Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary Inflation And Exchange Rate In Pakistan Economy Economics Essay

Inflation And Exchange Rate In Pakistan Economy Economics Essay

Chapter 1


Inflation & amp ; exchange rate are two chief factors of macro-economics. This survey attempts to look into the relationship between rising prices & A ; exchange rate in Pakistan economic system. Inflation is a rise in the general degree of monetary values of goods & A ; services in an economic system over a period of clip. Inflation is measured by rising prices rate.Exchange rate is a foreign exchange rate between two currencies & A ; it shows how much one state currency is deserving in footings of other state currency.

Exchange rate is really of import factor in economic which impact imports & A ; exports of a state. States non ever want the exchange rate to fluctuate because an exchange rate influences the degrees of state ‘s imports & A ; exports, which are constituent of financial policy. Policy shapers want to keep rate at a peculiar degree or within a certain scope in order to accomplish given domestic policy ends related to the degree of growing of GDP.Inflation is a cardinal index of a state and provides of import penetration on the province of the economic system and the sound macroeconomic policies that govern it. Inflation is a rise in production costs, which leads to an addition in the monetary value of the concluding merchandise.

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For illustration, if natural stuffs addition in monetary value, this leads to the cost of production increasing, this leads to the company increasing monetary values to keep the net incomes. Rising labour costs can besides take to rising prices, because workers demand pay additions, and companies normally choose to go through on those costs to the clients.Pakistan major imports are rough oil which is purchased in dollars. If foreign exchange rate additions it has increase the cost of oil that have inauspicious impact on Pakistan economic system.Inflation can besides be caused by international loaning and national debts. As states borrow money, states should hold to cover with involvements, which in the terminal cause monetary values to lift as a manner of maintaining up with their debts. Pakistan ‘s chief job is the foreign debt which has upset economic balance. The most immediate effects of rising prices are the reduced buying power of the rupee and its depreciation.

This analysis has been added to our apprehension of the rising prices & A ; exchange rate relation. This survey has been helpful for economic policy shapers, foreign investors, research workers, concern pupils who are interested in macro-economics surveies. This survey identifies how two macro-economic factors relate with each other.

Chapter 2


The analysis of the pecuniary determiners of rising prices is of obvious involvement for states that pursue a policy of rising prices aiming. In our survey, we focus on Pakistani economic system that are presently following an Inflation aiming attack or did so in the recent yesteryear.

Currency stableness plays an of import function for the pecuniary governments in this economic system.The divergence of existent money growing from the regulation is included in the appraisal of Phillips curves for the four economic systems by Bayesian theoretical account averaging. McCallum ( 1999 ) .

Businessmens seek stableness in exchange rate stating it keeps monetary values of imported points from lifting due to rupee depreciation therefore profiting non merely the economic system in general but besides the exporters who use a batch of imported material in bring forthing exportable excess.Since the beginning of this financial twelvemonth, the rupee has so far lost around 2.5 per centum of its value against the dollar and the gait of its depreciation is improbable to speed up in approaching months because of continued foreign capital and fiscal influxs. These include IMF support, partial release of Coalition support fund from the US, portion fulfilment of the fiscal pledges made by Friends of Democratic Pakistan, exceptionally strong influxs of workers ‘ remittals, return of portfolio investing and a possible pick-up in exports and foreign direct investing from the 2nd half of the financial twelvemonth. The current rupee stableness has helped in incorporating imported rising prices and weakening inflationary outlooks.

Bankers anticipate that the tendency have continue throughout this financial twelvemonth and the national unit have non deprecate more than 7.0-7.5 per centum during the whole of this financial twelvemonth against 19.5 per centum in the last twelvemonth. Businessmen verify that bankers are pricing frontward foreign exchange screens in line with this expectancy.What Pakistan needs today is non a platform to establish an economic resurgence programme? What we need is an existent ‘economic resurgence.

‘ Pakistan ‘s chief job is the foreign debt which has risen to unwieldy proportions in the last decennary and the refund of which has upset Pakistan ‘s external balance to such an extent that Pakistan can non run into its minimal necessary development demands. At present Pakistan can non last without fresh adoptions from foreign giver bureaus.As emphasized by Choudhri and Hakura ( 2006 ) , an of import policy argument for the contemporary pecuniary and exchange rate policy executions is to uncover the grade to which alterations in exchange rates or import monetary values impact or pass-through into domestic consumer monetary values. Soon there are three rates of exchange i.e. the bank rate, the inter bank rate and the unfastened market rate.

