Global Warming Fuel Cell Cars Essay

Global Warming Fuel Cell CarsI. INTRODUCTION      A. Identification of the Subject            How Fuel Cell Cars affects global warming?      B.

Thesis statement            The effects of the utilization of fuel cell cars on global warming.      C. Background of the study            Due to the alarming brought by the warming of the atmosphere, many concerned citizens in the world would like to lessen the effects of global warming. This phenomenon, which is caused by air pollution, warms the earth atmosphere. The heat energy coming from the Sun is trapped. Recent studies were conducted to lessen the effects of global warming.

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Some of these were the introduction of fuel cell cars to replace the traditional car engine system which utilize gasoline as the main fuel. In this new technology, hydrogen and oxygen are combined to produce electricity and the end product is water vapor. The California Fuel Cell Partnership is a grouped of automobiles manufacturers, energy companies, fuel cell technology companies and the government agencies that promotes the utilization of fuel cell cars. Many universities are now under taking serious studies on the development of this technology.

Almost all the studies came from the United States because it contributes more air pollution than to any other country.      D. Review of Related Literaturea. Atmosphere and ozone layerIn general science, earth has four spheres; this is lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, each having different characteristics. Lithosphere is the land portion, biosphere is the human being portion and hydrosphere is the water bodies. The atmosphere which is the gas division of the earth, serves as a blanket on the entrance of the heat coming from the Sun. It reduces the intensity of the energy. The surrounding gas that serves as protection from ultra violet rays is composed of different kinds of gasses.

The most abundant is nitrogen comprising for about 79%, oxygen about 21% and some traces gasses which is 1% of the total atmosphere. The atmosphere also has different zones. These layers are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere. These zones have different properties. Troposphere is the region were weather observation can be seen. This is the region were weather forecaster and meteorologist observe their weather investigation.

Stratosphere is the next region above troposphere. This is thermal inversion occur. Thermal inversion is the even were as the altitude increases, temperature decreases. Mesosphere is the zone where the lowest temperature is reached and ionosphere is the outmost zone. Ionosphere is the zone of bombarding of the gas molecules due to the high temperature. The zone that is responsible for the protection from ultra violet rays is the ozone layer. Ozone layer is formed when an oxygen molecule splits in to two oxygen atom and this will combine with other oxygen atom to produce a three atom of oxygen (O3).

These molecules are the responsible in blocking the ultra violet rays of the Sun. Ozone layer is located in the stratosphere between the altitudes of 20-50 km. Ozone layer is very important on everyone of us because it protects us from some disease like skin cancer and other related disease on hyperthermia. Human beings cannot live in a habitat of high temperature. (Encarta)b. Greenhouse effect and Global warming            Greenhouse effect is the phenomenons were heat is trapped in a closed system like the typical greenhouses that is designed to capture the heat and light for the plant to grow well. Greenhouse effect occurs because of the presence of greenhouse gases that absorbs the heat energy coming from the Sun. some of these gases are naturally made, meaning that it came from the environment.

Example of this is carbon dioxide that is the end product of respiration of animals and man. Some of the greenhouses gases that are develop from human activities are:Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is the end product of respiration of animals and man. It can also be created from burning of natural gases like coal and fossil fuels. It is then removed when plants absorbs it for their metabolism.

(Agency)Methane (CH4). Methane basically is formed from the decomposition of animal manure and organic wastes. (Agency)Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Agriculture and industrial smoke is a nitrous oxide. This gad is the main cause of the occurrence of acid rain. Acid rain is the phenomenon where nitrous oxide reacts with water vapor and this reaction will produce an acid-like water rain. (Agency)Fluorinated Gases. Fluorinated gases are very dangerous to the atmosphere because scientist considers this gas as one of the ozone-depleting substances.

These gases came from different source like refrigerator and air conditioner that uses refrigerant that believes to emit chlorofluorocarbon gases. (Agency)Global warming is the observed increase on the atmosphere’s temperature. The surface temperature of oceans was shift to the normal temperature.

Global warming and greenhouse effect are two related phenomena. If the amount of greenhouse gases increases, the temperature of the earth’ surrounding increases thus global warming occurs.“The catch all term “global warming” (GW) has evolved to the point where true believers use the term to mean that not only is the earth rapidly warming, but that the warming is almost entirely due to human industrial activity and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, especially in the United States and Europe”. (Wheeler)c. Fuel Cell Cars            Many institutions now are under going studies on the development of hybrid cars that will replace the traditional gasoline-fueled cars. United States leads the movement on reducing the effects of global warming because they have the biggest contribution on greenhouse gases than any other country. Fuel cell cars technology started by NASA on their space program in the 1960s said that it uses the principle of electricity.

The mechanism of fuel cell cars is a combination of chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen and the production of electricity to mobilize the car. The technology uses a pressurized tank of hydrogen, which is readily available on the environment, is packed in the tank and then reacts with the outside environment (oxygen) which will occur an electro-chemical reaction, producing electricity. Other difference of the traditional cars to fuel cell cars, that is, the end product is not harmful to the earth’s atmosphere (water vapor).            Today, many automobile companies are developing their own model of fuel cell cars that will lessen the dependence on gasoline fuel. Some of this company is Mercedes-Benz. Engineers of the said company had design there latest prototype on fuel cell car-the F600 Hygenius. It uses a 85kW motor and can run at a speed of 400km.

engineers from Mercedes-Benz said that F600 has smaller weight compared to their previous model and that it runs more efficient with the use of fuel cell technology.            With this, the automotive industry will undergo a positive change that will benefit the human. (Australian)II. BODY      A. Comparison and Contrast            With the birth of Fuel Cell Cars (FCC), even though it is not yet in commercial market, many issues arise about the comparison of FCC to diesel/gasoline fueled cars. Diesel/gasoline fueled cars uses gas that is now experiencing price hike in the market.

