History Of Oxfam International Non Profit Organisation Commerce Essay

( Oxfam International was formed in 1995 by a group of independent non-governmental organisations. Their purpose was to work together for greater impact on the international phase to cut down poorness and unfairness.

The name “ Oxfam ” comes from the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, founded in Britain in 1942. The group campaigned for nutrient supplies to be sent through an allied naval encirclement to hungering adult females and kids in enemy-occupied Greece during the Second World War.

Equally good as going a universe leader in the bringing of exigency alleviation, Oxfam International implements long-run development plans in vulnerable communities. We are besides portion of a planetary motion, runing with others, for case, to stop unjust trade regulations, demand better wellness and instruction services for all, and to battle clime alteration.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Today, there are 13 member organisations of the Oxfam International alliance. They are based in: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Ireland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Quebec, Spain and the United States.

The Oxfam International Secretariat is based in Oxford, UK. The Secretariat runs protagonism offices in Brussels, Geneva, New York and Washington DC ) ( www.oxfam.org/en/about/history ) .

Oxfam Ireland

( It works with people around the universe to stop the unfairness of poorness. They are an independent and secular not-for-profit organisation. Oxfam Ireland is a member of Oxfam International, a alliance of 13 independent members. The members work together to accomplish greater impact by their corporate attempts ) . ( www.oxfam.org/oxfamhome

Oxfam is many different things. It ‘s the organisation which helps hapless people to construct a better hereafter for them. It ‘s the alleviation bureau which brings aid when catastrophe work stoppages. And Oxfam is the candidate for a fairer universe. Through our work in long-run development, exigencies and candidacy, Oxfam helps people to accomplish their right to a life free from poorness, enduring and unfairness ) ( www.oxfam.org ) .

I ‘m making my workplacement in the Oxfam store of Rathmines-Dublin 6. this store considers as one of the Oxfam International subdivisions. In this store, they get assorted contributions from the populace. The work carried out by this store, they sell good quality bric a brac, cadmiums, books, homewares, apparels, places etc.

They shop ‘s costumiers those people who want to purchase good quality and different thing at the same store.

Organisation Chart

Oxfam shop- Rathmines ‘s Chart

The construction of the store as you see in the diagram is level. That ‘s means the store has comparatively few degrees in the hierarchy. The construction looks like span of control that the voluntaries straight describing to the director.

The account of the Chart

The function of the director

The director is to the full responsible about the store, how to do the budget for illustration about ( buying, merchandising, pricing, cryptography, and screening the contribution which he/she gets it from the populace.

If the donators make a ailment whe/she will:

investigate to the full

make her/his best to explicate what went incorrect

attempt to set things right

At this store, she has ain office, and she works with voluntaries assisting learning them how they can acquire on.

Deputy Manager

She/he is to the full responsible about the store making the same function when the director is off.

The staff ( The Volunteers )

The Volunteers in this store are the staff of the store, they are 45 voluntaries, I put them in the diagram sing to their presence over the hebdomad. On Monday, the store has 6 voluntaries, some of are pupil from 2nd and 3rd Level making their Workplacement. On Tuesday, there are 10 voluntaries. On Wednesday, there 8 voluntaries. On Thursday, there 9 voluntaries. On Friday there 9 voluntaries. Finally, on Saturday, there 5 voluntaries.

Those voluntaries are working together at really peaceable ambiance and working really hard. After they know what they should make, they do pricing, screening, coding the contributions, so they help the director a batch.

My responsibilities in this store

I come every Thursday and Friday ( full twenty-four hours ) , I sometimes work at the Till, sometimes pricier, programmer, sorter of the apparels and covering with clients.

