# Hydraulic Design Of Low Cost Combined Sewerage Biology Essay

The design of low-cost combined sewage is based on a minimal tractive tenseness besides known as boundary shear emphasis which is achieved at extremum flow. This is stress experienced by settleable solids within the cloaca due to the flow of the sewerage which if big plenty, keeps the solids in suspension and so prevents any deposition that may take to sewer obstruction ( Mara, 1996 and Mara and Guimaraes, 1999 ) . It is besides possible based on the flow of sewerage that achieves a minimal ego cleansing speed at extremum flow. However the minimal tractive tenseness design attack is more economical than the minimal self-cleansing speed design attack because it consequences in gradients which are significantly lower, hence reduced digging and therefore resultantly decrease in cost ( Mara 1996 and Mara et al 2001 ) .

The flow in low-priced combined cloacas is unfastened channel flow and Manning equation is usually used ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

Figure 3.1: Definition of parametric quantities for unfastened channel flow in round cloaca

From figure 3.1 geometric relationships can be derived for the country of flow, the wetted margin and the hydraulic radius

The angle of flow I? ( in radians ) subtended at the Centre of the cloaca by the H2O surface ( as shown on figure 3.1 ) , is given by the undermentioned equation

Where Y is the deepness of flow in m,

D is pipe diameter in m. The ratio y/D is termed the relative deepness of flow.

From the same figure, the country of flow and the wetted margin are related to an angle of flow and the diameter of the pipe subdivision by the undermentioned equation

and

The hydraulic radius R is the ratio of the country of flow to the wetted margin

From equation ( 3.2 and 3.3 )

The undermentioned equations are besides used

Where, from equations 3.2 and 3.4 coefficients and can be given by

and

The relationship of proportional of deepness of flow ( y/D ) and factorsand are presented in appendix 1

Maning equation for the speed of flow has been found to be sufficiently accurate and simpler for the design of low cost combined sewage. The speed of flow at is related to the incline and hydraulic radius by the undermentioned equation

Where N is Maning roughness coefficient ( it is normally taken as 0.013. This value is independent of sewer stuff because it depends on the raggedness of the bacterial sludge bed which grows on the sewer wall ) ( Mara and Brome, 2008 )

But

Where =flow at, m3/s

is the country of flow in M2

Therefore from equation 3.9

By replacing equation 3.6 into equation 3.9 and rearranging,

Substituting equations 3.5, 3.9 and 3.11 in equation 3.10 and rearranging, The ratio of flow to the square root of gradient can be given by

## 3.1 Sewage flow and Sewer Gradient

Sewage flow consist of domestic besides called healthful waste H2O ( this is godforsaken H2O discharged from abodes and similar installations ) , infiltration that enters through leaking articulations, clefts and interruptions, and sometimes possible part of industrial waste H2O ( Metcalf & A ; Eddy, 2003 ) .

For Low-Cost combined sewage this flow is assessed for the two instances ; at the beginning of the undertaking period ( the initial sewerage flow ) and at the terminal of the design period ( concluding sewerage flow ) ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) . The difference in these flows would be due to either an addition in population or an addition in H2O ingestion, or both ( Mara, 1996 and Mara et Al, 2001 ) . In a to the full developed country where there is no room for enlargement every bit good as alterations in H2O ingestion the initial sewerage flow is equal to the concluding sewerage flow.

## 3.1.1 Water Consumption

It is really complicated to find sum of waste H2O produced by community. The attack in low-priced combined sewage is to associate it to amount of domestic H2O ( which is H2O supply intended for lavatory flushing, bathing dish lavation and other less intensive or less frequent intents such as cookery and imbibing ) ( Metcalf & A ; Eddy, 2003 ) . In urban countries of developing states H2O supplied for ingestion normally varies between to per twenty-four hours while in industrialized states the supply is normally greater than per twenty-four hours ( Trifunovic 2006 ) .

