In efficiency refers to cost reduction offered

Inorder to specify the value creation logic, Amit and Zott (2001) used aframework of efficiency, complementarities, lock-in, and novelty. Based onassessment at focal consumer goods manufacturer, it is applied to compare atraditional manufacturer-centric logic with a new consumer-centric logic withinthis business model framework (Bogers et al., 2016). In table 1, efficiencyrefers to cost reduction offered by the manufacturing platform. Next, complementaritiesrefer to the ability to offer the consumer products and packages together suchas offering after-sale services or other products.

Furthermore, lock-in refersto the ability to gain loyalty from consumers for future transactions, this canbe done by rewarding customers through events. Lastly, novelty refers to theability to renew product offerings, which means the first mover strategy cangain benefits ahead while it also can support consumer lock-in. Asmentioned earlier, the advantages of 3D printing offer the consumer the chanceto be active and take over productive activities of the manufacturer. Toffler(1980) suggests calling this consumer as a “prosumer”, who may take animportant role in the digital and information era. In addition, Rennie (2007)refers this term to the use of media, where consumers using the supports ofsocial media and the Internet to take the role of producers of media. With thespecific potential for consumer-centric and personalized production systems, 3Dprinting technologies allow a consumer to perform as users of the technologiesin producing. Moreover, the fact end users of 3D printing can utilize thetechnology to produce for themselves and others may involve a primal change tothe global structure of manufacturing.

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Wohlers (2013) points out there is arapid change of the personal desktop printers since 2007 to 2012. It is safe tosay that the prices of a personal 3D printer will reasonably decrease in thefuture, so there will be more consumers who also owns a personal 3D printer(Wohlers, 2014).   Moreover,completely consumer-centric production systems can point out the personalizationof manufacturing (Bogers et al., 2016). Particularly, in order to increase theindividualization of a specific consumer, manufacturers can propose consumerswho own a 3D printer opportunities to print their own parts. With theadvancements of the Internet, manufacturers can provide an online servicedesign to support and satisfy consumers. Furthermore, manufacturers may alsosuggest printing methods for consumers who have their own designs, which may beshared with others, giving a chance to form a dynamic community (Lakhani andvon Hippel, 2003).

Besides, manufacturers can gain profit by charging forprinting document since it may be shared and used by many users, this alsocreate high lock-in definitely. Additionally, manufacturer can also boost theircurrent products since designs offered by them can be used in the portfolio.

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