Genocide of Darfur Essay
Darfur is a region of Sudan that lies in the outermost locality of the Republic of Sudan, where it borders the Central Africa. The total area of Darfur is around 580000 (km) (Johnson, 2006).
This area is immensely large and can be considered bigger than the total area, which is occupied by Austria, Netherland, Switzerland and Germany, all together. Often heard, a common fallacy is propagated regarding the merciless event that had occurred in Darfur. It is commonly said that the reason behind this event was the fight over the scarce resource of water and pastures that were present in that locality due to severe droughts, which were encountered by Darfur.All these fallacy are entirely baseless and were propagated by Khartoum Government and was later adopted by the international media, which made it a common perception. However, it is true that minor conflicts rose between the intruding natives and the natives, but they were usually resolved through the tribal tradition and by no mean could have led to such a catastrophic genocide. Beside, the myth of the scarce economic resources, which were posed as the reason of the war if Darfur, there is another fallacy that is usually propagated by the Sudan Government.According to this fallacy, they say that, it was so-called rebels of Darfur, who initiated the war.
Initiated in 2003, through the set of events that occurred in 2002 or earlier, this human catastrophe was mainly caused by a rebellious group named Janjaweed, which was backed by the government of that very time (Johnson, 2006). According to an estimate, approximately 2 million people were displaced due to this event. Although, post-war events tried to be suppressed but all rationality, this event was one of the worst genocides that embarked a history of the utmost violation of all human rights. Holocaust is another catastrophe that marked the history of the utmost violations of human rights.
The history of this event begins from the defeat of Germany in World War I, for which the chancellors of Germany, of that time, blamed Jews for their defeat. The main tool for this propaganda was the newspaper that was controlled by Nazis, Der Sturmer, which in English means (the attacker).As soon as Hitler managed to take control of the German Parliament, he abolished human rights, seized the freedom of expression and also the right of privacy. Finally in 1941 Germany started the enormous massacre, in which Jew were gathered from each and every town and were shot dead by the Nazis forces.
It is estimated that approximately around 1.5 million Jews were killed in the event of Holocaust. If the figure is seen from the perspective of the total population of the Jews in that region, it will not be wrong to say that out of every three Jews two were a definite victim of the Nazi’s barbarism. The perpetrators for the events usually differ due to various reasons, depending upon the viewpoint of the analyst. Yet there are few rationales that can be considered to ensure objectivity while choosing the right one.
The initial Arabic nomads, who used to go farther in order to set resource for their survival, also encroached the lands in Darfur and yet started a sense of insecurity in the common masses of Darfur.Furthermore, the Government was also in favor of these nomads. However in the case of the Genocide of Darfur, there were many determinants of the war but yet the cause and the main perpetrator was the Sudan Government of that time, who used the revenues from oil, to facilitate and arm the Arab Militants, who are also known as Janjaweed. This facilitation was not all of a sudden but indeed, was initiated from the 1980s.
If we elaborate it further, the Sudan Government itself is backed by other Arabic forces, which are grand funders of such activities around the globe. But being specific to the topic, we can deduce that the government led the locals of Darfur to be rebellious against them, and they used this tactic to conduct an attack on the locals, not directly but through the government back militants. Observing the similar paradigm of the blame game behind the event of Holocaust, we can say that it was also initiated by designing a senseless reason for the outbreak of the massacre.By simply blaming the Jews and the communist as a reason for the misfortune, the Nazis created the biggest genocide in the history of the human kind. Initially, by moving in with the dictatorship, Adolf Hitler took control of everything and just on the mere perception that Jews were responsible for corrupting the German culture by influencing and imposing the foreign and mongrel culture.
The local residents of Darfur, who was also the underprivileged population of the Sudan were the primary victims of the Genocide that took place at Darfur. These victims include African subsistence peasants who were the native of the Darfur. As discussed above, it was the event of the outrage that occurred between the occupants and residents, in which the residents were the sole victim of the brutality and the pain. The armed militants (The Janjaweed) unleashed their brutal force over the civilian population of the Darfur, which as a result, took life of tens of thousands of innocents people, while other went through rapes and tortures (Wennamann, 2009). As far as the event of Holocaust is concerned, it can clearly be determined that the major victims were the Jews that were residing in the regions that were influenced by the Germans and Adolf Hitler.
The Jews were gathered and were forced to march to the pits, which were dug earlier, and then they were stripped down, lined up and then they were shot dead, mostly by the shots of machine guns. This massive massacre was stretched to other German dominated territories, such as Estonia, Latvia, and Poland. Around 1.5 million Jews in total were killed during the Holocaust, solely on the basis of their creed race and their religion. Countries that have the highest proximity to Sudan are the first and the foremost bystanders. Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia and Kenya are the neighboring countries, and if they wanted, they could have collectively made an effort in order to resolve the situations and stop the massive massacre that happened. If we enlarge our span, we can also say that influential Arab nations such as Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Bahrain could have done a great deal of effort in order to resolve the matter on the timely basis.