## 3.1.2 Return coefficient

There is a difference between the sum of H2O used and the sum of sewerage flow discharged into the cloaca ( Tucker, 2010 ) . However, sewerage flow is normally presented as a proportion of H2O supplied ( Mara, 1996 ) . This proportion is what is called the return coefficient. The typical values used for design are any values between 0.8 and 0.9. A fixed value of 0.85 is recommended for the design of low-cost combined sewage ( Mara 1996, and Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

## 3.1.3 Peak waste H2O flow factor

Sewage flow is expected to change with clip of the twenty-four hours. That is to state, the peak waste H2O flow is expected to happen at least one time in a twenty-four hours during the peak hr which might happen, for illustration, in the morningA when a batch of people are taking showers and fixing nutrient. A peak hr design of 1.5 is recommended in the design of sewage ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) . Similarly, waste H2O flow besides varies season. That it is to state the sewerage flow is higher in summer ( when H2O use tends to be higher ) than in winter. A season factor of 1.2 is recommended ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) . By integrating peak hr and seasonal factors, the suited design peak waste H2O flow factor used is in the design of low-cost combined sewage 1.8 ( therefore, )

## 3.1.4 Peak Sewage flow

To gauge peak sewerage flow generated by a community it is of import to see the above factors every bit good as the population concerned. The peak sewerage flow can so be estimated by ;

Where

is the peak waste H2O flow factor

is the return coefficient

is H2O consumed in liters per capita per twenty-four hours

is the upstream population of the cloaca subdivision

86400 is a transition factor of twenty-four hours to back

By replacing of and, equation 3.13 can be written as

Alternatively, peak sewerage flow can besides be estimated from the figure of families dispatching into that subdivision. That is to state, the Equation 3.14 can be modified as

Where is the mean family size.

is the Number of families

For long subdivision of cloacas, infiltration that enters through leaking articulations, clefts and interruptions because important and should taken into history. The value of Infiltration varies from 0.5 to 1l/s per kilometer of pipe length depending on the infiltration capacity of the dirt ( Tucker, 2010 and Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

## 3.1.5.1Minimum sewerage flow

To keep the ego cleansing speed of flow a minimal extremum flow demand it is necessary to put the minimal extremum flux the system can accept. The standard minimal extremum flow used in pattern is. When calculated has a value which is less than below, this value is adopted. It is an estimation of peak discharge from a flush lavatory. However this flow may be attenuated in the house connexions. Current Brazil pattern assumes a minimal extremum flow of ( alternatively of ) ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

## 3.1.6 Sewer Gradient

Sewer gradient is supposed to be determined when effluent flow is at lower limit because that is the critical flow to keep self cleansing speed. For low-cost combined sewage this flow is tantamount to the sewerage flow which occurs at the beginning of the design period ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

Figure 3.2: Parameters for tractive tenseness in Round cloacas

The attack used to find the gradient is tractive tenseness method. Tractive tenseness is the digressive force exerted by the flow of sewerage per unit of wetted boundary country. It is denoted by the symbol and has units of N/m2 ( Pas ) .

From figure 3.2, sing a mass of sewerage of length, in m and cross-section country a in M2, which has a wetted margin of, the tractive tenseness can be given by the constituent of the weight ( in Newtons ) of this mass sewerage in the way of flow divided by its corresponding wetted boundary country

But weight W is given by

Where

is the denseness of sewerage in kg/m3

is acceleration due to gravitation in m/s2

But the hydraulic radius R is given by. Substituting R and W in the equation

For little values of, .

But is the cloaca gradient, hence equation 3.19 can besides be written as

Substituting equation 3.20 in 3.6 ( with the pivot ) and rearranging

Substituting equation 3.21 in 3.12 and rearranging

Rearranging equation 3.22 for gradient

In low-cost combined sewerage the design bounds of y/D are 0.2 & lt ; y/D & lt ; 0.8 ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 and Mara 1996 ) . The lower bound ensures that there is sufficient speed to flux to forestall solids deposition in the initial portion of the design period, and the upper bound provides for sufficient airing at the terminal of the design period ( Mara 1996 ) .

