Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary Introduction of capital of Cambodia, and it

Introduction of capital of Cambodia, and it


            Siem Reap Province is the one of
capital of Cambodia, and it has a lot of temples that has located around here.
Angkor Wat is the biggest temple in Siem Reap, and it is the most tremendous
religious monument in the world. It build on the 162.6 hectares (1,626.00 sqm),
but it was built as a god Vishnu’s Hindu temple      for the Khmer Empire. As a result it transformed into a Buddist
temple in the early 12th century in the king Yasodharapuara. Angkor
Wat was built and combined by two basic plans of Khmer monument architecture
that we called the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It was
created to represent Mount Meru and house of devas in Hindu mythology. It had a
moat and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres, and Angkor Wat is stand to the west and
scholars are divided as to the significance of this (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angkor_Wat).

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            Cambodia has witnessed big cultural,
environmental, political, and technological changes in the past decade. The quickly
increasing of tourism on big scale in some region is a significant role of
these points, but it is not all every changes. Cambodia has a lot of natural
resources that has exploited in the attaching tourists and some of regions
become the cultural heritage site, so the tourism changes very fast from year
to year, but some of the private companies try to cut down the heritage zone
because of their economic and they ignore their socio-cultural values (S. Son Soubert 1995).

            Tourism is the most factors in
Cambodia, and Angkor Wat is the biggest tourist destination of many people who
come from other places as Asian, European, and other places. According to the
ministry of tourism in 1993 it had only 7,650 visitors who came to visit it. (S. Son Soubert 1995

 In this study, we will know
very clearly about the development of cultural tourism over the past 30 years
and see about the how the tourism grown, changed, who came to visit it and the
impact of the cultural tourism.

Tourism Grew and Changed at Angkor Wat

            Angkor Wat Teample is the World Herigage Site in
Southeas Asia, and it is around 400 km2 of flat plains in northwest Cambodia.
Angkor has four main elements as tropical forest, areas of cultivated land, a
number of isolated villages, and the architectural legacy of its period (T.
Winter, 2002). So too many, cultural tourism grew and changed
because Cambodia has a good traditional with an asset of tourist sites, more
than ever the Angkow Wat Area. It means that Angkor Wat Area is a good place
for the visitors who want to visit from over the world. If we talk about the
number of tourists whom came from to visit Angkow 1950s after that the number
of the tourist grow from 21,180 to 46,701 in 1969 (S. Son Soubert 1995: 2), but about the middle years of 1970 it has no
noted concerning tourism, and it was destroy by human and natural and starts
from 1979 till the end of 1980s. The transportation in Cambodia during the 1980s
it was very bad for tourism because the passengers can use only dirty road, and
they can travel only by car, railways and boat, so the numbers of tourist
increase very slowly; it had planes from other countries, but in local areas
cannot fly to other provinces in Cambodia (S. Son Soubert 1995: 3). The government creates the Angkor Tourism in
1986 because they want to increase the amount of tourists that they can come to
visit Angkor Wat after they create it, they try to open the domestic flights and
increase the new provincial airpoets as from Phnom Penh by Siem Reap,

            During 1986, the government wanted
to get more tourists from other countries, so the government tried to negotiate
with the government of India to restoration work at Angkor Wat Temple, and they
signed agreement most noteworthy for its political implication vis-à-vis
India’s relationship with the Soviet Union, and both of them wanted Cambodia to
support during this period (L. French, 1999). After
the Pol Pot Regime, the government agrees with the government of India to
restoration of Angkor in 1986, and the money and everything are paying by India
government, but India government is not give a figure on the cost of
restoration; they just said it close to the millions of dollars (http://www.nytimes.com/1987/01/31/arts/restoring-angkor-wat-a-vast-six-year-job.html).

            The number of tourist is increase
from day to day because the government tries to develop the telecommunication,
accommodation and restaurants. About the telecommunication, the government
tried to improved considerably with the establishment of two satellite links
from Soviet and Austalia in 1991, and it had Thai company that they came and
introduced the mobile phones and equipped it with the telephones and fax, so it
was easy to the tourists to make call. Accommodation and restaurants, it grew
very fast, too. The private companies built the hotel and restaurants very
quickly because of the tourists increased very fast. The number of hotels 8
with total room 315 plus several guest houses in 1991, but the service still
needs to improve to meet the international standards because the government
wants to increase and increase the number of tourists, so the government and
the private companies always try to find the best way to serve the tourists and
completes their goals (S.
Son Soubert 1995: 3-4). About the neighboring countries, the government always takes about
it because the government wants to get the number of tourists from the
neighboring countries, so the government opens three official border entries as
Bavet, on the border Vietnam, Kompoang Som, and the Phnom Penh. Thais can enter
but they cannot go far away from the Poipet market (S. Son Soubert 1995: 5). The formality improver to “the entry formalities
in Cambodia the government facilitated as visas can be obtained directly at the
Ministry of foreign Affairs or in the various Cambodian consulates in foreign
countries. The immigration service at the international airport can deliver
visas upon enter for a short period, for a cost of 20 us. The Royal Cambodian
Government allows tourist to enter Cambodia without visas for a period of seven
days” (Quoted in S. Son
Soubert. (1995)).