( B ) Scaning the Internal Influence on administration:

There two influences on the administration ( the Oxfam store )

Resource Base View

( Typical replies might mention to:

Excellent service

Technical know-how

Responsiveness to market demands

Design and technology capableness

Fiscal resources

Basic rules of the RBV theoretical account

RBV of the house provides a strict theoretical account for analyzing house ‘s strengths and failings

Basic premises of RBV:

Resource and/or capableness heterogeneousness: different houses possess packages of different resources and capablenesss

Resource and/or capableness stationariness: Some of these resources and capablenesss are inelastic in supply or dearly-won to copy

RBV posits that the beginnings of value creative activity are resources and capablenesss

Value = Consumer excess + Producer net income

To surpass industry norm, a company must make more value than its rivals

Value Chain Analysis has two basic activities

Primary Activities

( Inbound logistics, goods or contributions from the populace of the store being obtained from the store providers ready to be used for bring forthing the terminal merchandise ) . ( Notes given in the category ) .

Operation, the natural stuffs and goods obtained are manufactured into the concluding merchandise. Value added to the merchandise at the phase as it moves through the production line.

Outbound logistics, one time the merchandise have been manufactured they are ready to be distribute to distribution Centres, wholesales, retail merchant or clients. ) ( Notes given the category ) .

Selling and Gross saless, Basically an information activity – ratting purchasers and consumers about merchandises and services ( benefits, usage, monetary value etc. )

Service

All those activities associated with keeping merchandise public presentation.

( 2 ) Secondary Activities

Procurement, his concerns how resources are acquired for a concern ( e.g. sourcing and negociating with stuffs providers )

Human Resource Management, Those activities concerned with recruiting, developing, actuating and honoring the work force of a concern.

Technology Development, Activities concerned with pull offing information processing and the development and protection of “ cognition ” in a concern

Get downing point for a consolidative strategic model:

THE RBV of the house

The RBV of the house is grounded in economic sciences

RBV sees companies as different aggregations of physical and intangible assets and capablenesss, which determine how expeditiously, how efficaciously a company performs its functional activities

Properties competitory advantage to ownership of valuable resources and capablenesss that enable a company to execute activities better or more cheaply than rivals

Combines internal analysis with external analysis

Resources

Are defined as stocks of firm-specific assets

Can non be easy duplicated

Can non be easy acquired in well-functioning markets

Examples:

Patents and hallmarks

Brand-name repute

Installed base

Organizational civilization

Workers With specific expertness or cognition

Contribute either straight ( e.g. , repute ) or indirectly ( e.g. , through helping as the footing of capablenesss ) to value creative activity

Are converted into concluding merchandises or services utilizing adhering mechanisms such as IT, incentive systems, trust, etc.

Sometimes non-specific resources ( like edifices, natural stuffs, unskilled labour, etc. ) are included in the definition of “ resources ”

Resource classs:

Fiscal capital

Physical capital

Human capital

Organizational Capital

Capabilities

Are defined as bunch activities that a house does particularly good in comparing with other houses

O May reside within concern maps ( e.g. , AA yield direction )

O May be linked to engineerings, merchandise design ( e.g. , Honda engines )

O May reside in house ‘s ability to pull off linkages between elements of value concatenation, i.e. , coordination accomplishments ( e.g. , Ford merchandise development )

O Refer to a house ‘s capacity to deploy resources, normally in combination, utilizing organisational procedures to consequence desired terminals

Information-based, firm-specific procedures which are created over clip through complex interactions between resources

Cardinal features:

O Valuable across multiple merchandises and markets

O Embedded in organisational modus operandis ( well-honed forms of executing activities )

O Tacit ( i.e. , hard to cut down to algorithms, procedure ushers )

Resources and capablenesss are distinguishable from cardinal success factors

Key success factors ( KSF )

Refer to the accomplishments and assets a house must hold to accomplish profitableness in a peculiar market

Market-level instead than single features

Necessary, non sufficient for accomplishing competitory advantage ( e.g. , KSF in athletic footwear are development of new designs, direction of a web of providers and distributers, creative activity of marketing runs )

Forecasters of house profitableness ( like resources and capablenesss )

Resources and capablenesss

Are conceptually different from KSF

Sometimes overlap with KSF

A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS: VRIO

Resource-based analysis of the house determines which resources and capablenesss result in which strengths or failings

Schemes are to be implemented which exploit ( or construct ) strengths and avoid ( or extinguish ) failings

What constitutes a strength or failing is partly a map of the external environment