The minimal gradient, is given replacing this equation with at y/D=0.2, ( and from Appendix 1 ) . With I?=1000kg/m3, g=9.81m/s2 and n=0.013 equation 3.23 can be written as

In low cost combined sewerage a satisfactory of is 1Pa. Substituting this value in equation 3.24.

Changing units of from to gives the design equation

In developed states where H2O ingestion is normally greater than per capita per twenty-four hours a minimal tractive tenseness of 1Pa may non be considered sufficient to procure self- cleaning in low-cost combined cloacas. However, minimal tractive tenseness of 2.5 Pa at full-bore flow ( but besides at half dullard flow since in both instances the hydraulic radius is D/4 ) is recommended to accomplish ego cleaning ( Mara and Guimaraes, 1999 ) . Therefore the equation 3.24 can be recalculated by replacing 1Pa with 2.5Pa and for y/D=0.5 to go.

To plan based on ego cleansing speed, the Macedo-Manning equation is used and it is basically a modified Manning equation ( Mara 1996 ) . It is given by

Where

For any values of y/D between 0.14 and 0.92, M is basically changeless and has a value equal to 0.61. Substituting this value in equation 3.28 ( N is equal to 0.013 )

Assuming ( the lower limit ego cleansing speed which has shown to be applicable in Brazil ) , and altering Q from m3/s to l/s. Equation 3.30 can be rearranged as

Where

is the minimal gradient in m/m

## 3.2 Storm flow and Pipe diameter

In low-cost combined sewerage the finding of diameter of a cloaca is based on the maximal extremum flow expected in the design period. This upper limit is estimated a summing up of storm H2O flow for a specified return period and peak sewerage flow expected at the terminal of the design period. Storm H2O flow is the overflow ensuing from rainfall ( Eddy & A ; Metcalf, 2003 ) and for little catchment countries, it is normally estimated from the rational method developed by Lloyd and Davies ( Shaw, 1994 )

## 3.2.1 Rational method

The Rational Method is an strength based overflow anticipation with the undermentioned premises ( Meadows and Walski, 1999 ) .

The rate of rainfall is changeless throughout the storm and uniform over the whole catchment country.

Catchment impenetrability is changeless throughout the storm

Lending imperviable country is unvarying over the whole catchment.

The catchment country is little

Sing all these premise, the rate of overflow at a design point is a direct map of the catchment features and the mean strength of rainfall surplus up to the clip of concentration ( Crobeddu et al, 2007, Guo, 2001 and Shaw, 1994 ) . This relationship is expressed by equation 3.32.

Where is peak overflow flow in m3/s

is the Coefficient of overflow ( dependent on catchment Features )

is the strength of rainfall ( in mm/h ) in clip of concentration Tc

is the country of Catchment in km2

## 3.2.1.1 Rational Coefficient of overflow

The rational coefficient of overflow, C, is the parametric quantity which is unfastened to technology opinion which relates the rate of rainfall over a catchment to the rate of discharge from the same catchment ( Guo 2001 ) . Its value varies from 0 to 1. It is extremely dependent on the land usage and incline such that the more covered and imperviable dirt is the value of C approaches 1.

## 3.2.1.2 Intensity and Time of Concentration

The strength of the storm is straight related to its continuance and its return period ( frequence ) . Historical storm informations for an country under consideration is compiled and analysed to foretell the storm features, and is presented in assorted signifiers of equation. One illustration of such equations is presented as.

Where is the strength of rainfall in mm/hr

are invariables depending on local precipitation features and frequence

is the clip of concentration ( continuance )

The clip of concentration ) refers to the clip at which the full catchment begins to lend to runoff. Any changeless rainfall strength is at peak value when the continuance of rainfall and clip of concentration are equal ( Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . it is required to find the clip of concentration for each design point within the drainage basin. Its value is calculated as the clip taken for overflow to flux from the most hydraulicly distant point of the catchment country to the point under probe ( Crobeddu et al, 2007 and Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . The clip of concentration is hence viewed as holding two constituents

