Introduction have set up regulations which control

IntroductionMillions ofanimals are utilized for commercial and scientific experiments across the worldeach year.

Specifically, animals are exploited to create new medical therapies,recognize the toxicity of drugs, and verify the wellbeing of health care productsthat are meant to only benefit us humans. Research on animals is still on therise to keep up with rapid pace of medical and technological advancement despitethe ongoing debates that have been raised concerning the ethical uses ofanimals in experiments (Marshall andRowan, 2017, p. 12). The majority of animals used in biomedical studies act asmodels for human illnesses although they have been utilized in addiction andbehavioural testing.

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Additionally, animals are used in productdevelopment, agricultural, space, military, and science education. Theproponents of animal research state that such experiments have enabled thediscovery of several life-saving medications for both animals and humans; hence,there can be no other alternative technique for studying a complete livingthing (Davies 2015, p.19). On the otherhand, the arguments against animal experimentation use is that it is inhumaneand cruel thus alternatives methods that do not hurt the animal subjects havebeen proposed. The major reason whyanimals are so important in experimentation includes advancing scientificunderstanding, protecting the safety of the environment, people and animals,testing and developing remedies as well as models for studying ailments.

Themajority of countries and international organizations have set up regulations whichcontrol the way in which animals are used in experiments. For instance, animal welfare act (AWA) was enacted to controlthe usage of animals in the USA by defining the living things that can beutilized for studies (Scanarottiet al., 2017, p. 9). Although the lawsregulate the transportation and housing of animals for testing, they do notstandardize the experiments leading to the misuse and killing of the animals. Toavoid mistreatment of animal subjects, scientists have validated and developedalternative techniques that have shown to be more effective and safer for theanimals used in experiments while still getting the needed results. Benefits of Non-animal TestingThe use ofnon-animal testing demonstrates some of the advantages when compared to theprevious methods of using creatures in experiments. Initially, the alternativescientific assessments are more reliable than animal research.

For instance, thestudy on hamsters, monkeys, baboons, guinea pigs and rats did not show anyconnection between cancer and glass fibres although human studies illustratedthe correlation. Also, the EpiDerm obtained from individual membrane cells was precisein recognizing skin irritation than  theuse of creatures in similar study (Bailey et al.,2014, p.

21). Secondly, theuse of human tissues to test is more effective than animal experiments. Thestudy of poisonous gas (lethal 50) make animals to eat lethal and poisonoussubstance to the extent where half of the creatures die and those that are leftare killed (Garattini andGrignaschi, 2017, p.

13). However, similarresearch using donated human tissue has shown to be accurate since theexperiment is able to target the effect of the toxin on particular organs. Thirdly, the useof substitute methods is cost-effective, expedient and practical when comparedto animal tests. The use of synthetic skin is able to offer the chemicalcorrosivity determination in less than three minutes although creature testingwould take about four weeks. Also, the DakDak technique used to measure the accuracyof sunscreens generate report in days but it takes months for animal models(Foley, 2014, p.27).

Moreover, thetraditional examination of chemicals using animals may last for five years persubstance, and cost million dollars although alternative methods can analysehundreds of chemicals within a week for the same cost. Lastly, cruelty-freesubstances are environmentally friendly.In toxicity studies, scientist breed,dispose and test millions of creatures as dangerous or pathogenic garbage. Therefore,cruelty-free studyingproducefewer wastes, and is less damaging to thesurrounding. Alternatives to Animal TestingSome of thecurrent alternative methods include stem cell and genetic assessment, in vitroand human cell models, computer simulations and models, microdosing andnon-invasive imaging.  In Vitro TestingIn vitro study isa method of carrying out a particular procedure in a managed environment butoutside the living organism.

Several experiments are conducted on cells of anorganism through the artificial culture media. Havard’s Wyss institution hasestablished the organs-on-chips that have human cells developed in thestate-of-the-art system to represent the function and structure of organsystems and tissues(Goh et al., 2015,p. 9). The cells can beutilized as a substitute of animals in medicine testing, sickness study, andtoxicity examination. Moreover, the discovery has proved to replicate diseases,medicine reaction, and human physiology more accurately than basic animalexperiments.

