In by Erikson’s aforementioned theory. Two of

In this short narrative the client’s first issue would be their identity. They are still in the process of finding out who they are in numerous settings, mainly; who they are in a relationship, their professional persona and in their role in the family. This exploration could take part in many counselling sessions.

Central to Identity development is Erikson’s (1950) eight stages of ego growth. Every phase is identifiable by a psychosocial crisis. Healthy development from one stage to the next requires a resolution of the affecting psychosocial crisis. Ideally, the person would have a period in which they critically analyse their defenses that would no longer serve a purpose in their life and let them go in order to create a new persona. Being aware of this resolution could therefore help the person in constructing their new identity and eventually with choosing an occupation. However, one could argue either that that this view would be too rigid in this case study or that it would not be measurable.Marcia’s (1966) proposed four statuses inspired by Erikson’s aforementioned theory. Two of these statuses were the moratorium stage and the foreclosure stage which can explain the client’s behavior in this situation.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

The moratorium stage is identified as taking the time to explore what a person enjoys and despite not knowing their direction, they take the time to reflect in order to take an informed choice. On the other hand, the foreclosure stage is characterized by making decisions based of family ties, often not taking into consideration one’s own values and beliefs. It can be argued that the client is shifting from a foreclosure stage to a moratorium one which can also be seen as sign of health identity development.

Super’s (1955) life stages would argue that the client is still an exploration stage, where they are at a point of transition. They appear to be moving from crystallizing and gaining self-awareness in relation to his immediate environment and external realities of the workplaces to implementing and stabilizing themselves. However, judging from the client’s career choices, they do not have a clear self-concept thus far. This would be the first point of focus for a career counselling, which will be discussed further on in this assignment.The client does not appear to be making informed choices but is simply reactive to his circumstances. This therefore emerges a theme of avoidance throughout the experiences of the client and is also reflective of the client’s decision-making styles. The act of moving to Malta can be seen as a means to escape from his situation in Spain.

. Richard Nelson-Jones (2013) in his book ‘Practical counselling and helping skills’ (2013) discuss nine decision making styles as a guide for how most people make choices in their daily life. The three relevant to Eduardo would be impulsive, feelings based and even deciding not to decide. He shifts between these styles which have evolved in a pattern of behavior. They have lead him to the point he is at today. For instance, he did not have a clear concept of the repercussions of his actions from a very young age where he did not realise the importance of school. There is a difference the client needs to realise between decision making and decision taking. He repeats this rashness in deciding when he moved to Malta due to a relationship.

It is demonstrated a final time with his choice of work – he settles for what is convenient when he needs base his choices on what is needed and what he identifies with. This is therefore reflective of the previous observation that he does not yet know his identity.The decision of moving to Malta could also be interpreted as a means of avoiding his sexual identity.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer or Questioning, and Intersex (LGBTQI) individuals usually realise from a young age that they are different to their heterosexual peers(Ryan & Futterman, 2001), although it can be said that is quite a generalisation. In later stages, processing one’s sexual identiy is faced with a plethora of negative emotions having a ripple effect on the person’s self-efficacy, their behavior to their environment and on their social relationships. Interestingly, multiple studies (Schmidt and Nilsson’s study Hetherington’s (1991, Morrow and Campbell (1997) supported the notion that this stressful moment in a person’s life can distract them from exploring their professional interest and identity. It seems that sexuality can either become a priorty or even a main stressor, distracting one from exploring the career options or it is repressed. This one area of the person’s life is bound to be adversely affected. Nonetheless, more research is needed in this area of minority career counselling issues related to specifically to sexual orientation. Conflicts of identity for Eduardo, like for many other people his age, becomes a major stressor as he has yet to appect his sexuality and integrate it with his family life.

This could explain why the client’s shift in Marcia’s a foreclosure stage to a moratorium stage. Adolescence and early adulthood is usally a time where one begins to explore their ideal profession. For LGBTQI individuals, it also becomes a period examine their sexual orientation. Bohan (1996) outline the complexity undergone through this procress. Cultural and contextual implications of a homophobic environment also need to be taken into account. Gottfredson’s (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise agues that one’s environmental background, economic status along with their biological make-up and orientation will influence their perception of being able to only certain jobs. Environmental variables such as homophobia, traditional gender roles, and protective legislation may strongly influence the evolving career deirections.

Astin (1985) also pointed out the importance of interfact between personal and socla factors that contribute to work-related choiced.  Morrow and campebll agrue that young people may lack the internal and external resources to deal adequately with both the normal identity and career devel tasks of adol and their sexual identity devel accompanied by coming out and handling homophobia. Their preliminary findings indicated that during adol, their participants focused either on their sexual orientation identity – placing in moratorium (or even foreclosing on) their career development – on on their academic and career pursuits, delating the coming- out process until later in life. It is likely that, with inadequate support and internal rescoursces, Marcia s crisis related to vocation choice is superseded by that of sexual orientation identity. One needs to overcome the stereotype of being gay as well.  Morrow, Gore and Campbell (1996) apply SCCT to the career development of gays and suggested that both SE beliefs and outcome expectations may be affected by living in a homophobic society Croteau and Theil (1993) noted the importace of integrating sexual orientation into career counselling. By intifying the barriers of SCCT the counsellor can help the client have more SE and overcome negative pereptions to.

