competition and barricades to entry. Simply owedto two factors: the view of groups and other financial intermediaries as a mainthrust behind economic constancy or inconstancy. The vital obstructions for possiblenew competitors requiring to bargain financial services on a larger gage arethe vast amount of money essential, the dated of period required to shape up abrand distinctiveness, and the many government regulations that smear to the procedureof banks. (Investopedia, 2016).Government regulationsDespite the fact of the increased time and load comingaround as of government regulations can be undesirable to financial or monetaryadministration organisations in the short run, government regulations can similarlyyield the financial services market inclusively in the long-term.

The Sarbanes-OxleyAct was passed by Congress in 2002 in light of various financial outragesinvolving substantial combinations, for example, Enron and WorldCom (The Fed,2017). Thescenario considered chief management of organisations accountable for theaccuracy of their financial statements, while additionally demanding that internalreform to be acknowledged within these organisations to get ahead of future falsificationand fraud (The Fed, 2017).Actualizing these instructions was hefty, however the situation impacted more guaranteeto entities putting capitals into monetary services, that definitely led to anincrease in investors certainty and confidence as well as enhanced generalcorporate ventures (The Fed, 2017).EXITBarriers to exit are obstructions orobstacles that keep an organization from exiting a market it is consideringabout a suspension of operations in or wishes to isolate from. characteristic barricadesto exit incorporate exceptionally specialized assets, that might be hard to vendor transfer, massive withdrawal charges, for example, resource write-offs andclosure costs, indemnities paid to employees and mergers, making it indefinite to offer a share of the firm (Investopedia, 2016). Alternative basic obstruction to withdrawal is loss of customergoodwill.Diversificationand Integration    It is broadly believed that diversificationat monetarist organizations welfares the constancy of the financial scheme.

Thiscomposition demonstrates that it likewise involves a fee: despite the fact thatdiversification lessens every foundation’s discrete chance of catastrophe, it stylesuniversal crises more feasible. At the point when universal crises tempt extra prices(far beyond discrete catastrophes), full diversification is not any more necessarysubsequently and the ideal level of diversification might be subjectively little(Wagner, 2006). It is suggested that there is a huge potential for efficiency gain fromintegration, however only a fairly insignificant part of this potential may be appreciated(Wagner, 2006). Integration givethe impression to bring about larger returns efficiency gains than costefficiency gains, and utmost of the improvements appear to be related tobenefits from risk diversification.B.

Strategies used to increase market power I have selected the chief 3 majorcompanies in the market to assess and the 1st is: J.P. Morgan chase,a universal banking company which provides various types of financial services.The establishment works as a financial holdingfirm with a figure of subsidiaries involved in the firm’s 4 core zones offinancial enterprise: retail banking, commercial banking, corporate andinvestment banking, and asset management. It wishes to stay providing client suitabilityand low-cost and front-line facilities. Alsohave had a past of acquiring minor groups, eliminating market competition to acertain extent (Maverick, 2018).

Wells Fargo on the other hand customs strategieswhich comprise with product differentiation by “cross-selling” existingcustomers double accounts and also by boosting their sales culture inadvertising and marketing their products and services (Reuters, 2016).The third best firm in the industry Bank of America Corporation alternativelycustoms approaches responsible for increase in revenue such as serving allthree customer groups; people, companies and institutional investors and theirstrategy lies under the umbrella of R enhancing pre-existing products orprocesses (Bank of America’s Strategy of ResponsibleGrowth, 2018).  Relevant PerformanceMeasures; (links from structure through conduct to performance)Technological progression is ofgreat value to an industry or business. Since we are in an era of knowledge andtechnology this will help the organisation to work productively and mostefficiently to incur their aims and goals.

This link can be established fromstructure through conduct to performance as if the foundation of theorganisation counts on it, and what follows after it is a high proficiency outcomeif the job is done precisely. Profitability and revenue growth is basically theobjective of most organisations and can be part of the conduct. Forillustration, a positive advert for Citigroup was its securities and investmentbanking corporations where profits flowed by 25% to $6.8B. Proceeds from stocktrading rose 68% to $942M. Around fixed income, profits increased to 18% to$3.37B. And takings from indorsing and advisory businesses was up by 21% aswell.