Some of the organizations including the HuRel company have turnedthem into goods that can be used as a substitute for animals (Hartung, 2016, p.17). Furthermore, anassortment of tissue models and cell-based tests can be utilized to evaluatechemical, consumer products, cosmetics and safety of drugs.

Cee Tox inventedthe scheme to examine how a substance can cause membrane sensitivity in humanbeings which entails the MatTek’s EpiDerm tissue replica. The model is3-dimensional and human being cell-derived that duplicates major traits of thestandard human skin(Bergeson, 2016,p. 10).The product canreplace the use of mice or guinea pigs that have been injected or applied asubstance to their skin with the aim of determining the allergic reaction. TheMatTek’s EpiDerm is used to substitute rabbits in a prolonged and painfulexperiments used to assess the ability of a chemical to irritate or corrode theskin. Furthermore, the EU reference library researchers have created fivedistinct studies that utilize human serum to notice pollutants in drugs withthe potential dangerous fever outcome when in the body(Ohl and Meijboom,2015, p.

17). Computer Modelling(Insilico)The in silicotechnique refers to the testing that entails a computer or use of desktopsimulation in the research. Various methods of computer modelling includemolecular reproduction, complete cell simulations, and bacterial sequencingtechniques. Scientists have created a broad range of complicated CPU model thatactivate human being biology and sequence of illnesses(Taylor et al.,2014, p.

11).The computers areused to predict and visualize human reaction to a particular substance or drug.The common way the in silico techniques are involved in the research includeprediction models, modelling tools, power analysis and planning experiments aswell expert systems. Further, the methods are used to evaluate skin metabolismand reaction to specific chemical using the skin proteins. The skin interactionwith chemical is activated to determining the association between thestructure, toxicity and metabolism (Seidle T, 2013,p. 8).The in silicoresearch offers enormous advantages for refining, replacing and reducing animaltesting together with translating the outcomes of animal research into people.

 The computermodels are able to indicate the feedback to new medicines in the human bodyhence replacing the exploitation of creatures in drug tests and an investigativestudy. The quantitative structure-activity relationships are compute foundedmethods that substitute animal making creating sophisticated estimates ofsubstance’s toxicity based on its resemblance to the present chemical and humanbiology knowledge(Nicolas et al.,2015, p. 14).

By coupling modellingto sensing and imaging, one animal can be followed hence reducing the killedfigures of creatures used research. There are computer models of lungs, skin,kidneys, heart, musculoskeletal and digestive system which are utilized tocarry out virtual studies based on the mathematical data and existinginformation. Human Volunteerand MicrodosingRapid inventionsin technology have permitted the development of complex recording and scanningtechniques which can be utilized without harm by human volunteers. Microdosingrefers to the method used in assessing the trait of medicines in people via theadministration of low doses that cannot cause a lethal effect but is capable oftriggering a cellular reaction(Ramirez et al.,2015, p.

13).The humanvolunteer is an alternative that entails the use of people in scientificstudies but they have to sign up without being forced. Microdosing can offer fundamentalfacts on the wellbeing of investigational substances.

Volunteers are givensmall and instant drug dose while classy imaging methods are utilized tomonitor how the medicine behaves in the body. The application of microdosingreplaces particular examination on creatures as well as screening out drugcompounds that cannot function in humans(Franklin, 2016,p. 22). Highly developedmental recording and imaging methods including functional magnetic resonanceimaging with human volunteers are used to substitute archaic studies wheremonkeys, cats, and rats have their brains destroyed. The current techniquepermits the human brain to be studied safely while researchers can reversiblyand temporarily induce brain malady using the transcranial magnetic stimulation(Waxenecker andBinder, 2017, p. 11).Human tissues aregatheredviasurgery such as transplant, aesthetic operation and biopsies for investigation.Furthermore, human cells and organs can be utilized after a person dies.

Thepost-mortem brain parts have offered significant facts of understanding brainregeneration as well as the impact of Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosisailments(Flory et al.,2015, p. 12). Less high-techexperiments for pain, drug addiction and nutrition can be conducted onconsenting people in the interests of developing medical science rather thanusing animal tests.

