Hiv Aids In Republic Of South Korea Biology Essay
Last twelvemonth in South Korea, a male 26-year-old AIDS patient was held in detention for sexual maltreatment of multiple victims.
He worked as a cab driver for about a twelvemonth and a half between 2007 and 2009, and was found guilty for sexually mistreating six female clients. He was really pronounced that he was a positive AIDS patient in 2003. Harmonizing to his statements, the motivation of his actions was out of retaliation that he had the infection. The individual whom he had gotten HIV from is unidentifiable ( Chosun.com ) . This incident caused pandemonium in South Korean society and the demand for educating public about HIV infections and AIDS is indispensable in order to better their cognition and to engraft proper bar methods. HIV is a human immune-deficiency virus, which causes disease in human.
This virus contains enzymes, such as rearward RNA polymerase and integrase that make the virus unique from the other viruses. HIV infects the cells of the immune system and do decease of CD4 T cells, which is the nucleus instigator of the immune system. The symptoms of long term HIV infection finally lead to clinically termed syndrome called, get immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) . HIV infections and AIDS have been one of the prima causes of decease worldwide due to miss of bar and intervention. Because this virus has such alone features that are different from other present viruses, farther surveies are required to heighten the interventions and possible vaccinum production.HIV is one of the retroviruses that infect human. It is a single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to Baltimore category 6 due to the presence of DNA intermediate, retroviridae household, orthoretrovirinae subfamily, and lentivirus genera.
HIV is divided into HIV-1 strain, which causes the common HIV infection and HIV-2 strain, which seldom causes the infection with less deadliness than HIV-1 strain. HIV-1 is subdivided into three different groups including group N, group M, and group O, which are further divided into clades A through J. The different groups and clades of HIV-1 strains vary geographically, and they all respond otherwise to interventions.
The construction of HIV is complex. It is enveloped virus with tulip shaped viral proteins embedded in the membrane, conelike shaped mirid bug with two indistinguishable pieces of its genome interior. There are of import proteins of HIV which allow their alone reproduction procedures. The viral proteins on their envelop membrane are GP41, which is inserted in the membrane that allows merger to happen and GP120, which is on the surface of the envelop that allows fond regard to continue with cellular receptors. More proteins are found inside the envelope, such as matrix protein, which gives the envelop construction and mirid bug protein, which makes up the conelike shaped mirid bug. In add-on to the structural proteins that are of import in fond regard and entry of the virus, the most of import proteins of HIV are found inside the mirid bug attached to the genome that includes reverse RNA polymerase for DNA intermediate synthesis and integrase for viral genome integrating into human chromosome and peptidase to do infective proteins ( Kohl et el. , 1988 ) .
The genome of HIV has nine unfastened reading frames which encode for 15 proteins and are improbably good organized by their maps. The genome can be divided into three parts, GAG cistron parts that contain cistrons which encode for all the enzymatic proteins, POL cistron parts contain cistrons that encode all the polymerase enzymes, and ENV cistron parts that encode all of the structural proteins ( Wensing et al. , 2009 ) . The alone construction of HIV explains why they cause such a deathly disease in human and why it is so difficult to forestall and handle the virus ( Parilla, Jessica 2010 ) .As briefly mentioned above, HIV has alone proteins that are indispensable in their reproduction rhythm upon infection. Since HIV is a single-stranded RNA virus, it follows the regular RNA reproduction rhythm of fond regard, entry, uncoating, written text, interlingual rendition, genome reproduction, assembly, and emersion. The lone exclusions are the two extra stairss that are alone to HIV, contrary written text and integrating.
Attachment occurs between viral proteins GP120, GP41 and cellular receptors CD4, CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 and CXCR4 are co-receptors and merely one of them is required along with CD4 for fond regard to happen. As you can see, HIV attaches to the cellular receptors that are found largely in the immune system, such as CD4 T cells, macrophages, natural slayer cells, dendritic cells, CD8 T cells, or neural cells. This explains why this virus is named human immunodeficiency virus and how it interferes with the immune system. After fond regard, GP41 protein found in the envelop membrane causes fusion event to happen between viral envelop and cellular membrane, thereby doing uncoating event to happen in the cytol. One of the disparate features of HIV reproduction occurs at this point with the released genome in the cytol.
The contrary RNA polymerase that are attached to the viral genome contrary transcribe the viral RNA genome into DNA intermediate and makes double isolated DNA. The freshly synthesized double isolated DNA gets inside the karyon with the aid of shuttling proteins and the most deadly procedure occurs inside the karyon. Viral enzyme called “ integrase ” integrates viral DNA into human chromosome.
Once the viral genome is integrated into the human chromosome, there is no turning back. The viral genome gets replicated every clip cellular genome replicates and finishes the life rhythm utilizing the host reproduction scheme. After all the necessary proteins and new viruses are made, the assembly occurs underneath the cellular plasma membrane where the viral envelop proteins are already inserted.
The freshly synthesized viral genome recognizes the site on the plasma membrane where viral proteins are embedded in, and it is taken up by budding geting the envelope with it. Newly pinched off virion must travel through a ripening measure where the acquired proteins are cleaved by viral peptidase to do mature infective virus ( AIDSinfo and Parilla, Jessica 2010 ) .HIV pathogenesis occurs in multiple stairss which finally lead to AIDS. Primary HIV infection causes acute syndrome which causes both cell mediated and humoral immune response to happen. During this acute infection period, virus is retroflexing in tremendous sums per twenty-four hours and spread to the lymphatic system doing mild disease with febrility, unease, and conceited lymph nodes. This acute infection period is besides called the window period because the immune system is easy reacting to the infection by triping CD4 T cells, but antibodies for HIV has non been made yet and the septic individual is extremely contagious.