The overall consequence on the foreign exchange rates should non be more than 5 to 6 per cent as the increased influx of foreign exchange have neutralize the consequence of the increased demand of private imports. If the foreign exchange earners and remitters keep on acquiring a just exchange rate for net incomes, it is visualized that in the following few old ages exports can touch the $ 15 billion grade and abroad Pakistani remittals can bring $ 5 billion. It has concluded that exchange rate dazes feed into domestic rising prices, foremost at the degree of makers ‘ monetary values and so at the degree of consumer monetary values, and that the impact of the dazes on the monetary value variables of the assorted phases of the supply concatenation is different.The buying power para theory philosophy means different things to different people.

It has two versions of this theory that could be called the ‘absolute ‘ and the ‘relative ‘ reading. The first version of buying power theory calculated as a ratio of consumer goods monetary values for any state has tended to the equilibrium rates of exchange. In the 2nd version of comparative reading the rate of exchange rate have be determined between two states and quoted with general degrees of monetary values of two states. It amend the international trade theory which have be the portion of PPP, in which presenting the non-traded goods ( services ) , but the advantage is greater in respects of traded goods than non-traded goods, because of the premises of fringy rates of transmutation. The relationship between buying power para and exchange rates provides the international comparing of national incomes and life criterions ( Balassa, 1964 ) . Lawrence ( 1976 ) is the research worker who gave another reappraisal of this buying power para theory.

It has define two applications in economic sciences, the first application usage of the transition factor to reassign the informations in one national manner to another. The usage of PPP is chiefly the organic structure of ( index figure theory ) and applications of GDP that have improved over the old ages and way breakage surveies in the country continue to look. The 2nd application of PPP has non the widespread credence, which has remained the unworldly applications.Meese and Rogoff ( 1983 ) analyzed the out of sample calculating truth on assorted theoretical accounts. It estimated the skylines of the dollar with different state currencies, like Dutch grade, Nipponese hankering, and Britain lb that traded to burden the dollar exchange rates.

It ‘s besides studied the flexible exchange rates with the pecuniary theoretical accounts of gluey monetary value, so the theoretical account of gluey monetary value, which incorporates the current history. The first theoretical account is structural theoretical accounts in which it requires to bring forth the prognosiss of exchange rates and explanatory variables. It contains the explanatory power, but it ‘s predicted severely because the explanatory variables are hard to foretell. The 2nd is the univariate clip ‘s series theoretical account in which identify a assortment of prefiltering techniques involve differencing, de-seasonalizing and removing clip tendencies.

The comparative public presentation of these techniques is of involvement in itself. The 3rd theoretical account usage is the random walk theoretical account ; it should besides associate with this univariate clip series theoretical account. It uses as the forecaster of the current topographic point rate with the full hereafter topographic point rate, and it requires no appraisal.

In this research the public presentation of estimated univariate clip series theoretical accounts or candidate structural theoretical account is so worse. From a methodological base point the position that the out of sample theoretical account tantrum is an of import standard when measuring exchange rate, but the appraisal of out of sample is failure with clip series theoretical accounts, that are good approximated the major state exchange rates.Feinberg and Kaplan ( 1992 ) evaluate and interact the existent exchange rates index outlooks is developed and used to research the function of finding on domestic manufacturer monetary values. The fact that clip way of the exchange rate have straight affect the input costs, and the monetary value of replacements strongly.

To analyze the links between both existent and awaited motions in the dollar and comparative domestic manufacturer monetary values, it chooses to analyse monetary value responses to existent exchange rate alterations. The consequence is dependent on the nature of replaceability between imports and domestic goods. The major determination is that the period of grasp and depreciation over the past 10 old ages to suppress the base on balls through in to domestic monetary values. In depreciation the market portion to bask the continued good times kept monetary values other than expected.The theory of optimal currency countries, which is normally presented the other name called flexible exchange rate system, but it is advocates as a device of depreciation that take the topographic point of unemployment when the balance of payment is shortage and grasp when it replace rising prices when it is excess. The job can be exposed and more telling by specifying a currency country within when exchange rates are fixed. To this three reply can be given, foremost certain parts of the universe are traveling procedures of economic integrating, so new experience can be made and at what constitutes the optimal currency country can give the significance of these experiments. Second those states that have flexible exchange rates are likely to confront jobs with the theory of optimal currency countries, so it does non co-occur the optimal currency countries with the national currency.