Almost all vehicles are designed to run with the use of gasoline/diesel. This process has negative effect on the atmosphere and also to health issues. It was concluded that it contributes to the increasing number of pollutant in the atmosphere. Motorist with the aid of the government combined their force to lessen the damage brought by diesel/gasoline fueled cars. It launches programs like the emission test to examine the emission of a car.

The project did not totally end the emission of these pollutants. The introduction of the FCC has bought a big impact. The new technology has been an alternative to the traditional cars. Much cheaper source of fuel is what FCC use.

The FCC emits a tolerable smoke.States in United States have high concentration of pollution in their environment. With this, FCC can really reduce the amount of pollutants in these places and other countries. After the calamities brought about by hurricane like the hurricane Katrina that strikes in some states of US, many meteorologists and climatologists believed that hurricane is caused by global warming. Low pressure and moist air are the factors to develop hurricane.

The over usage of fossil fuels like the usage of gasoline and other harmful gases contributes to the increase of global warming. The invention of these FCCs will eventually lead the world in an environment friendly home. (Hall)      B.

Questions and answersWhy use fuel cell? – Fuel cells have a number of advantages over the traditional system. Utilization of fuel cells leaves very minute of pollutant.Is hydrogen safe? – Like any other fuels, hydrogen is potentially hazardous and combustible. But hydrogen, unlike the other fuels is non toxic. Correct and proper usage of hydrogen is necessary. (Today)      C. Problems with fuel cells            Hydrogen is the basic fuel of the said technology. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not readily available to use in a car.

It needs a converter called reformer to convert hydrocarbons or alcohol fuels to hydrogen. But the reformer is not ideal and experience losses due to friction thus lowering the efficient value. The hydrogen produce by the reformer is not as pure. (Nice)III.

CONCLUSIONSteps in the development of fuel cell carsWith the alarming brought by global warming, scientist and concerned citizens around the world finds a way to minimize the effect of global warming. Many institutions are now conducting studies on the development and improvement of fuel cell cars. One of this is the London Hydrogen Partnership (LHP).

The organization is founded on April 12, 2002 in London, England as an action on the issues about global warming. The LHP will work together to devised a strategy that will develop London as one of the world leader in the utilization of fuel cell cars. The organization seeks the involvement of each agency like the government, universities and private sectors. They form a draft on the working plan of the group. The organization mission is to make England a free environment from smoke emission brought by vehicles. With this, LHP wants to contribute to the development of green economy.

(Today)In the United States, California Fuel Cells Partnership is the organization of US. This organization is made up of different automobiles manufactures, the state of California, hydrogen fuel cell and oil companies. This initiative was formed because California is one of the states of US that has high amount of pollutants in its surrounding.Discussion of findingsHonda Motor Corp., a leading automotive manufacturer releases its new model of fuel cell car.

Honda’s new FCX fuel cell car has now a driving range of 354 miles. The new model had a 30 % improvement from their last model in 2005. like the principle behind fuel cell car technology, the model runs on the power produce by the combination of oxygen and hydrogen. “Way out in the future, the ultimate green car will be fuel cell vehicles,” Honda Chief Executive Takeo Fukui told a news conference. “But in the meantime, you need a wide range of green technology to meet varying local needs and fuel supply.

” (MSNBC)SummaryWith the birth of fuel cell car technology, people will lessen the impact of global warming and greenhouse effect. There are any problems if global warming is not seriously treated. Many diseases were blamed because of global warming, like skin cancer. With this, we must all help each other to make our world a healthy and clean environment.Bibliography:Agency, U.

S. Environmental Protection. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions”.  2006.  (October 19, 2006.):  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Nov 03 2006. <http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/index.

html#ggo>.Australian, The. “Hydrogen Is Talk of the Town.” 2005.Encarta. “Ozone Layer”.  2006.

  Encarta. Nov 03 2006. <http://uk.encarta.msn.

com/encyclopedia_761555692/Ozone_Layer.html>.Hall, Gregg. “What’s Better Diesel or Hybrid?”  2006.  Hybrid and Fuel Cell Cars Nov 04 2006.MSNBC.

“Honda Shows Off Fuel Cell, Diesel, Ethanol”.  2006.  MSNBC. Nov 04 2006. <http://www.msnbc.msn.

com/id/14999781/>.Nice, Karim. “How Fuel Cells Work”.  2006.  howstuffworks.

Nov 04 2006. <http://www.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.htm>.Today, Fuel Cell.

“Fuel Cell Today”.  2006.  Fuel Cell Today.

Nov 04 2006. <http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/index/0,1571,,00.

html>.Wheeler, Ed. “Global WarmingIs It Real, Are Humans the Cause,and Can Anything Be Done?.” ECO World, 2006. 

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