(Greenberg, 2013). This elaborates to us how profitability and revenuegrowth is well played within the field of accounting and is done correctly dueto the results in the data.     ·        What is the persistence of profit (POP) approach? Are there evidencesfor POP to hold in the US banking sector?                                                                                                  The persistence of profit approachis founded on empirical study of the subtleties of firm -level profits (Goddard & Wilson, 1999).The PoP seems to be less probablefor groups in underdeveloped countries than for those in developed countries.

Perseveranceis relatively high in Western Europe and North America and relatively low in thePacific, East Asia, as well as the Sub -Saharan Africa (Goddard& Wilson, 1999). Thepersistence of bank profit is determined by financial detailed and industry features,as well as macroeconomic circumstances. The PoP is more probably once entry barricadesare high, and when rivalry is little according to in cooperation of structure andconduct constructed competition pointers (Goddard& Wilson, 1999). The drastic improvements in presentation of U.S. banks:technological change, deregulation, and dynamic changes in competition were indicatedby (Knapp et al. 2006), reports suggests that persistence estimates for a sample of U.

S.banks that revenues take as lengthy as 5 years to meet near regular market standards.This proves evidence that indeed in the United States banking sector consistsof this sort of profit methodology.  Conclusion Toconclude, this paper was thoroughly written and emphasizes the condition of theAmerican banking sector. It is said to be from the information extracted that theAmerican banking sector is an oligopoly and we can say that by the findings ofthe concentration ratio framework and its estimates. The industry is huge andit consists of large number of banks which operate in and globally outside ofthe states.

The analysation of the market has been done precisely thorough.  Also, it has been assessed how the leadingbanks in the industry generate their profits and what strategies they use inorder to do so. Moreover, the current banking sector of the U.S. operations inregards of all terms of performance measures were deliberately considered.           References:1.    Bain, J. (1959).

Industrialorganisation (2nd ed., p. 13-14). California: Wiley.

2.    Bank of America’sStrategy of Responsible Growth.(2018). About Bank of America.

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    Goddard, J., , J. (1999). The persistence of profit: a new empiricalinterpretation. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 17(5),663-687. 4.    Greenberg, J.

(2013). Growth in Emerging Markets Lifts Citigroup’s Profit by 42%,Topping Expectations. DealBook. Retrieved 3 January 2018, from https://dealbook. 5.    Harrigan, K. (1980). Theeffect of exit barriers upon strategic flexibility.

 StrategicManagement Journal, 1(2), 165-176.

1002/smj.4250010206  (Harrigan, 1980)6.   Investopedia (2016). What barriers to entry exist inthe financial services sector?. Investopedia. Retrieved 1 January2018, from https://www.investopedia.

com/ask/answers/031015/what-barriers-entry-exist-financial-services-sector.asp  7.    Investopedia.(2017). Concentration Ratio.

Retrieved 30December 2017, from 8.   John, (2013) US vs. UK banking: what’s thedifference? | My Family Finances.

Retrieved 17 December 2017, from 9.    Knapp, M., Gart, A., and Chaudhry, M.(2006) The impact of persistence and meaner version of bank profitability onpost-merger performance in the banking industry, Journal of Banking andFinance, 30, 3503 -3517.

  10.  Lipczynski, J., Wilson, J.

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Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. 11.  Maverick, J.(2018). Analysing Porter’s Five Forces on JPMorgan Chase (JPM).

 Investopedia.Retrieved 3 January 2018, from 12.

  Reuters, (2016). WellsFargo’s Overhaul Could Cut into Profits. Fortune. Retrieved 3January 2018, from 13.  Rothbard, M. (2005).

A history ofmoney and banking in the United States (pp. 36-37). Auburn: Ludwig vonMises Institute. 14.  The Fed – Structure ofthe Federal Reserve System. (2017).

 Boardof Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 27 December 2017,from 15.  Tucker, A.

(2017). The Financial Panicof 1907: Running from History. Smithsonian. Retrieved 14 November2017, from 16. Wagner, W.

(2006). Diversification atFinancial Institutions and Systemic Crises (pp. 298-301). Tilburg:Macroeconomics.World bank, (2018). Financial Sector | 4 January 2018, from


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