Historically, of alcohol. Alcohol is a drug.
Historically, alcohol plays animportant role in every part of the world thousands of years ago.
Ingredients formaking alcoholic drinks had been used in early civilizations like fermentedgrains, fruit juices and honeys. Researcher has found evidences of an earlyalcoholic drinks in China around 7000 B.C, also in India but comes from differentingredients which was distilled from rice way back 3000 and 2000 B.C.
There arealso instances when alcohol was being worshiped by people as Gods. In Greece,Dionysus as the God of grape harvest, winemakingand wine. Mbaba Mwana Waresa, Zulu Goddess, South Africa afertility goddess of the Zulu religion. She is a goddess of therainbow, agriculture, rain and beer. Ninkasi, Sumerian theSumerian goddess of brewing and beer and head brewer to the gods themselves,and many more.
It had also became a great use in terms of medicinal purposes insixteenth century. But as time goes by, it also brought changes that governmentbegan to promote movement about moderate use of alcohol. Alcohol is a drug. It is classed asa depressant, meaning that it slows down vital functions—resulting in slurredspeech, unsteady movement, disturbed perceptions and an inability to reactquickly. (Foundation for drug-free World). Alcohol is a cultural artifact; the form and meanings ofdrinking alcoholic beveragesare culturally defined, as are the uses of any other major artifact. The formis usually quiteexplicitly stipulated, including the kind of drink that can be used, the amountand rate ofintake, the time and place of drinking, the accompanying ritual, the sex andage of thedrinker, the roles involved in drinking, and the role behavior proper to-drinking. Themeanings of drinking, its relation to other aspects of the culture and society,are usuallymore implicit.
Thus drinking in a particular society may be either a sacred ora profane act,depending on the context, and the people may not be aware of the basicprinciples andmeanings that are actually involved (Mandelbaum, 1965: p.281).The influence of alcoholhas positive and negative effects not only to our body but also to our society.When we hear or even saw an occasion, a lot of scenarios or activities we maypicture out on that special day and one of it is drinking alcohol. It wasalways been a tradition that has been adapt and accommodate as generations passby. Some people declared that a party wouldn’t be complete without drinkingalcohol. Alcohol tend to relax individual like for instance, a man has problemin his relationship with his girlfriend and decided to drink alcohol, itsomehow de stress him from his problem. They claimed that alcohol makes peopleforget their problems for a short period of time.
And also according toresearchers the positive approach of alcohol is it can be used as protection tocardiovascular diseases. And as for its negative effects, moderate drinking is notbad but excessive alcohol use increases diseases such as liver disease, heartdisease, brain damage, alcohol induced pancreatitis, sleeping disorders, mentalillness, sexual problems etc. it also dangerous during pregnancy. In terms ofalcohol’s negative approach to others, we can obviously see the alarming situationof our society nowadays.
Because of excessive use of alcohol, people tend to dothings with or without their knowledge. Yes, it does forget things but due tothe factors such as having insufficient funds for a large expenditure, we alsosay family problems, being depressed like for instance having no one when youneeded them or having someone pressuring you into doing something plus anexcessive amount of alcohol will most likely lead to commit aggressive criminaloffenses such as homicides, sexual abuse, assaults, child abuse, robbery andmany more. The problem most often associated with heavydrinking, however, is alcoholism.Simply put, alcoholism is addiction to alcohol, but beyond this basicdefinition the symptomsof alcoholism can be difficult to pinpoint. They include a craving for alcohol,lack of self-control when drinking, a high tolerance for the effects ofalcohol, and physical withdrawalsymptoms, such as sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, when alcohol use ceases(Torr,1974:p.14) Because alcohol is a primary factor in such a largevariety of problem behaviours andconsequences, the focus is on alcohol specifically rather than on related issuessuch as fetalalcohol disorders or other abused substances (Korhonen, 2004: 2).