Model for analysis: VRIO – resources and capablenesss should be

O Valuable

Os Rare

O Inimitable

o Organization can efficaciously work them

VALUE of resources and capablenesss

A VALUABLE resource or capableness ( or a combination thereof ) must

Contribute to fulfilment of client ‘s demands

At a monetary value the consumer is willing to pay, which is determined by

Customer penchants

Available options ( including replacement merchandises )

Supply of related or auxiliary goods

Therefore, value is partly a map of external environment ( merchandise market, demand forces )

alterations in consumer gustatory sensations, industry construction, engineering, etc. can ensue in changed value

Resources of different houses can be valuable in different ways ( e.g. , Timex versus Rolex )

Value = Lowered costs or increased grosss or both

SCARCITY of resources and capablenesss

Resources and capablenesss must be in short supply to make competitory advantage ( and travel beyond competitory para )

What would go on if this were non the instance?

An analysis of the house ‘s resources and capablenesss must include critical appraisal whether they are unusual when compared to those of rivals

How rare does a resource have to be in order to hold possible for bring forthing a competitory advantage?

Example of a rare resource: Wal-Mart ‘s point-of-purchase stock list control system

To be a beginning of sustained competitory advantage the rareness of the resource must prevail over clip

INIMITABILITY of resources dans capablenesss

Requirement for sustained competitory advantage

Ease of imitation depends on

Cost dissymmetries ( “ Do houses without a resource or capableness face a cost disadvantage in obtaining it compared to houses that already possess it? ” )

Capabilities of rivals

Beginnings of cost dissymmetries / cost disadvantages fall into two classs:

Hindrances to imitation: Impede challengers from doubling critical resources and capablenesss

Early-mover advantages: Set in gesture a dynamic that increases the magnitude of that advantage relative to other houses over clip

Hindrances to imitation:

Legal limitations on imitation:

Patents, right of first publications, hallmarks

Governmental control over entry into markets ( licencing ) , enfranchisement, quotas on operating rights )

Superior entree to inputs or to clients

Market size and graduated table economic systems

Intangible barriers to imitation

Causal ambiguity

Dependence on historical fortunes

Other way dependences

Social complexness

Degrees of resource and capableness imitability

Beginning: C. Montgomery, “ Resources: The kernel of Corporate Advantage ” , Harvard Business School Case N1-792-064.

A· Can non be imitated: Patents, alone assets, alone locations

A· Difficult to copy: Brand trueness, employee satisfaction, repute for equity

A· Can be imitated ( but may non be ) Capacity pre-emption, economic systems of graduated table

A· Easy to copy: Cash, trade goods

ORGANIZING to work competitory potency of resources and capablenesss

The undermentioned elements must be in topographic point in order to efficaciously work the resource ( s ) and/or capableness ( s ) :

O Structure

o Management and control systems

o Compensation policies Business procedures

o Complementary resources and capablenesss ) ( www.ecofine.com/strategy.

( C ) External influence on administration

This consist of PEST Analysis and Five Forces analysis

Plague Analysis

( A scan of the external macro-environment in which the house operates can be expressed in footings of the undermentioned factors:

Political

Economic

Social

Technological

Political Factors

( Political factors include authorities ordinances and legal issues and specify both formal and informal regulations under which the house must run. Some illustrations include:

revenue enhancement policy

employment Torahs

environmental ordinances

trade limitations and duties

political stableness )

Economic Factors

Economic factors affect the buying power of possible clients and the house ‘s cost of capital. The following are illustrations of factors in the macroeconomy:

economic growing

involvement rates

exchange rates

rising prices rate ) ( www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest )

Social Factors

( Social factors include the demographic and cultural facets of the external macroenvironment. These factors affect client demands and the size of possible markets. Some societal factors include:

wellness consciousness

population growing rate

age distribution

calling attitudes

accent on safety )

Technological Factors

( Technological factors can take down barriers to entry, cut down minimal efficient production degrees, and influence outsourcing determinations. Some technological factors include:

R & A ; D activity

mechanization

engineering inducements

rate of technological alteration ) ( www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest ) .