As the infection progresses, it goes into clinical latency stage where viruses are kept within the lymphatic system and the viraemia degrees are reasonably low. During clinical latency stage, antibodies for HIV are secreted in high sums as CD4 T cell histories bead significantly. CD4 T cells continuously die off due to other infections instead than from HIV.
Human are susceptible to assorted bacteriums, fungus, and virus infections every twenty-four hours. Every clip HIV positive individual gets infected with any sorts of infections, already infected CD4 T cells get activated and the virus go lysogenic provirus traveling into the lytic stage doing new viruses. Therefore, available CD4 T cells in the organic structure lessening dramatically causing loss of immune map and this finally leads to diminish in antibody secernment as good.
At this point, there is no immune response to command the virus and the HIV infected individual now has AIDS. Symptoms of AIDS are indirect symptoms of the virus. The virus itself can non do any symptoms, but the loss of immune map leads to infections from all the pathogens out at that place, such as kaposiaa‚¬a„?s sarcoma, pneumonia, TB, herpes shingles, thrush, cadidiasis, CMV, bacterial infections, fungous infections, phrenitis, lymphoma, and many more ( Castro et al.
, 1993 ) . Multiple infections in AIDS patient can take to decease. Because this is such a fatal disease, bar is of import ( Castro et al. , 1993 and Parilla, Jessica. , 2010 )The interventions of HIV are limited because of their alone life rhythm. Once the viral genome has been integrated into human chromosome, the lone available intervention is the cocktails of multiple types of drugs to supportively handle symptoms. The current cocktails of HIV drugs are called the highly-active anti-retrovial therapy ( HAART ) , where each drug marks different rhythms in viral reproduction.
There are anti-HIV drugs available for about all the stairss in the viral life rhythm, such as drugs that block contrary written text, integrating, ripening, merger event, or split event. However, anti-HIV drugs have down sides, such as high toxicity to the patients, non able to assail viruses that are latent in inactivated CD4 T cells, or induced mutants. Vaccines are presently under surveies. The job with bring forthing HIV vaccinums is that regular vaccinum schemes are non applicable with HIV because HIV infects immune system cells. The present vaccinum schemes can merely be able to command the spread of the virus, non the initial infection. In add-on, HIV being a RNA virus can germinate rapidly doing it harder in surveillance of HIV strains. Even if the possible strains can be detected, the clinical tests are limited because HIV being really selective to the host tropism, it can non be tested on either human or animate being.
Therefore, HIV infected individual is supportively treated with multiples of anti-retroviral drugs or in clinical scenes if required due to multiple infections. Because HIV intervention is limited, bar is highly of import. HIV transmits by sexual contact, via blood, or as vertically from female parent to pamper.
As a consequence, safe sex patterns and careful use of acerate leafs are the cardinal elements in bar of HIV. HIV positive pregnant adult female can take anti-HIV drugs during gestation and recommended to present by C-section ( Parilla, Jessica. 2010 ) .Harmonizing to HIV infosource.org, the Numberss of worldwide HIV incidents are leveling off after a immense extremum in late ninetiess. Even the states that had the highest rates of HIV infections are demoing worsening tendency of HIV infections ( HIV infosource.org ) . However, HIV infections and AIDS are still the taking cause of decease in certain states.
HIV is non selective in race and ethnicity although it is more likely to infect group of people who have multiple sex spouses, low socioeconomic position, drug dependence, or work forces whom engaged in sexually active relationship with another homosexual work forces ( apositivelife.com ) . Harmonizing to the ViiV health care in appositivelife.com, the high hazard factors can be divided by several different classs, such as gender, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic position, age and topographic point of abode. Men are more likely to prosecute in multiple sexual relationships than adult females due to some cultural beliefs and features in certain states, besides work forces are more likely to utilize drugs than adult females statistically thereby increasing the opportunity to be infected with HIV ( ViiV health care ) . Although race and ethnicity do non lend to the selectivity of HIV, African-American and Latinos are more susceptible to HIV infection due to the high per centum of Afro-american and Latino population missing instruction, employment, and power ( ViiV health care ) . Equally far as age is concerned, immature people are at higher hazard so older people because of deficiency of cognition on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Overall, a individual populating in poorness with no available instruction on these viruses is at higher hazard than others who are able to acquire speedy medical attending upon exposure and have certain grade of cognition on these viruses.
The epidemiology of HIV infection is dismaying worldwide particularly in South Africa and East Asia. Center for disease control estimated 56,300 new HIV instances and 1,106,400 individuals populating with HIV infection at the terminal of 2006. Those Numberss correlate to the United States merely. South Korea has entire population of 48,700,000 and of those, 13,000 are populating with HIV infection and new HIV instances are increasing ( Epidemiology fact sheet ) . Harmonizing to WHO, reported instances of AIDS in South Korea from 2002 to 2006 shows that females with symptoms of AIDS outnumber work forces and the tendency is still increasing ( Epidemiology factor sheet ) . The ground in increasing female instances of AIDS is due to cultural beliefs and increasing rates of sexual maltreatment in South Korea. As explained in the debut, HIV and AIDS patients are non under strong surveillance system in South Korea doing every citizen at hazard.
There should be strong jurisprudence enforcement for disease controls in order to forestall healthy people from acquiring HIV.Since late 1990s, scientists have been working difficult to place this deathly virus that caused unaccountable symptoms in patients. After all of their difficult plants, the virus has been identified and named as the human immunodeficiency virus. However, the virus has come up with their ain alone ways of forestalling interventions and unsusceptibility by transporting enzymes that are non present in their hosts. This is a calamity for human population because the current engineering and cognition are deficient to contend off the virus.
Until the suited vaccinums and feasible interventions that can be made, authoritiess should continuously stress on the effects of HIV to general populace so that people are cognizant of this furnace lining job.