Where

is the clip of entry ( clip of flow over the land surface ) in proceedingss, which vary with catchment features such as surface raggedness, incline and length of the overland flow. Typical values of are in the scope of 8 and 12minutes ( Department of Environment, 1981 ) . In Brazil values between 5 to15 proceedingss have been used for considerable size of catchment ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

is the clip of flow in proceedingss through the pipe system to the point under consideration, based on the pipe-full speed ( Department of Environment, 1981 ) . Its value can be calculated from the hydraulic belongingss of pipes. With known cloaca length and flow features, clip of flow can be determined. Valuess between 10 to 15 proceedingss are recommended ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 )

Equations are typically used merely in parts where the rainfall information has already been analysed and an appropriate equation has been fit to the information. However, taking equation coefficients to be used in such equations is much more significant undertaking.

An alternate and most common manner of finding rainfall strength is to utilize Intensity-Duration-Frequency ( IDF ) curves for the country under concern. These curves present the rainfall features of a catchment in footings the relationship between the strength and continuance for a specified return period. An illustration of such curves is shown in figure 3.3. They are normally available from a local regulative bureau or meteoric offices/bureaus

Figure 3.3: Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curve

## 3.2.1.3 Return Period/ Storm Frequency

The return period or storm frequence of an one-year upper limit flooding event can be described as the long-run norm of the clip interval between specific happenings. The pick of design storm frequence, hence determines the grade of protection from storm H2O implosion therapy by the system ( Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . The protection should be related to the cost of any harm or break that might be caused by deluging. In pattern, cost-benefit surveies are seldom conducted for ordinary urban drainage undertakings ; a determination on design storm return period is made merely on the footing of opinion and precedency. It is really hard to find the return period of deluging because of absence of comprehensive storm overflow informations. However it is possible to measure and stipulate design rainfall return period, and a sensible attack is to presume that the frequence of rainfall is tantamount to the frequence of overflow ( Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . The standard pattern for the design of low cost combined sewage is to utilize the return period of 10 old ages ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) . Note the continuance should be equal to the clip of concentration ( equation 3.34 ) to accomplish extremum overflow.

## 3.2.1.4 Catchment Area

The catchment country is one of the most of import parametric quantity for good anticipation of storm H2O. This is the full geographical country drained by a sewer subdivision. The boundaries of the catchment to be drained can be defined with sensible preciseness either by field study or usage of contour maps ( Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . They should be positioned such that any rain that falls within them will be directed under Gravity to a point of discharge or outfall ( Butler and Davies, 2000 ) . Rational method of gauging storm H2O overflow can merely be accurate if used in the design overflow from little catchment. For low Low-cost combined sewage design the maximal threshold for catchment country is 12km2 ( Guimaraes, and de Souza 2004 ) .

## 3.2.2 Wallingford Modified Rational method

Increased apprehension of the rainfall-runoff procedure has led to further development of the Rational Method to better its truth. The Modified Rational Method which is recommended in the Wallingford Procedure has shown to be more accurate for little catchment and it is the recommended attack in the design of low-cost combined sewage ( Department of Environment, 1981 ) .

In this process the overflow coefficient is considered to dwell of two constituents

Where is the volumetric overflow coefficient.

is the dimensionless routing coefficient

The dimensionless routing coefficient, varies between 1 and 2. It accounts for the consequence of rainfall features ( such as peakedness ) , catchment form and the magnitude. A fixed value of 1.30 is recommended for design.

Integrating this value in the Rational expression ( equation 3.32 )

is the strength of rainfall ( in mm/h ) in clip of concentration Tc

is the country of Catchment in km2

Volumetric overflow coefficient, , is the proportion of rainfall falling on the catchment that appears as surface overflow in the drainage system. Its value depends on whether the whole drainage basin is under consideration or merely the imperviable countries entirely. If merely the imperviable countries are considered is given by ;

The per centum impermeable country of the catchment ( PIMP ) is the grade of urban development of the catchment. It is estimated by the equation

is imperviable ( roofs and paved countries ) country ( in km2 )

is entire Catchment Area ( in km2 )

Alternatively, the per centum impermeable country ( PIMP ) can besides be related about to the denseness of lodging development utilizing the undermentioned relationship

Where J is the lodging denseness ( dwelling/ha ) . The value of PIMP varies between 25 and 100 ( Butler and Davies 2000 ) .

