INTRODUCTION: helps liquids form micelles and micro
INTRODUCTION:Various methods and compounds are used now a day tocure multiple disorders. Ample of drugs have been designed, antibiotics havebeen made, which have been successful in curing many diseases. Only onedisadvantage it creates is the bacterial resistance which the bacterium attainsagainst the antibiotics. This creates a problem and a question mark to theproduction of more effective drugs against which resistance can’t be developedeasily.An effective solution to this developing issue canbe production of biosurfactants.
Various microorganisms around us are capableof producing biosurfactants, The need is to use it effectively against thepathogenic bacteria and other inflammatory causes, its applications in the protectionof petrochemical industry and environment. Microorganisms produce various wide varietiesof surface actives molecules (SAC’s) i.e. Biosurfactants and also of haveapplications in the field of emulsification, foaming, detergency, dispersionand it also solubilizes hydrophobic compounds. (Gudiña, Teixeira etal. 2016) Microbial compounds that exhibit effective surfaceand emulsifying activities are known to be biosurfactants.
These are amphiphilic compounds which are mainly producedon the living surfaces i.e.; here microbial surfaces and they are secondarymetabolites and are synthesized non- ribosomally by either actively growing orresting microbial cells. (Ndlovu, Rautenbach et al. 2017) It containshydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, the hydrophilic moiety which is having anacid, peptide that can be cations or anions, mono, di or polysaccharides and a hydrophobicmoiety of unsaturated or saturated hydrocarbon chains or fatty acids. Itsstructural composition gives them the property of lowering the surface andinterfacial tension, which eventually helps liquids form micelles and micro emulsionsbetween two different phases.
Biosurfactants comprises a wide range of chemicalstructures such as glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complexes,phospholipids, fatty acids and neutral lipids(Banat I.M.Franzetti, al et al. 2010) Microbial surface active compounds orbiosurfactants are a group of structurally diverse molecules produced bydifferent microorganisms and are mainly classified on the basis of theirchemical structure and microbial origin. Biosurfactants are produced bydifferent microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeast. (Cooper, Macdonaldet al.
1981)In present era in which everyone is facing variousissued related to pollution and hazardous chemicals everywhere whether it bewater, soil etc. Biosurfactants are having various applications in differentfields. It has environmental applications such as it helps in bioremediation ofthe petroleum hydrocarbons in ground water and soil, biodegradation of thegroundwater and soil and its hazardous compounds, and as a biosurfactant itdoes enhanced soil washing. Petroleum industry, environmental remediation, foodprocessing, agro industry, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals it is useful in allthese applications. Its industrial applications is mostly used for the oilrecovery and processing , because traditional recovery can only recover up to40-45% of the crude oil so this is a major advantage over the traditional recovery.(Shibulal, Al-Bahry et al. 2014)It has biomedical applications when these biosurfactantsare present in hetrogenous environment or system; it tends to aggregate at thephase boundaries or interfaces. Surfactants increase the solubility of hydrophilicmolecules hence decreasing both the surface and interfacial tension at the oilwater interface, which gives it a property to form micelles.
(Banat, Franzetti etal. 2010) As we know human pathogens are treated usingvarious antibiotics, but an issue which always occurs is the bacterialresistance towards the antibiotics. Here biosurfactants which are a much betteroption than antibiotics can be introduced and used effectively in variousdisorders, diseases or any kind of inflammation. These compounds are found tohave several properties like anti-adhesive, anti- biofilm , activities which isuseful in removal of adhesion and colonization of pathogenic microorganisms,and also the removal of the pathogenic biofilms, it also has anti-fungal,anti-viral ,anti-cancerous properties.
(Gudiña, Teixeira etal. 2016) Some lipopeptides produced by a marine organism wasfound be active against many multi-drug resistant pathogenic strains, whichagain makes it advantageous over several antibiotics against which manypathogens have been resistant. There are various biosurfactants which can beused wisely against pathogenic bacteria that are rhamnolipids, trehalolipids,sophroplipids, and mannosyl erythritol lipids (MELs). (Ndlovu, Rautenbachet al.
2017) But the most widely studied biosurfactants consistsof glycolipids, lipopeptides and surfactin. This far we know biosurfactantshave both hydrophilic and lipophilic domains They have major function in pharmaceuticalprocessing, as they improve the solubility of drugs, particularly those drugs whichare poorly soluble in water. This lead to the need for other substitutes like biosurfactants(bioactive agents).It alsoincreases the stability of encapsulated drugs and even the rate of diffusionand effect the thermodynamics of the drugs. The most common use of surfactantscan be done as effective drug delivery vehicles.