In with three fatty chains connected by
In the body, some of the important molecules usecholesterol as a building block so start from like bile acids and steroidhormones which includes sex hormones. Itis vital for the synthesis of vitamin D, which happens in the liver and cells,and is obtained from your diet, and transported around your body by the bloodstream, and is also hydrophobic so it is insoluble.CholesterolWax is highly insoluble, and at room temperature,is more solid than oils. It alsoprovides a waterproof layer that prevents water loss, and because it hashydrophobic properties, it stops water from being absorbed. Wax Lipids provide thebody with nine calories per gram, making them the most energy rich component offood.Did you know… One fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphatebase group which makes the head of the molecule soluble in water (Hydrophilic),but the tails of the molecule are still insoluble in water (Hydrophobic), thisis known as an amphipathic molecule. Themain component of the cell membrane is a phospholipid.
It is made up of a glycerol molecule and a phosphategroup, and form a double layer when many of them join up. (Biology Dictionary (2017) PhospholipidsA glycerol molecule with three fatty chainsconnected by covalent bonds, and are known as an ester bond which are formedwhen a condensation reaction occurs. Each triglyceride contains a carboxylic acid group which can be found atthe terminal carbon atom and are normally made of around 14-22 carbons long. They are hydrophobic which means they areinsoluble in water. To prevent thehydrogen bonds forming with the water molecules, the charges are distributedevenly around the molecule.
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(A-Levelnotes 2016)TriglyceridesAs opposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturatedfatty acids contain some double bonds. If only one double bond is present, it is known as monounsaturated, butif more than one double bond can be found, then it is known aspolyunsaturated. At room temperature,fats with unsaturated tails are normally found as liquids which makes itdifficult for them to pack together tightly. Unsaturated fatty acidsA saturated fatty acid is composed of a chainconsisting of hydrogens and carbons connected by single bonds, and can be mostcommonly found in the length of 18 bonds that can mainly be found in foods, andat room temperature, is usually solid.
(Mclaughin, 2017)Saturated fatty acidsLipids are a high energy source that are required for theabsorption of fat soluble vitamins. There are two main types of lipids; simple lipids and complexlipids. They are not soluble in water soare known as hydrophobic, but are soluble in organic solvents like alcohol andacetone. Lipids also act as aninsulating layer under the skin to help keep the body warm. Lipids are made from hydrogen and carbonwhich gives them the name hydrocarbons.
“When metabolized, lipids are oxidized to release large amounts ofenergy and thus are useful to living organisms Lipids are molecules that can beextracted from plants and animals using nonpolar solvents such as ether,chloroform and acetone” (Mandal, 2012)Lipids