Impact Of Cyclone Nargis In Myanmar Environmental Sciences Essay
In May 2008, a really terrible cyclonal storm1 named Nargis caused the worst national natural catastrophe in the history of Myanmar. It killed about 80,000 people and 1000s of people are still losing in this ruinous event1. The lay waste toing cyclone was initiated in the country of deep convection, which was established in the Bay of Bengal, in late May and so intensified quickly into a terrible cyclone with the action of warm H2O and high-level tough1. This strong cyclone hit the coastal countries of Myanmar on May 2nd and brought serious harm to these countries. In this essay, the major factor that contributed to such a enormous loss of life during the storm will be foremost discussed and so followed by the factors accounted for the great harm after the storm. The essay will be concluded with some issues sing the pick of human being on the cyclones ‘ onslaught.
High rush wave
First and first, the high rush wave brought by the cyclone Nargis was the most important cause for the great harm during storm. The monolithic rush which was triggered by cyclone swept off everything like houses, roads and other substructure on its manner in the inland area1. The 12 pess high wave swept off and afloat 50 % of house in the low-lying country. At least 10,000 people in Bogalay had died because of the storm surge1, it is a town 50 stat mis south-west of Yangon.
Deluging with several serious effects
The secondary consequence was the implosion therapy caused by rush in the low-lying country. Flooded sea H2O ruined the agribusiness country and other residential topographic points. The high salt of sea H2O damaged the floras growing at that place every bit good. More significantly, the dirt so became saltier which makes it unfavourable for the planting of flora and therefore affected the nutrient supply in affected country evermore. In add-on, deluging caused the obstruction of route and this farther broke down the public conveyance web. Peoples could barely acquire through the afloat country and this caused incommodiousness to people particularly the aged. Furthermore, the electricity power lines were damaged and this led to electricity deficit in the low-lying country for approximately six to seven yearss. Furthermore, the Wellss used to be supplying clean H2O were submerged by the sea H2O. As a consequence, the clean H2O systems were polluted. To reason, the nutrient, electricity and clean H2O could non be found in the coastal country of Myanmar and this deficiency of resources farther deteriorated the state of affairs. Due to the absence of these three BASICs survival elements for over four yearss, the figure of the decease kept on increasing to an impossible degree.
Satellite images of deluging
In add-on, the satellite image of Myanmar could show the destructive harm brought by deluging. In figure 2, it can be seen that rivers and lakes are aggressively observed as there was a crisp boundary between them and both the flora and fallow agricultural country on April 15. The Irrawaddy River flows in the south way and the Mouths of the Irrawaddy are formed by legion distributaries 2. The deep blue green country near the shore was wetlands. Cyclone Nargis attacked straight the Mouths of the Irrawaddy and so moved to the nor’-east of coastline2. After 20 yearss, the coastal field was flooded shown in figure 3. The agricultural countries had been wholly destroyed and most of the coastal countries were covered by sea H2O. For case, Yangon with population over 4 million was about wholly submerged by sea H2O whereas several big metropoliss with population from 100,000 to 500,000 experient big magnitude of flooding2. The implosion therapy turned the coastal countries of Yangon into boggy topographic points.
“ NASA ‘s Terra satellite- Burma seashore on April 15, 2008, before the reaching of Tropical Cyclone Nargis Credit: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/nargis_floods.html ”
“ NASA ‘s Terra satellite- Burma seashore on May 5, 2008, Tropical Cyclone Nargis causes the desolation of implosion therapy. ” Recognition: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/nargis_floods.html
Strong air current
Furthermore, the strong air current brought tonss of amendss to the Myanmar country. Cyclone Nargis was a strong Class 3 or minimum Category 4 hurricane with sustained air currents of 130 miles per hour and blasts of 150-160 mph3. The strong air current resulted in lay waste toing amendss to the environment. Since the country of Myanmar is really poor4, the houses were normally made merely by thin forests alternatively of concrete. As the storm brought the strong air current to the coastal country, most of the houses were destroyed ; it was because they could non defy the high velocity air current. More significantly, the air current would convey all the dust and broken forests particularly those from the houses along its path. This peculiarly endangered human lives in that country, as the high velocity fluxing forests could perchance destruct any lives or belongingss along its manner within a few seconds. Therefore, human lives every bit good as belongingss were destroyed in big graduated table under the influence of strong air current.
“ Aya, near the Ayeyarwady estuary in Myanmar. Cyclone Nargis caused important land loss and coastal eroding. ” ( Credit: Hermann Fritz )
Last but non least, the mudflow was one of the factors doing big sum of decease in Myanmar5. The heavy rainfall brought by the cyclones saturated the boggy country with H2O and therefore force per unit area would be built up on the clay surface. When the combination of H2O force per unit area and gravitation of the clay is larger than the defying force, the high velocity mudflow will happen. The mudflow which contained big sum of suspended atoms and silt rushed into the coastal country, therefore many occupants of low-lying rice Fieldss were merely swept off in Maynmar4. It was estimated the decease has been to 140,000 instances or more. Peoples were crashed with the broken forests in mudflow, brush off or suffered from suffocation4. Even worse, the clay flew on the coastal country prohibited the digging of the inhumed people, doing it more hard. The clay blocked the conveyance web which presented a hard challenge to disaster direction ; and would ensue in serious amendss.