Human tissues are can be used in various ways within amedical lab thus making it relevant than animal models. The advantage ofmicrodosing is that it allows the observation of how substance or medicineworks with fewer chances of side effects.Also, the technique lowers thediscrepancy between humans and animal reaction to a specific drug.  Human-patient SimulatorsHuman patient simulatorsrefer to infant and life-size manikins that replicate aspects of humanphysiology including pulse, heartbeat, and respiration.

Also, simulators arecomputer and mechanical simulators that mimic human outlook and depict diseaseand symptom processes as they manifest in the actual patient.(Schultz et al.,2016, p. 9)The simulators areintegrated with computer software that enables to illustrate abnormal andnormal bodily reactions to therapeutic interventions and conditions. The bloodvessels, gastrointestinal tract, heart and lungs are made to respond to allhuman interventions.

The major purpose of the human patient simulators isreplacing animals in teaching pharmacology and physiology. The most high-techsimulators imitate injuries and illnesses, and offer appropriate biologicalreaction to drug administration and medical interventions. More than 90% ofmedical schools in the United States have replaced the use of animals in thelab during medical training with the simulators since they are much better thankilling creatures(Moran et al.,2016, p.

13).To facilitateeffective learning, the simulators are developed based on particular clinicalsetting or organ system. Some examples of the human patient simulator includeHarvey, emergency care, Pelvic ExamSim, Megacod Kelly, VitalSim and adultSimMan(Rychert andWilkins, 2015, p. 16).

Additionally, themodels offer more experiential learning chances than animal tests.For instance,the emergency room simulator give right anatomical features that  permit bodily illustration of different medicalsigns such as blinking eyes, seizures, breathing and bleeding. The humanphysiology at the simulator offers accurate reaction to fluid administration,defibrillation, oxygen management and drug administration. For advanced medicallearning, TraumaMan simulator that replicate bleeding, breathing and realisticlayers of internal organs, ribs and skin is utilized to teach surgicalprocedures better than the use of live dogs, goats, and pigs(Klein and Seeley,2015, p. 19).  Stem Cell andGenetic TestingThe embryonic stemcells can grow and divide within a petri dish into different cells that createhuman organs.

The in vitro version of human tissues is superior to dishes of asingle cell type to evaluate the toxicological impact of the drug as well asproviding the human impact profile. Moreover, the stem cells are used in drugdiscovery since the ailment genes are inserted into the stem cells which arethen activated to differentiate into human tissues that can be utilized toscreen a medicine(Balls, 2014, p.12).Presently, theeffective development of stem cell an outside model for testing toxicity is inhuman heart tissue. Several medicines have been banned from the market dueeffects of cardiac toxicity. One of the examples is terfenadine that caused 100deaths in America due to adverse cardiac effects(Huffington, 2016,p.

17). Stem cells fromdifferent organs are developed to help experiments target a specific part ofthe body which is not possible in animal testing. Additionally, genetic testingentails the identification of changes in protein, genes or chromosomes with theaim of confirming or ruling out a condition.

Through hereditary testing, humanvolunteers can be used to confirm any heritable disorder instead of usinganimals. Non-invasiveImaging TechniquesThe non-invasivemethods create body images for clinical use or medical science. Some of themedical procedures include an examination of the disease, diagnosis orapproaches seeking to reveal a condition.

The invention includes ultrasound,nuclear imaging, MRI and CT scans as well as other techniques that are able toshow the image of inner organs or parts that cannot be seen by the naked eyes(Kojima, 2015, p.8). The imaging has been used inneuroscience and is effective because of its precision.

Currently, thetechnique is replacing animal models particularly in nursing and medicaleducation. Issues Associated with Animal TestingThe use of animal testingis associated with various social, legal and ethical issues. Animal studiesprolong the suffering of the population since it takes a long time for helpfulcures to be determined. Most of the resources are wasted including time andmoney because some of the experiments fail to be successful. More than fourmillion animal studies are done annually in United Kingdom for biomedicalresearch which leads to the violation of animal rights making the possiblebenefits irrelevant(Bonamin et al.