Political

Economic

Social

Technological

Environment ordinance and protection

Exchange rate

Income distribution

Government research disbursement

Tax policies, may impact on Oxfam as a whole

Tax

Labor, societal mobility

New innovations and development

Employment Torahs

Economic recession

Lifestyle alteration

Rate of engineering transportation

Competition ordinances

Consumer confident for illustration: the Oxfam store has many trueness because of it

Education

Energy usage and costs

Safety ordinance

Inflation rate, when the authorities wants to cut down it.

Manner, ballyhoos

( Change in ) Information Technology

Political Stability

Phase of the concern rhythm

Populating conditions

( Change in ) Internet

Employment Torahs

Interest rates

Demographics, Population growing rate, Age distribution

( Change in ) Mobile Technology

Five Forces Analysis

“ Porter ‘s five forces ” is a model for the industry analysis and concern scheme development developed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979. It uses constructs developing Industrial Organization ( IO ) economic sciences to deduce five forces that determine the competitory strength and hence attraction of a market. “ ( en.wikipedia.org )

Supplier Power

The Five Forces

The menace of replacement merchandises

The being of merchandises outside of the kingdom of the common merchandise boundaries increases the leaning of clients to exchange to options:

Buyer leaning to replace

Relative monetary value public presentation of replacements

Buyer shift costs

Perceived degree of merchandise distinction

Number of utility merchandise available in the market

The menace of the entry of new rivals

Profitable markets that yield high returns will pull houses. This consequences in many new entrants, which will efficaciously diminish profitableness. Unless the entry of new houses can be blocked by officeholders, the net income rate will fall towards a competitory degree ( perfect competition ) .

The being of barriers to entry ( patents, rights, etc. )

Economies of merchandise differences

Brand equity

Switch overing costs or sunk costs

Capital demands

Entree to distribution

Customer trueness to set up trade names

Absolute cost advantages

Learning curve advantages

Expected revenge by officeholders

Government policies

The strength of competitory competition

For most industries, the strength of competitory competition is the major determiner of the fight of the industry.

Sustainable competitory advantage through improvisation

The bargaining power of clients

The bargaining power of clients is besides described as the market of end products: the ability of clients to set the house under force per unit area, which besides affects the client ‘s sensitiveness to monetary value alterations.

Buyer concentration to tauten concentration ratio

Degree of dependence upon bing channels of distribution

Bargaining purchase, peculiarly in industries with high fixed costs

Buyer volume

Buyer exchanging costs relative to tauten shift costs

Buyer information handiness

Ability to backward integrate

Handiness of bing replacement merchandises

Buyer monetary value sensitiveness

Differential advantage ( uniqueness ) of industry merchandises

RFM Analysis

The bargaining power of providers

The bargaining power of providers is besides described as the market of inputs. Suppliers of natural stuffs, constituents, labour, and services ( such as expertness ) to the house can be a beginning of power over the house. Suppliers may decline to work with the house, or, for example, charge overly high monetary values for alone resources.

Supplier exchanging costs relative to tauten shift costs

Degree of distinction of inputs

Presence of replacement inputs

Supplier concentration to tauten concentration ratio

Employee solidarity ( e.g. , labour brotherhoods )

Criticisms of the 5 Forces theoretical account

Porter ‘s model has been challenged by other faculty members and strategians such as Stewart Neill. Similarly, the likes of Kevin P. Coyne and Somu Subramaniam have stated that three doubtful premises underlie the five forces:

That purchasers, rivals, and providers are unrelated and do non interact and conspire.

That the beginning of value is structural advantage ( making barriers to entry ) .

That uncertainness is low, leting participants in a market to be after for and react to competitory behaviour.

( D ) Internal and External influence on administration

SWOT Analysis

Second

( 1 ) Oxfam Fair Trade ( OFT ) is one of the largest UK just trade administrations ( Oxfam as a whole )

( 2 ) Oxfam is now traveling towards a broader market entree programme.