Third the thought that illustrates the maps of currencies which have been treated in economic literature, and sometimes neglected in the jobs of economic policy. In the currency country, different currency states including national state currencies interact gait of employment in shortage, because there is the haveingness to rising prices by the excess states. The statement for flexible exchange rate system is based on national currencies, and is valid about mobility of factor, so if it is high in the state and low in the foreign states, the flexible exchange rates system on place state currencies might work efficaciously. The construct of optimal currency country has practically applicable merely in those countries, where the province has the political organisation in the state. The factor mobility is most considered is more comparative instead than absolute construct, with both industrial and geographical. It likely to alter the changes with clip over clip in conditions, where the conditions of political and economic stableness. Money is the convenience that restricts the optimal figure of currencies, so in footings of this statement the optimal currency country which is composed in figure of states.

( Mundell, 1961 ) . In another reappraisal the writer defines the stabilisation of capital mobility policy under the exchange rates which is fixed and flexible in the currencies markets ; it concerns the theoretical and practical attack of the increased mobility of capital.Frankel ( 1979 ) defined that most of the recent work on drifting exchange rate goes under the name of the pecuniary or plus position ; the exchange rate has traveling to equilibrate the international demand for assets, instead than the international demand for the flow of goods. But with the plus position there are two attacks. The first attack is ‘Chicago Theory ‘ in which assumes that monetary values are absolutely flexible.

As the effects when nominal involvement rate alterations, it have besides reflect the alterations in expected rising prices rate, so as the domestic currency expected to lose value through rising prices and depreciation. This is the rise in the exchange rates and gets the positive relationship between positive exchange rate and nominal involvement rate derived functions. The 2nd attack is ‘Keynesian Theory ‘ ; it assumes that monetary values are gluey in the short tally. As the effects the contemplations of alterations in the nominal involvement rates have besides make alterations in the stringency of pecuniary policy. The higher the involvement rate in the state attracts the capital influx, which causes the domestic currency appreciates, so it reflects the negative relationship between the exchange rates and involvement rates derived functions. This research develops a theoretical account of the plus position of the exchange rate, which emphasizes the function of outlooks and accommodation in capital markets. It says that the addition in income or a autumn in the expected rate of rising prices raises the demand for money and lowers the exchange rate.Melvin ( 1985 ) has sing and focused that how the pick of an exchange rate system can impact the stableness of the economic system.

The appropriate nature of the exchange rate system has differed of the perturbation to the economic system. It presented the grounds that indicate that the attack is more consistent harmonizing to pattern by existent state. The other attack is to desirable the monetary value stableness, in which some mechanism tells the drifting rates high quality is become less in the face of pecuniary dazes. It finds that the flexibleness in exchange rates depends non on openness and less of import in the mobility of capital, but its positive effects were found for the economic development. The intent of this survey is to see the determiners of exchange rates system pick, which indicates the theoretical attack with the state picks. The consequence found that the pick of an exchange rate system has the function of the perturbation to the economic system. It suggests that the money dazes are the key of exchange rate system pick in an economic system, in which it seeks to minimise the fluctuations in the state monetary value degrees. It besides suggests that the greater the monetary value shocks the more is a float, so it effects the greater in domestic money dazes.

Gerlach ( 1988 ) examine the dynamic interrelatedness between inventions in monthly industrial production in a set of economic systems, specifically these research attempts the end product fluctuations that have been correlated during the periods of fixed and flexible exchange rates. The current has to managed exchange rates flexibility have reduces the mutuality across states. It should follow the recent article of ( Flood and Hodrick, 1986 ) in which argued that the variableness have be higher during a government of fixed exchange rates alternatively of flexible exchange rates, but writer ‘s decision contact so aggressively. It should be clear by this research that does non prove any hypothesis which has concern the importance of exchange rate government, but it should set up some statistical regularity with regard to the end product during the recent periods of fixed and drifting exchange rates. The consequences of this survey of multi state end product motions under fixed and flexible exchange rates are clear.

The discrepancies of growing rates should be higher in the flexible exchange rates and in the fixed exchange rates periods. These discrepancies are statistically important related to the grade of openness and national income. Third the end product motions are correlated across states under exchange rate government, peculiarly the carbon monoxide motions in end product are more of import in the concern rhythm often during the recent old ages of managed exchange rates flexibleness.

Chapter 3



For this survey the aim is to place the determiners of exchange rates and following variables have utilized.

Exchange Rates – Mugwump Variable:

The exchange rates known as foreign exchange rate between two currencies, and it specifies how much one state currency is deserving in footings of other state currencies. It tells us the value of an international currency in footings of the place state ‘s currency. Every state has the foreign exchange market and it is one of the largest markets in every state of the universe.

It changes about 3.2 trillion of USD currency transition. It has two types fixed and drifting exchange rates.

Meese and Rogoff ( 1988 ) , it depends on basicss such as money supplies, existent incomes, involvement rates and rising prices.