Crimes that arerelated to alcohol are clearly an act of violating social norms for individualswho are engaging to such activities are socially non-conformist. We all knowthat drinking alcohol according to our ancestors plays an important role forthey worshiped it. And as time pass, became a part in any occasions for it makesa party livelier. Therefore, an individual who goes beyond those creates aviolation to what is normal to our society. The social understanding of the study of deviance andcrime examine cultural norms;how they change over time, how they are enforced, and what happens toindividuals andsocieties when norms are broken. In sociology, social deviance or deviancemeans thosebehaviours or characteristics that violate significant social norms andexpectations and arenegatively valued by a large number of people ( Nalah., Bala, A.
, Ishaya &Daniel, L, 2013: p,1)There are variety ofoffences that results from alcohol abuse: First is Homicides, it is an act ofkilling one another. Alcohol blurs individuals mental state and will mostlikely to commit crimes. Robbery, alcohol can intensify a robber’s feelings ofdesperation and cause them to steal someone’s money or property.
SexualAssault, a sexual assault is a forced sexual act and may involve touching,kissing and intercourse. It can occur when there is a lack of consent,as well as when the victim is unable to give consent due to intoxication ormental state. Child Abuse, Stress, money trouble, professionalinstability and a host of other factors can influence the amount of alcohol aperson consumes. However alcoholism not only affects an individual, it impactsfamily members and friends – including children.
Aggravated Assaults, a commonwarning sign of alcohol abuse is irritability and extreme mood swings. Becauseof this, some individuals turn violent after an episode of heavy drinking. Poordecisions and impaired judgment, combined with aggression and hostility, canquickly become dangerous. If violent thoughts and feelings are acted on, it canlead to an aggravated assault charge and more. (Alcohol Rehab Guide) Society regards the victim of alcohol as possessing freewill and capacity tounderstand his relations to society, Hence his failure is regarded as vicious.This conditionhas been accepted without question until very recently.
Both the decision ofthe courts andmodern teaching assume that the irresponsibility of persons who commit crimeunder theinfluence of spirits, is a subterfuge to diminish responsibility. Crimescommitted by personsintoxicated, or under the influence of alcohol are constantly increasing (T.DCrothers, 1914:pp. 859) Its harmfulness for health is known and this feature ofit is a reasonably big burdenon the Hungarian public health care. At the same time consumer satisfyingservices are notconsidered to be criminal activities and even consuming itself is legal, notillegal.
So beingunder the influence of alcohol (to be drunk) is not regulated by thelegislatures in the field ofcriminal law, but crimes committed under the influence of alcohol are evaluatedandsanctioned separately. If the consumption of alcohol leads to commitment ofcrime, theinfluence of alcohol will be direct or indirect (Deres, P, Ph.D: p27). Many and in fact majority of alcohol abuse relatedstudies have been indicted to the prevalence of alcohol abuse in youngerpopulation whereas much of the treatment is also based on the same age group.
However, far fewer studies and research have focused on elderly persons, eventhough in reality and in accordance to the current statistics, alcohol abuseand dependence is at an epidemic proportion among the elderly. Statistics onalcohol abuse and dependency by elderly remains far unreported, undiagnosed andignored. (Dar, Vol. 12, 173-181, 2006) The reasons that alcohol abuse and dependency by theelderly goes undetected are varied, but most have to do with the fact that theyare no longer active in mainstream society and therefore are simply invisible.They are less likely to get in trouble with the law, stopped for driving underthe influence, having a traffic accident, or causing problems in the community.
Therefore they have little contact with the police or the criminal justicesystem. Since many are retired, there is very little chance their drinking willcause them to lose a job or career. ( Karanja, J & Lindroos, L, 2011: pp,8-9) Severalmodels have been proposed to explain the complex relationships between violenceor aggression and alcohol consumption.
To avoid exposing human or animalsubjects to potentially serious injury, research results discussed below arelargely based on experiments on nonphysical aggression. Other studies involvinghumans are based on epidemiological surveys or data obtained from archival orofficial sources. (National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)