Percentage Runoff ( PR ) on the other manus is the dimensionless overflow coefficient. It is measured by specifying the imperviable surfaces such as roads, roofs and other paved surfaces.

Valuess of scope from 0.6 to 0.9 ( Department of Environment, 1981 ) . The lower values indicate a quickly run outing country while higher values relate to heavy clay dirts. By presuming to be equal to 0.75 ( the norm value ) , equation 3.36 can be written as.

Changing the value offrom m3/s to l/s

With a maximal threshold of country as 12km2, the value of in l/s should non transcend

## 3.2.5 Sewer Diameter

The sewer pipe is designed to transport the maximal possible flow which is composed of the summing up of storm H2O flow and sewerage flow at the terminal of the design period. Rearranging equation 3.12

Where is the diameter

is the concluding sewerage flow at the terminal of the design period in m3/s ( from equation 3.13 converted to m3/s )

is the peak overflow in m3/s ( from equation 3.39 )

and are geometric parametric quantities at y/D equal to 0.8 ( From appendix 1 =0.6736 and =0.3042 )

The undermentioned sequence of computations is recommended to find diameter:

Calculate utilizing equation 3.12 the concluding sewerage flows ( , l/s ) , which is the flow occurring at the terminal of the design period.

Calculate extremum overflow utilizing equation 3.39

Calculate the diameter D utilizing equation. 3.40

The lower limit and maximal diameters recommended for low-cost combined sewage are 400mm and 1500mm severally ( Guimaraes and de Souza, 2004 ) .

Alternatively and the simplest manner of finding diameter used in pattern is the design Chart in Appendix 2. The chart can be used by the undermentioned process ;

Calculate with in m3/s and happen this value in the chart where y/D is close to but less than 0.8. The cloaca diameter is given at the top of the column in which is found.

Read the corresponding values of from the chart and calculate. This is based on agreement that incorporates

Calculate with in m3/s and happen this value in the same column as in the measure above and read the corresponding value of y/D and calculate from the matching value of.

Using the chart therefore permits finding of the speeds and relative deepnesss at the beginning and the terminal of the design period

## 3.3 Design Summary

The hydraulic design of low-cost combined sewage purposes at finding the lower limit recommended sewer gradient and the needed diameter for the cloaca pipes. The undermentioned stairss summarize the design procedure.

Determine the expected extremum sewerage flow from upstream of the subdivision for the beginning and the terminal of the design period utilizing either equation 3.14 if the population is the information available or equation 3.15 if the figure of family is the information available. The difference in these flows would be a consequence of either an addition in population or an addition in H2O ingestion, or both. Both concluding and initial sewerage flow values should non be less than ( follow this value if less ) .

Calculate the storm H2O flow from upstream of the subdivision utilizing equation 3.39 where the strength is determined by a 10 twelvemonth return period of storm and a continuance equivalent to the clip of concentration. The catchment country should besides non transcend 12km2

Using the peak sewerage flow at the beginning of the design period ( calculated in 1 above ) determine the minimal cloaca gradient utilizing either equation 3.26 when planing in developing states where H2O supply is less than or 3.27 when planing in industrialized states where H2O ingestion is more than.

By summing up the storm H2O flow and the peak sewerage flow at the terminal of the design period, find the needed pipe diameter for the subdivision by either utilizing equation 3.42 or the design chart in appendix 2. The minimal and maximal diameters recommended are 400mm and 1500mm severally. Please note that if the deliberate diameter is non available on the market the pattern is to take the nest higher available size. That is to state, if the deliberate diameter is 470mm and the available diameters are 400mm and 500mm so 500mm subdivision would be the right option.

## 3.4 Storm Water Inlet Design

The cardinal nonsubjective when planing recesss is to minimise the spread of H2O across the cloaca and in the trough ( in storm drainage, the trough is the channel in which overflow is conveyed to ramp sewer recesss ) ( Meadows and Walski 1999 ) . These inlet constructions are located in box drains which are sited on either side of a pavement trough.

