Give an account of the fundamental ideas of the Design Argument for the existence of God Essay
The design argument explicates many fundamental ideas in order to achieve evidence for the existence of God; its ideas are concluded by scholars such as Aquinas (analogy of the archer), Paley (analogy of the watch) and Tennant (anthropic principle). They use analogies and principles to draw arguments to their conclusions to the existence of God. The argument is teleological; it aims to prove that everything that God has designed has an end and a purpose. Firstly, one of the fundamental ideas of Design argument is how an unintelligent object needs to be directed by an intelligent being.
Aquinas developed the analogy of the archer; the analogy supports the design argument. The analogy goes as follows: The archer shoots the arrow to a target. The archer is an intelligent being as it has to direct the arrow. The arrow is an unintelligent object. The analogy concludes that God is an intelligent being whom directs the universe and sustainable human life, which is unintelligent or contingent. Contingent means something that relies on something else to exist. The universe relies on the intelligent being (God) to direct it.
This demonstrates that the argument is teleological as it comes from the Greek word ‘telos’ meaning end. The teleological argument relates to Aquinas’s argument as the intelligent being (God) directs everything for a purpose to the end. Without the intelligent being, the universe wouldn’t exist or be able to sustain life because of the universe’s contingency. It would fail to exist. Therefore, God exists in order to direct the universe and life. Secondly, another fundamental idea of design argument is that the universe must have been created by an intelligent being; God.
It argues that the universe is so complex that it isn’t by chance that it came about. Paley uses his analogy of the watch to support the argument, His analogy can be broken into five key features: A watch has several parts in its makeup, each part has a purpose in order to carry off the function of the watch, all materials of the watch is made to aid the purpose, all the parts work together in order to create regulated motion and if any of the parts were missing it would not be able to function diminishing its purpose. Therefore, without the parts the watch couldn’t function and carry out its purpose that was intended.
Paley relates this to the universe as it has so many complex parts that work together in a perfect regulated motion and all materials of the universe’s makeup has managed to sustain life. If any one component was missing human life would cease to exist. The watch didn’t just appear. We can assume that it was created by a watchmaker as it needed something intelligent to create the parts in order to carry out its function. Therefore, something intelligent must have created the universe as it could not just appear in such perfect complexity.
This concludes the argument that God created the universe. Additionally, another key idea of the existence of God is that the conditions of the universe are so well suited and detailed; there must be a designer. The scholar Tennant supports the argument by using his four conditions which are known as the anthropic principle. The anthropic principle means the cosmological principle that theories of the universe are constrained by the necessity to allow human existence. Condition one state that different parts of the universe, e. g. space, gravity etc. re all necessary to make the universe work together. This means that if we didn’t have gravity we would not be able to walk or move therefore, gravity is necessary for us living on earth. Condition two says that the rate of expansion of the big bang was crucial to the formation of life. This means that if it had been one second slower or faster galaxies would not have formed like they have. Condition three explicates that if the earth was one per cent closer or further away from the sun life could not sustain as it would either be too hot or too cold; the earth is so perfectly placed.
Lastly, condition four demonstrates that if the strength of the initial Big Bang had varied a tiny bit, there would be no life in the universe. Meaning that the precession of the Big Bang was so precise that it couldn’t have happened out of chance. Therefore, all four conditions demonstrate the underlying fact that every component of our universe is so precise and detailed to our particular needs that it couldn’t come by chance there must have been a designer; God. To conclude the key fundamental idea that leads to prove the existence of God is in two forms analogies and principles.
Aquinas supports the idea that an unintelligent being needs to be directed by an intelligent being; God. He achieves this by using his analogy of the archer. Paley supports the idea that the universe was created by an intelligent being; Paley uses his analogy of the watch to support the argument by drawing his conclusion to god being the designer. Finally, Tennant uses his anthropic principle to support the idea that all conditions of the universe are so specific and detailed that they must have been designed.
Furthermore, each conclude that God is the creator and designer of the universe. Its components are so specific and detailed; its complexity suits out human needs. There is no chance that the universe appeared randomly God designed it. Comment on the view that the strengths of these ideas make it a convincing argument There are many views that strengthen the ideas of the Design argument making it a convincing argument in the existence of God. The argument achieves this with it key features; Features that were developed and supported by scholars such as Aquinas, Paley and Tennant.
Their analogies and principles strive to prove the existence whilst using their strengths to make it convincing. Firstly, a strength of the design argument is that the intelligent being; God directs unintelligent objects/ contingent objects in order to help them survive. Aquinas supports this with his argument; The analogy of the archer. The evidence of his argument strengthens it as it clearly underlies that without an intelligent being directing an unintelligent object we would fail to exist; We rely on it to provide us with components in order for us to maintain life.
Without the component provided to us would fail to exist therefore, this demonstrates that the strength of this argument makes it a convincing argument. However, Darwin argues against Aquinas argument. Darwin’s counterargument is that nature can direct itself without the assistance of an intelligent being, this is a result of evolution where nature adapts in order to survive and pass on their genes; survival of the fittest. Aquinas could argue that the designer; God, facilitated for these developments to happen.
We can say that nature can direct itself but without food, oxygen etc. we would not exist so the designer gave unintelligent objects independence in survival whilst directing it with the basic components for human life. Secondly; Strength of the design argument is the idea that there must have been a designer as the universe is son specific and detailed that it could not just come about randomly. Paley is a scholar who uses his argument of the analogy of the watch to make it a convincing argument.
Paley argues that the universe is so complex and detailed; Every component of the universe is designed for a purpose. A designer must have designed it in order to achieve this. If the universe had something missing it couldn’t not work properly, diminishing the purpose that was intended. Therefore, all of Paley’s evidence leads to the existence of God, strengthening the argument making it highly convincing. Tennant also is involved as this as he believed that the universe is so detailed there can’t be another explanation this is explicated in his four conditions.
However, Hume argues that the creation is defined as Gods imagine as it is so detailed and beautiful; How can a perfect God allow natural disasters to occur causing pain and death. God’s creations will mirror his attributes. Also, Paley argues that it is an unsound analogy as how can you compare the complexity of the universe to a watch. Hume believes that the comparison is inconsistent. Paley would argue that god may have created the universe but God also allows for natural disasters to occur in order for us to appreciate his creations as it’s all part of the magnitude of the creation.
God’s attributes are demonstrated in the universe being detailed and beautiful natural disasters come part of the deal. Paley’s argument demonstrates strengths in which make it a convincing argument. To conclude strengths from the design argument from Aquinas, Paly and Tennant make it a convincing argument using key concepts such as the fact that the universe is so well detailed and that there must simply be a designer in order to direct unintelligent objects. These strengths conclude that there is a designer; being God, and that it designed the universe for perfect sustainable life.