Furthermore, USA is the most influential nation that exists in today’s global arena.The efforts that they merely made for the resolution and as the arbitrator were only good enough to mark them as bystanders as well. Last and the most severe bystander was the greatest intergovernmental organization, United Nations, which didn’t initially respond in a way that they should have and didn’t make use of armed forces that they have at their disposal for such disputes (Levy 168). The Nazi regime deployed tactics of terror and fright to manage any confrontation or rescues. By talking up against actions, one could be placing their own relatives and neighborhood in danger of the identical or even worse action. Often there were no means to oppose or insurgent, no arms and nowhere to go. A number of bystanders were plainly paralyzed with horror or defenselessness.
Talking about those, who might have had an ability to do something about what they were witnessing at that time, we can say that they were not intruding in any of the matters because they had their own agendas and diplomatic constraints. Other countries, including United States believed that the only solution to this event was the confrontation with Germany for which US was not ready due to the great depression. Furthermore, the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland were the neutral parties and hence should be blamed to be the bystanders in the case of Holocaust.
If we notice in both cases, we can infer that both of the events were rooted on the basis of racism and prejudice. In the case of Holocaust, the German was racist towards the Jews and found every senseless reason to demolish their existence.The event rose from the sense of inequality of the two different orientation of entities that existed in Germany, while if we see in the case of Genocide that took place in Darfur we can say that the set of events that lead to this catastrophe in Darfur, initiated with a sense of inequality that prevailed in the minds and the hearts of the natives of Darfur (Natsios 78). As a result of this, two main rebellious groups that prevailed in Darfur took over the control of the airport and also destroyed government owned planes and helicopters. The Government, with the assistance of Janjaweed, attacked these natives with a brutal force and as a result, tens of thousands civilians lost their lives; many were raped while others were imprisoned. This reflects the involvement of governments and the authorities in both cases and also shows the biased behavior that different entities around the world had, when they could have played the role of a greater importance. One way to differentiate racism and anti-Semitism is that racism is inferiority while anti-Semitism is evil.
Anti-Semitism was habitually part of Nazism or German National Socialism. Unfortunately, the Nazi anti-Semitism and racism made abhorrence killing on an unprecedented scale throughout World War II. In Darfur, similar was done by the Janjaweeds throughout the dispute that remained in Sudan for quite some time.The government of the Sudan is the prime beneficiary of the whole case, as it was mentioned above they are the ones, who are supporting and aiding all the activities by the Janjaweeds. By doing so, they keep the natives of Darfur engaged in such activities while they take advantages of all the riches.
In addition to that the conflicts also benefits numerous other influential nations which includes China and others, who have abandoned all the hard work by the United Nations to arbitrate on behalf of the natives of Darfur, and civilized cries for support have not been successful. The Arab peasants needing water for their cattle initiated the clash. In order to feed, they took their animals farther and farther towards the south. In doing so, the Arab clans started taking over the lands, which were earlier occupied by the white agricultural societies. This as a result induces the shortage of the water and provisioned as a sign of sharing the resource between the populace of the community. In addition to that, many droughts, desertification, and hyper increase in population that took place in the last decades worked as a catalyst for the event. The biased behavior of the Arab dominated regime knocked the final nail in the grave of peace and prosperity and in 2003 the massacre had finally taken place.
Humans are always found engaged in the events that accompanied certain disputes. Some of these disputes for reasonable and can be defended for the losses they incurred. Events such as the Holocaust and the Genocide of Darfur are by no mean defendable events for any reason what so ever. It can be said that such events are usually a result of power that is possessed by those individuals who prefer dictatorship over democracy.This is one of the most prominent reasons that in today’s global arena people tend to be skeptical to any other form of government by democracy. On the other hand, history, through such horrifying events also proved the diplomatic definitions of the super powers. Decisions by such nations, throughout the history are merely taken on their strategic advantage and their own very survival.
This is the reason that most of them are found to be the bystanders in almost all the events that have taken place in the history. There are different guesses for how many people lost their lives in both of these events, but whatever the figure may be, in reality it is the genocide of humanity and the very definition of human right that prevails in the societies like one of our own. Obviously the deficiency of the evidence by any mean does not mean that the global community should adopt the passive approach. In later such cases, military and political intervention of global powers should be practiced in order to make it sure that such events don’t occur anymore. As it is, the loss is that of humanity as a whole.Works CitedBeshir, M., The Southern Sudan: From Conflict to Peace, The Khartoum Bookshop, Khartoum.
(1975) Johnson, D.H., The Root Cause of Sudan’s Civil Wars, Updated to the Peace Agreement, updated 3rd impression, The International African Institute, Oxford.
(2006) Levy, D., Chaos theory and strategy: theory, application, and managerial implications, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, (2007) pp. 167-78. Natsios, A.
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77-93. Wennmann, A., Economic Issues in Sudan’s North-South Peace Process, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, The Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding, Geneva. (2009)