## 3.4.1Types of recesss

Two types of recesss are normally used for storm H2O. They include grate recesss and kerb recesss.

Entree to the storm drain system through a grate recess is first-class because it is removable. However, it is hard to keep grate recesss and they besides have a higher chance to roll up dust which obstruct the flow of surface H2O into the recess ( Meadows and Walski, 1999 ) . Figure 3.4 gives typical grating recesss used.

Figure 3.4: Grate recess in Gutter and Some Typical Grate Types ( beginning: Meadows and Walski, 1999 )

Curb recesss ( figure 3.5 ) are gaps within the kerb and are used in countries where grating recess are prone to choke offing. The efficiency of kerb recess is based on the ratio of the existent recess length to the recess length necessary to capture 100 % of the entire overflow.

Figure 3.5: Curb recess

Combination recesss such as kerb and grating can besides be utile in some constellations. They offer overflow drain if portion of the recess becomes wholly or badly clogged by dust ( Guo 2000 ) . Care of combination recesss can besides be simplified by the fact that the grating is removable, supplying easy entree to the recess and associated storm drain system.

## 3.4.2 Location of recesss

Drain recesss are either located on a class to stop part of overflow that flows yesteryear or on a droop where all the overflow may roll up. There is a difference in equation used for planing recesss for these locations.

Inlets located in droop are assumed to capture 100 % of flow because one time collected the overflow in the droop has no other topographic point to travel. As opposed to recesss located on a class, the size and type of recess straight affects the spread. The calculations for ciphering the sum of flow intercepted by recesss in droop are based on the rule of weir flow and opening flow.

For an recess which is non submerged, operates as a weir, the flow capacity is calculated as

Where is flow intercepted by the recess operating as weir ( m3/s )

is the weir coefficient

is the margin of the recess ( m )

is the flow deepness at the kerb ( m )

If the trough is depressed, the margin of the grating P is calculated as

Where is grate length ( m )

is grate breadth ( m )

Otherwise

The deepness, vitamin D, for both types of recesss is measured from the projected normal cross-slope. For a kerb recess, the margin is tantamount to the length of the recess.

If the recess is submerged and is runing as an opening, its capacity becomes:

Where is the flow intercepted by the recess operating as an opening ( m3/s )

is the Orifice coefficient

is the country of the gap ( M2 ) . A multiplier of about 0.5 is recommended to be applied to the mensural country as a factor of safety.

is the acceleration due to gravitation and is equal to 9.81m/s2

is the effectual caput at the opening ( m )

Note

For a grate recess the effectual caput, vitamin D, is merely the H2O deepness along the kerb.

Figure 3.6: Different kerb recess pharynx types

For kerb recess, the effectual caput ( shown in figure 3.6 ) is expressed as ;

Where is depth at lip of kerb in m

is the kerb pharynx opening tallness in m

is the disposition of the kerb pharynx measured from the perpendicular way

The undermentioned process should be used for finding a grate recess capacity on a droop:

Choose a grating of standard dimensions to utilize as a footing for computations.

Determine an allowable caput ( ) for the recess location. This should be the lower of the kerb tallness and the deepness associated with the allowable ponded breadth.

Determine the capacity of a grate recess operating as a weir from equation 3.44

Determine the capacity of a grate recess runing under opening flow from equation 3.46

Compare the two deliberate capacities and take the lower value as the design capacity. The design capacity of a grated recess in a droop is based on the minimal flow calculated from weir and orifice conditions.

Similarly when planing on a kerb recess the process would be

Determine the needed flow to be intercepted

Determine an allowable caput ) for the recess location from equation 3.47

Determine the length of the kerb of the recess when runing under weir conditions from equations 3.44 and 3.45,

find the recess length of the kerb gap from the intercepted flow runing as an opening from equation 3.46 where

take the larger of the two computed lengths as being the needed length.