Inflation – Dependent Variable:

Inflation is a rise in the general degree of monetary values of goods and services in an economic system over a period of clip. A step of monetary value rising prices is the rising prices rate, the annualized per centum alteration in a general monetary value index ( usually the Consumer Price Index ) over clip. Inflation ‘s effects on an economic system are multiplex and can be at the same time positive and negative. Negative effects of rising prices include a lessening in the existent value of money and other pecuniary points over clip, uncertainness over future rising prices may deter investing and nest eggs, and high rising prices may take to deficits of goods if consumers begin stashing out of concern that monetary values have increase in the hereafter. Positive effects include a development of economic recessions, and debt aid by cut downing the existent degree of debt.

H1: The Exchange rates explains the rising prices.

Sampling Technique:

The sampling technique that have be applicable is convenience trying as it is easy accessible to roll up the relevant information from the beginning and it is cheap and therefore, gets a gross estimation of the consequences.

( What is The Advantage of Convenience Sampling, 2007-2010 ) .

Sample size:

The sample size is selected on the footing of restrictions and range of the research therefore ; Last 54 twelvemonth informations of rising prices and exchange rate is decided to be examined.

Research Model developed:

From the above shaping and accounts of both the dependent i.e. rising prices and independent i.e. exchange rates variables and besides discoursing the effects of exchange rate on rising prices and how it have affects on economic of a state. In this survey the research worker may first analysis the correlativity between these two variables, and identifies the important relationship.

Then the research worker analysis and measure the empirical probe in arrested development theoretical account as a statistical tool. The research worker simple arrested development theoretical account which can be specifying the equation that represented below:

Inflation = I??? + I? ( exchange rate ) + Iµ

Whereas,I??? = the intercept of the equation.I? ( exchange rate ) = the altering coefficient of exchange rate.Iµ = the error term of the equation.From the above explaining theoretical account, the hypothesis proving technique and equation that can be uses by the research worker could develop the undermentioned appraisal and uses for the constitution of the theoretical account. Therefore, the all compatible informations has entered in to SPSS for statistical analysis.

Statistical Technique:

The statistical trial that has been applied is individual additive arrested development. This is because merely one independent variable and one dependant variable to be used in this research.

Frankel ( 1979 ) defined that most of the recent work on drifting exchange rate goes under the name of the pecuniary or plus position ; the exchange rate has traveling to equilibrate the international demand for assets, instead than the international demand for the flow of goods. But with the plus position there is ‘Chicago Theory ‘ in which assumes that monetary values are absolutely flexible. As the effects when nominal involvement rate alterations, it have besides reflect the alterations in expected rising prices rate, so as the domestic currency expected to lose value through rising prices and depreciation. This is the rise in the exchange rates and gets the positive relationship between positive exchange rate and rising prices.

Chapter 4


The simple additive arrested development technique is used to find the account of dependent variable i.e. rising prices due to independent variable i.

e. exchange rate. The analysis of the consequence is defined below:

Table – 4.1.1 Model Summary


R Square


R Square



Durbin Watson


.795The tabular array – 4.1 shows that the arrested development theoretical account is best fit to foretell as F trial value is important. The fluctuation of arrested development theoretical account is explained by 17.3 % i.e. the alteration in rising prices is 17.3 % by the exchange rate.

Table -4.1.2 Coefficients









Std. MistakeBeta1 ( Constant )EXCHNGE Rate123.346.6946.

963.213.41517.7143.262.000.002Table – 4.

2 the coefficients consequences show that there is the positive association between exchange rates with related to rising prices in Pakistan. The consequences reflect that the exchange rates beta has the positive value and the T-value of both the variables is important statistically at 0.05.

From the above applying arrested development theoretical account, the research worker conclude the consequence in the manner that it ‘s explain the relationship of both the dependant and independent variables significantly. Since sample informations is based on clip series so autocorrelation was an of import issue which is tested by Durbin Watson and concluded that there is consecutive correlativity exist between variables as D-W trial is demoing value of.795 which is low as compared to normal value of 2.The Inflation and exchange rates result shows that variable ‘s beta values and T-value and their relationship is important at the 0.

000 degree. So the consequences conclude that the exchange rates value should significantly play its function in the relationship with related to rising prices, but the exchange rates should non separately play a important function in the relationship with rising prices. The hypothesis is non rejected and that the exchange rate explains the rising prices by 17.3 % . The equation of arrested development theoretical account can be written below:

Inflation = 123.346 + 0.694 ( exchange rate ) + Iµ

Table – 4.