Support from peers and friends and analysisng attachment can help. Based on SCCT including identifying foreclosed options, analyzing barrier percetions, and modifying SE beliefsThe client mentions a number of feelings which crucial to the career counselling. To begin with, Eduardo have a sense of guilt in the choice that they have made so far, mostly towards his parents. The guilt is result in a fear of failing and in turn is affecting his self-efficacy with progressing academically.  Guilt is a very primitive emotion. In this case, the client is attributing responsibility for his father’s wellbeing which he does not have control over. Therefore, guilt in this case is a useless feeling which he was using to remain stagnant in his life for a month.

Guilt can be seen as giving  can give him safety. The counsellor can help them realise that they have no control over how their father would feel. It can be said that this is limiting his openness to change and as a hinderance towards his motivation to really change. The act of perusing counselling in this case might only be a cover for them to say that they have tried every possible option to seek help and develop. His guilt feelings are becoming patternised and he would need to break this pattern in order to embrace change. There is also a sense that the client would like to prover their independence away from their parentsParental influence is a major sub-theme in the client’s life. Multiple studies have highlighted the fact that parents are a catalyst in the process leading to a young adult’s professional identity (Ferreira et al.,2006 Biggart et al.

(2004 Whiston and Keller (2004)). Social Cognitive Career theory based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory (1986, 1997, 2000,2002,2006, 2007, 2008) takes into account three major factors: the person’s environment, their subjective experiences, values and self-concept and their resulting behaviour. Through his observations, Banurda later coined the term ‘self-efficacy’, meaning the person’s belief in being able to attain their goals. In a study on Korean student, self-efficacy and career maturity was directly affected by the student’s parental attachment, along with their attachment to the lecturers and their attachments to their friends. In the case of Eduardo, it can be noted that they had a very low sense of self-efficacy in their academic life. He fell victim to the contextual factors as a child when his family moved to another state in Spain. It can be said that his current context however was his support towards challenging his self-efficacy to learn English. It incorporates a person’s ability to ustilise their physical, mental and emotional assets required for the effective achievement of a goal (Eden and Aviram, 1993).

Lee (2008) showed that attachment to parents is closely related with self-efficacy, and particularly with the individual’s relationship to his or her mother. A study by Baldwin, K. M., Baldwin, J. R., & Ewald, T. (2006) found a correlation between self-efficacy and shame.

 SCCT lent et al described the development of academic and carrer-realted interest through the life spand and the subsequent transformation of those interests into goals and actions. Of particular relevance here are the development ofself-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations.. A Brown and lent (1996) suggested a number of interventions bason on SCCT including identifying foreclosed options, analyzing barrier perceptions and modifying self-efficacy beliefs. Therefore, the counsellor’s starting role would be to help the client introspectively. It would be important to acknowledge their progress towards finding out who they are by creating more time for them to focus on their studies. In light of the above, the client would benefit from the California psychological inventory sixteen personality factor questionnaire based on Trait and factor theory. This would be an easy assessment tool for the counsellor in guiding such a client who does not a developed sense of self.

  The 16PF Questionnaire is widely used in career development planning, counseling, and coaching, both inside and outside organizations, to help clients understand their strengths and limitations, and plan self-development goals and effective career paths (Carson, 1998; Cattell, R.B. et al., 1970; H.E.P. Cattell and Schuerger, 2003; Conn and Rieke, 1994; Krug and Johns, 1990; Lowman, 1991; Schuerger, 1995; Schuerger and Watterson, 1998; Watterson, 2002). In addition to using the numerous 16PF occupational profiles to determine person–job fit, the questionnaire has been useful because of its long history of predicting the six Holland RIASEC occupational dimensions (Schuerger and Watterson, 1998; Schuerger and Sfiligoj, 1998).

There is also empirical evidence of the relationship between 16PF scores and important career outcomes such as career satisfaction (Lounsbury et al., 2004) and job-training success (Tango and Kolodinsky, 2004). From a career counselling perspective, the social cognitive model of career choice can help guide the client towards maintaining a realistic view of their goal and work toward achieving it.  Lent et al. (2003) Weinstein, Healy, and Ender (2002) found that perceived control reduced career choice anxiety and moderated the relationship between coping strategies and career choice anxiety Central to This can in turn influence their process or career development Stereoetype that Spanish people are bad at English. Self efficacy of independace an be a huge force of change for the client in this case Conclusion:  Knowledge is central for the client to move forward.  They are in the process of preparing to progress academically in Spain while living in Malta. T From the point of view of a career counselling session, … theory states that the client’s knowledge is the main factor for their progression moving forward.

‘Difficulties with the English language were their greatest concern about their ambitions.’ The career counsellor should help educate the client in what options he has in terms of advancing his knowledge on the island. The government in malta for example offers relatively cheap courses which could help him in learning English in a course spanning over a year.There are a number of limitation for a Maltese career counsellor in this case.

To begin with, the counsellor must be aware that the client will always be dependant in some way but he must first learn to do small decisions. Therefore, the counsellor must take precaution in not becoming a replacement for the client’s partner of his parents. Additionally, one further limitation from the point of view of the counsellor would be the lack of understanding of the client’s cultural background. In spain the education system


I'm Ruth!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out