( 3 ) Oxfam bookstore where I work has a good repute among the clients and neighbors, because Oxfam as a whole was founded in 1948, so everyone wants to fall in it as voluntary, client and donator. Cheaper and quality and tidy

( 4 ) This store has a strong trade name name, because the donators donate evaluated things and they get contributions from strong trade name companies.

( 5 ) The store ‘s location is antic, it is neighbour to Rathmines College and it locates among Dublin 6 ‘s town comfortss.

( 7 ) The ambiance in the store is attractive.

( 8 ) OFT has been really active in capacity edifice activities. This has led to new accomplishments and greater entree to international markets, created by just trade administration.

Tungsten

Lack of patent protection

Lack of selling expertness, because of them are volunteer, few of them knowing, the other deficiency of expertness.

The goods in the store depend on the contributions, sometime there is no contributions so the store deficiency of goods so deficiency of costumiers.

Lack of Creativity / ability to develop new merchandises.

Oxfam purposes to work with deprived hapless manufacturers, typically from the informal sector, which is characterised by low rewards, hapless societal benefits, deficiency of entree to investing and recognition and attendant hapless working conditions, home-working etc.

Oxygen

Thymine

( 1 ) Unfulfilled clients need

( 1 ) There are many charity rivals around the store

( 2 ) Arrival of new engineerings, for illustration: in Oxfam store, the client takes long clip when he/she wants to pay hard currency, the store has old-fashion Till

( 2 ) Monetary value wars in those rivals

( 3 ) New ordinances

( 3 ) Loosing of ordinance

( 4 ) Increase trade barriers

( 4 ) Removal of international trade barriers

( 5 ) Technological developments may do the store ‘s offerings obsolete. Market alterations may ensue from the alterations in the client demands, competitors’moves, or demographic displacements. The political state of affairs determines authorities policy and revenue enhancement

( 5 ) Market led by a weak rivals

Value Chain Analysis

( Value Chain Analysis describes the activities that take topographic point in a concern and relates them to an analysis of the competitory strength of the concern. Influential work by Michael Porter suggested that the activities of a concern could be grouped under two headers:

Primary Activities – those that are straight concerned with making and presenting a merchandise ( e.g. constituent assembly ) ; and

Secondary Activities, which whilst they are non straight involved in production, may increase effectivity or efficiency ( e.g. human resource direction ) . It is rare for a concern to set about all primary and support activities.

Value Chain Analysis is one manner of placing which activities are best undertaken by a concern and which are best provided by others ( “ out sourced ” ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: tutor2u.net/business/strategy/value_chain_analysis.htm ) .

Associating Value Chain Analysis to Competitive Advantage

( What activities a concern undertakes is straight linked to accomplishing competitory advantage. For illustration, a concern which wishes to surpass its rivals through distinguishing itself through higher quality will hold to execute its value concatenation activities better than the resistance. By contrast, a scheme based on seeking cost leading will necessitate a decrease in the costs associated with the value concatenation activities, or a decrease in the entire sum of resources used ) . ( hypertext transfer protocol: tutor2.net/business/strategy/value_chain_analysis.htm )

Value Chain Analysis has two basic activities

Primary Activities

( Inbound logistics, goods or contributions from the populace of the store being obtained from the store providers ready to be used for bring forthing the terminal merchandise ) . ( Notes given in the category ) .

Operation, the natural stuffs and goods obtained are manufactured into the concluding merchandise. Value added to the merchandise at the phase as it moves through the production line.

Outbound logistics, one time the merchandise have been manufactured they are ready to be distribute to distribution Centres, wholesales, retail merchant or clients. ) ( Notes given the category ) .

Selling and Gross saless, Basically an information activity – ratting purchasers and consumers about merchandises and services ( benefits, usage, monetary value etc. )

Service

All those activities associated with keeping merchandise public presentation.

( 2 ) Secondary Activities

Procurement, his concerns how resources are acquired for a concern ( e.g. sourcing and negociating with stuffs providers )

Human Resource Management, Those activities concerned with recruiting, developing, actuating and honoring the work force of a concern.

Technology Development, Activities concerned with pull offing information processing and the development and protection of “ cognition ” in a concern

x

Hi!
I'm Ruth!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out