,2015, p. 11).  Animal testing isinhumane and cruel since the majority of creatures in a research are subjectedto forced inhalation, feeding, extended physical restraint, water and fooddeprivation, burns and other wounds.

The Draize eye study utilized by cosmeticcorporations to assess pain due to soap and other goods entails incapacitationof rabbits with eyes open for several days for the substance exposure (Vinardell, 2015,p. 8). The cellular,metabolic and anatomic dissimilarities between human beings and animals making thempoor models for people (Brooker, 2014, p.

15). Some of themedicines that pass animal experiments are not necessarily safe for people touse. The 1950s thalidomide which is a sleeping pill caused severe deformitiesamong 10000 babies despite being analyzed on animals before commercial release(Ostroumov, 2016,p. 11).

The later testson pregnant guinea pigs, hamsters, cats, rats, and mice did not cause birthdefect unless it was given in high doses. Also, the animal test on thearthritis medicine Vioxx demonstrated to have a protective impact on the mice’sheart although it causes 2700 cardiac deaths and heart attacks before beingbanned from the market(Millot et al.,2014, p. 17).  Besides, animaltests can mislead scientist into ignoring potential treatments and cures. Someof the harmful or ineffective chemicals to animals are valuable when utilizedby people.

For instance, aspirin is dangerous to some species although it isbeneficial to humans. Moreover, the intravenous administration of vitamin Chelps in curing sepsis in persons but has no effect on mice(Agell et al.,2015, p. 12).Other example istacrolimus which is used to decrease the chances of organ transplant rejectionbut it was almost cancelled due to animal test results.

Therefore, animalexperiments might have misled the identification of important drugs since anythingthat cause harm to some species is considered hazardous. Further, more than95 percent of animals involved in research are not secured by the animalwelfare act. The law does not cover birds, fish, mice and rats which accounts95 % of all creatures used in scientific studies. The AWA protected only 820812animals utilized for the experiment in 2016 thus leaving more than 25 millionothers uncovered(Foley, 2014, p.19).

The unprotected animalsare abused and misused without the intervention of the AWA. Additionally,research has found serious flaws in most of animal experiments using primatesand rodents that are publicly financed by the UK and US. About 87 percent ofthe studies did not randomize the assortment of animals while only 59% statedthe objective and hypothesis. Socially, religious traditions require people tobe merciful to all creatures thus experimenting on them causes harm. Forinstance, the Bible, Buddhism and Hinduism doctrines teach individuals not toharm living things(Seidle, 2013, p.16). Example of ResearchOne of the researchesthat would limit the utility of the scientific result without the animal modelsis the discovery new drugs. For instance, insulin would not have beenrecognized if the dog pancreases were not removed.

In 1921, Frederick Bantingtogether with medical scholar Charles Best discovered hormone insulin from thepancreatic extracts of the dogs(Bergeson, 2016,p. 23).The researchersinjected insulin into one of the dogs and noticed that it decreased blood sugarlevels to ordinary. To perfect the study, the grinded and filtered dogs surgicallytied pancreas and isolated isletin. The pair developed insulin for treatingdiabetes which helped to save millions of lives. ConclusionConclusively,animal testing has played part in the discovery of several life-savingtreatments and cures.

The major reason for using animals in scientificexperiments is to advance knowledge as well as determining new drugs andeffects of products before releasing to the market. The use of animal testinghas been existing since the ancient times although industrialization andtechnology have increased the number of creatures killed or utilized everyyear. As a result of technology advancements, alternatives for animal studieshave been introduced which include non-invasive imaging, computer simulators,in vitro, stem cells, microdosing and virtual trials techniques. The majoradvantages of substitute methods include cost-effectiveness, reliability,accuracy and environmental friendly. Animal testing is accompanied by differentsocial, ethical and legal issues since creatures are misused and killed.

Also,some of the animal research can mislead scientists because people are differentfrom animals. Therefore, future experiments should focus on using modernmethods rather than relying on animal testing. 


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