Choose a standard recess length that is greater than the needed length

Proper attending should be given to the conveyance of storm H2O through sag recesss, because they often encounter H2O ponding which can increase H2O spread over the surface ( Brown et al, 2001 ) . Grate recesss designed as a solo recess for installing in droops are non recommended because they have a leaning to choke off and worsen ponding during terrible conditions ( Almedeij et al, 2006 and Meadows and Walski, 1999 ) . A combination of grating and kerb recesss may be a better option. At low flow deepnesss the capacity of a combination recess where the grating recess length equals the kerb recess length is tantamount to the capacity of the grate recess entirely. At higher flow deepnesss, for the same type of recess, both the kerb recess and grate recess act as openings working in concurrence ( Meadows and Walski, 1999 ) . The entire intercepted flow is so calculated as the amount of the flows intercepted by the grating and the kerb gap.

Designs of recesss on class are based on how much flow will be intercepted for a given entire flow ( gutter discharge ) to the recess. Their design are based on efficiency.

Where is inlet efficiency

is the intercepted flow ( m3/s )

is the entire trough flow ( m3/s )

Flow that is non intercepted by drainage recess on class is bypassed and carried-over to another recess downstream, or is lost to a watercourse. When planing recesss on class, grate recesss have shown to be more efficient efficient than kerb recesss ( Meadows and Walski, 1999 )

## 3.5 Sewer Gradient and Ground Slope

It is critical to see the dealingss between the deliberate cloaca gradient and the incline of the land ( Mara 1996 ) . The incline of the land surface ( S, m/m ) may be ( a ) less than, ( B ) peer to, ( degree Celsius ) greater than, or much greater than, the minimal cloaca gradient calculated from equation.

Figure 3.7: The minimal deepness to which the cloaca is laid is the amount of the minimal deepness screen C and the cloaca diameter D ( beginning Mara 1996 )

Furthermore, the deepness to the invert of the upstream terminal of the length of cloaca under consideration may be ( a ) , equal to, or ( B ) greater than the minimal deepness permitted, which is given by

Where

is minimal required screen ( its value varies from 0.20m for in-block cloacas to 0.40m for street cloacas ) ( shown in figure 3.7 ) .

is sewer diameter, m

There are six instances likely to be encountered in pattern

Case 1. and the invert deepness of the upstream terminal of the cloaca ; choose and cipher the invert of the downstream terminal of the cloaca as:

Where is the length of the cloaca and consideration

Case 2. and ; choose and

Case 3. and ; choose and

Case 4. and ; take and cipher the sewer gradient from

Subject to

Case 5. and, as in Case 4, but an alternate solution is to take and cipher from equation in Case 1. The pick between these alternate solutions is made on the footing of minimal digging.

Case 6. and ; here, it normally reasonable to devide L into two or more substretches with and ( but evidently ) in order to minimise digging.

## 3.6 Choosing Sewer Pipe Materials

In general, choice of a cloaca pipe stuff is dependent on the physical features which include ; lastingness, abrasion-resistance, corrosion-resistance, impenetrability and strength ( Butler and Davies 2000 ) .

The types of pipe stuffs used in low-cost combined sewage are similar to those used in conventional cloacas.

Vitrified clay is a commonly-used stuff for small- to moderate-sized pipes. Its major advantages are its strength, lastingness and opposition to corrosion and are considered ideal for low cost combined cloacas particularly when the H2O tabular array is low ( Butler and Davies 2000 and Bakalian et Al, 1994 ) . However, clay is both heavy and brickle and hence, susceptible to damage during managing. Mortar is normally used for glassy clay pipe articulations. Rubber gasket articulations are normally used with plastic and fiber concrete pipe

Plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete pipe is by and large used for medium to large-sized pipes. It is peculiarly suited to utilize in cloacas because of its size, scratch opposition, strength and cost ( Butler and Davies 2000 ) .

PVC pipes offer the advantage of longer sizes, fewer articulations ( i.e. , less infiltration ) , light weight, H2O stringency, and uniformity ( Bakalian et Al, 1994 ) .