2 Hypothesis Assessment Summary


R Square



Regression Coefficient I?


Empirical Decision

Exchange rates do non explicate rising prices..17310.641P & gt ; .05.4153.

262RejectedThe statistical package test the hypothesis that exchange rate does non explicate rising prices, which is rejected but the hypothesis of this survey that exchange rate explains the rising prices, which is being accepted and exchange rate is explicating rising prices by 17.3 % .These findings support to recent theories that suggested the foreign exchange market efficiency with the being of hazard at equilibrium. Wihlborg ( 1982 ) examined the relation of involvement rates, exchange rate and currency hazards in this research. It identifies the trial which through empirical observation impact of currency on involvement rates and exchange rates. In this research there are three different ways in which the importance of currency hazards for involvement rate and exchange rate finding. The consequences presented here that substantiate the alterations in the degree of currency hazard have a non-negligible impact on the rates of alteration of exchange rates and on relations ‘ rates of involvement between currencies.

Chapter 5



This survey is concluded to analyze the dependence of exchange rate on rising prices by utilizing the information of consumer monetary value index ( CPI ) as rising prices and the informations of exchange rate on annual footing.In this research the research worker has applied exchange rate as independent variable and consumer monetary value index ( CPI ) as dependant variable. For the handiness of informations, all the informations should be available on day-to-day monthly and annual footing, but the research worker used these informations in order to consistent as day-to-day footing. The arrested development theoretical account has been formulated for these variable relationship probes. The research worker developed the hypothesis that the exchange rate explains the rising prices in Pakistan, and the findings are supported by assorted research worker that is Balas a ( 1964 ) , Meese and Rogoff ( 1983 ) , Frankel ( 1979 ) , and Mc Callum ( 1999 ) etc.

The research worker examines their determination by using additive arrested development theoretical account, in which the research worker analysis that the exchange rate explains the rising prices, but statistical tool test the hypothesis that exchange rate does non explicate the rising prices, which consequences extremely insignificant so that the hypothesis of the research worker is non rejected. The consequence shows that 17.3 % fluctuation in rising prices is due to the exchange rate in Pakistan. The analysis of this research is besides shows that if exchange rate have become zero, the rising prices have exist at some extent. So that if one unit of exchange rate additions, the rising prices have increase merely by 0.

693 times. Wihlborg ( 1982 ) examined that substantiate alterations in the degree of currency hazard have a non-negligible impact on the rates of alteration of exchange rates and on relations ‘ rates of involvement and rising prices between currencies. The hazards explain the little portion of fluctuation in these variables.


The consequence besides accompaniment that the exchange rates are the strength of character of foreign exchange market in Pakistan, and it should consequence on each of the related variables as an inflationary footing. Therefore the State Bank of Pakistan and Government functionaries should recognize the function of exchange rates in the economic system and seek to keep their exchange rates to halt or diminish the consumer monetary value index in Pakistan, so that the monetary value scope of every thing should be in scope of common work forces.

Besides Government should turn to the issues that why exchange rates increasing, and why the consumer monetary value additions due to foreign exchange volatility. If the Government taking effectual actions against these issues so it can besides ease the investors to derive assurance in the foreign exchange market and our currency value might be strong from other foreign currencies. This have turn our Pakistani currency have be stronger, and which have boost our economic growing.

Chapter 6


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The Journal of International Economics, volume no. 21, page no. 215-232.Forex Ratess, Charts and Currency Converter from September 2001 to May 2008.

Recover from, hypertext transfer protocol: // www.Forex.pkFrankel A. Jeffery ( 1979 ) . On the Mark: A Theory of Floating Exchange Ratess Based on Real Interest Derived functions. The American Economic Review, volume no. 69, page no.

610-622Gerlach H.M. Stefan ( 1988 ) . World Business Cycles under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates.

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14, page no. 3-24Melvin Michael ( 1985 ) . The Choice of an Exchange Rate System and Macroeconomic Stability.

The Journal of money, Credit and Banking, volume no. 17, page no. 467-478Mundell A. Robert ( 1961 ) . A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas. The American Economic Review, volume no. 51, page no. 657-665PACIFIC Exchange Rate Service hypertext transfer protocol: //fx.

sauder.ubc.caReport Document available on the web in publication by State Bank of Pakistan Library, identified in State Bank Research Bulletin, federal agency of statistics, and State Bank Annual Reports. Retrieve from hypertext transfer protocol: // www.SBP.org.comWhilborg Clas ( 1982 ) . Interest Rates, Exchange Rates Adjustments and Currency Risks: An Empirical Study, 1967-75.

The Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, volume no. 14, page no. 58-75