Poor direction of international alleviation
From above, we have screened through the factors doing important devastation during the transition of strong cyclone. Then, the treatment should travel on to the factors of great amendss after the storm. The obstruction of international alleviation by the military authorities was a major ground for the great devastation of lives and properties6 after the storm. Many catastrophe appraisal functionaries had to wait for few yearss in order to acquire the visa and enter country of Myanmar6. This farther hindered the alleviation work as the international alleviation squads and private charity groups were non allowed to to the full measure the state of affairs. As the catastrophe could non be to the full assessed, squads could non gauge the sum of alleviation stuffs and other supplies required quickly. Furthermore, as mentioned before, Myanmar is a hapless state which does non hold adequate alleviation engineering and equipment to assist deliver the inhumed people out of the clay flow. Due to the initial obstruction from the military authorities, the international alleviation squad can non come in the affected countries quickly. This delayed the clip of the reaching of foreign alleviation squads and as a consequence, most of them arrived at that place after three yearss of the event. However, the survival clip bound of human being buried in dust or even clay was merely 48 hours and this increased the figure of decease. In fact, when the squads eventually arrived, they could merely make little as the aureate period had passed through6.
“ The International Federation is stepping up its attempts to acquire nutrient and H2O to those most affected by cyclone Nargis. ”
Creditss: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ifrc.org/Docs/News/08/08051202/index.asp
Obstruction of buttocks
In add-on, entree was a challenge for the deliverance squads to face. The United Nation estimated that there are 1.4 million of survived victims who need resources like nutrient, clean H2O, medical specialty and shelter7. However, most of the afloat country could non be entered by trucks. Alternatively, the choppers were required to transport the alleviation stuffs. The state of affairs worsened because the Myanmar authorities was excessively hapless to hold adequate choppers. Furthermore, it took clip in directing excess choppers from other states. Finally, the officers allowed the first of 10 choppers from the World Food Program to transport nutrient and H2O supplies from Yangon into the delta after a 10-day hold. The other nine were en path to Myanmar7. Some people died out of famishment as the supplies reached the impact country merely after the 10 yearss hold.
Secondary amendss of deluging
Besides, the tidal rush drove inland from the sea caused secondary harm to the metropoliss of Myanmar8. Three quarters of farm animal were killed and about half the fishing fleets were sunk. Furthermore, a million estates of rice Paddies were salted by the saltwater surges8. This implosion therapy of saltwater cut the local nutrient supply and inundated the low-lying country. Water pipes and electricity power lines were destroyed that people had to last through four yearss without electricity and clean H2O. Even worse, the afloat countries remained flooded for a hebdomad and the H2O was contaminated by the dead organic structures. ‘There was a clear deficiency of sanitation installations for the 500 people. ‘ said by an officer from ruddy cross9. Peoples had no picks but needed to imbibe the contaminated H2O in order to last. This led to the spread of water-borne diseases like cHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclosporiasis ” yclosporiasis and aHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoebiasis ” moebiasis. Reports of digestive piece of land upsets and malaria were heard and one in five people was reported sick9. In add-on, the deficiency of conveyance resulted in a deficit of medical specialty. When people got ill because of imbibing dirty H2O, their state of affairss would likely decline and they may decease finally. This caused a syrupy rhythm.
Cyclonic storm1 named Nargis was the worst national natural catastrophe on the history of Myanmar. Both the natural and human factors greatly worsen the impact brought by cyclone which caused tonss of decease and amendss. Natural factors like high rush moving ridge, mudflow and implosion therapy reconstructed the low-lying country of Myanmar ; whereas human factors like hapless readying for the cyclone and hold of the alleviation squads further worsened the state of affairs and increased the figure of the decease and amendss of belongingss. The coastal low-lying country of Myanmar originally had fertile dirt and favours agriculture10. However, after the storm, all the agribusiness countries were inundated by flood H2O ; and the husbandmans lost all their agriculture merchandises in three hours10. The power of nature can non be modified by human being and this can be good demonstrated by the illustration that cyclone Nargis struck Myanmar. Unfortunately, people had to gain money so they chose to remain at that place. On the other manus, Hong Kong, as an Asiatic metropolis besides, is ever sheltered. Hong Kong people likely ne’er give a serious idea on what will go on if this typhoon hit our metropolis alternatively. Some of us might even trust that the typhoons could assail Hong Kong straight so that there will be no working or school yearss. Hong Kong is a safe topographic point that no 1 can retrieve the destructive typhoon and it leads to our disregard of unfortunate catastrophe elsewhere in the universe. Should we alter our attitude and understand more about how people suffer in the other portion of universe ; and finally demo more attention to the unfortunate 1s?