            The number of tourists always change from one day to day
because the Cambodia has a political stability, this country is the middle of a
rapidly expanding Southeast Asian tourism industry, so the international
tourists came to visit Angkor Wat; it increased from 30% a years with the
number of visitors 466,365 in 2000 (Tim Winter 2004: 335). According to the
tourism office of Siem Reap, the number of arrivals of tourist in Siem Reap was
5134 tourists in 1990, 5492 tourists in 1991 and 10530 tourists in 1992. The
tourists still grow during the latter half of the twentieth century, the
visitors come to visit Angkor 466, 365 and will increase 1,000,000 visitors in
2003 (Aurora, Maria and Candelaria, Fe 2005).

local people and foreigners come to visit Angkor

During 1990s the stability and international tourism is
far away from the international of Cambodia because of the Pol Pot regime, but
Angkor came under the world heritage committee in December 1992 that we called
the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development
of Angkor (ICC), and it ordered to protect the newly listed world heritage site
to the oversee efforts (T. Winter 2004: 334). The foreigners tourists who came
to visit Angkor was ” some Spanish, Portuguese and Asian travellers visited the
region after Angkor’s demise, the late 19th century travel diaries
of Henri Mouhot, a French botanist, were portal in awakening interest in Europe
to the existence of the site (Dagense, 1995).” The majority of visitors who
want to visit Angkor as United States, Japan, France, European countries,
Australia, and some neigh boring countries as Vietnam, Loa and Thailand (S.
Son Soubert, 1995). We have the travel agencies were registered 122 at the
end of 1992, and some of them are Japan, Thailand, France, Italy, Taiwan, Hong
Kong, and the United State. More than ever, they do not care of foreigners, but
they also take care of Cambodians who want to visit Angkor from other provinces
in Cambodia (S. Son Soutbert, 1995). The local tourists are around 200,000 to
400,000, and the tourism help to increase the population influx in the nearby
town of Seim Reap, so it is expected that 2005 the population would have
increase 177,000 up from 41,000 inhabitants in 1992 (Aurora, Maria
and Candelaria, Fe 2005).

impacts of cultural tourism

            About the effect on cultural tourism when the government
tried to set the plans to build new hotels and buildings is arbitrary, and it
does not account for the ancient urbanism of Phnom Penh and of other places as
Battambang and Siem Reap Cities when they build the building, their
architecture always meet with the traditional setting because they tried to
change some styles of Khmer tradition to other styles as foreign styles, they
tried to decorate interior of hotels and restaurants to the modern styles, but
some of the Cambodian people as Cambodian architecture still wants the owner of
buildings to maintain the Khmer styles Thailand (S. Son Soubert, 1995).
When they built the hotels and buildings, some of them had some problems with
sewage treatment throughout the buildings to other places as the result the
water pollution will flow to the rivers or ponds around there, and the water
pollution will increase from one day to day; the government does not have the
plans and money to solve this problem (S. Son Soubert, 1995). If we talk
about the impact on the culture and environment, and both of them have not yet
been studied very clearly because the Ministry of Tourism try to be
co-operating with other ministries and local and foreign organization, and now
they created as the Secretariat of State for Environment and the National
Committee for the Management of the Territory because they want to avoid other
possible misunderstanding (S. Son Soubert, 1995). Because the government
wants to increase the tourists and protect the Angkor area, the government
suggests the King to sign the Royal Decree on the Zoning of the Region of Siem
Reap/Angkor adopted on May 28th, 1994, and the law will process on
January 25th, 1996 to protect the natural and cultural. When the
King and government sign to create the APSARA National Authority, they set the
region as zone one, zone two and zone three for the Angkor Site Properties, so
the people live around Angkor Wat they are very difficult to build the house
and sell their properties to others (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668).

            To sum
up, the development of cultural tourism at Angkor Wat over 30 years is very
interesting because it had a lot of tourists who came to visit it as United
States, Japan, France, European countries, Australia, and some neigh boring
countries as Vietnam, Loa and Thailand, but it is impact of the cultural
tourism because some of the investor and government tries to change the Khmer
traditional to the new style as foreigners.