Foot and mouth disease outbreak Essay
As a consequence of the pes and oral cavity disease eruption that occurred in 2001, the EU decided to follow a more efficient method for the designation of sheep in the UK ( www.defra.
gov.uk, 2009 ) . In July 9, 2005 Council Regulation ( EC ) 21/2004 came into force they introduced a new system for the designation of sheep and caprine animal in the UK. They introduced a method known as the electronic designation of sheep which is traveling to be in force on 1st January, 2009. EID is the procedure of designation of animate beings based on a wireless frequence micro chip which is read by a manus held device ( www.defra.gov.uk, 2009 ) .
The ear tags transmit the alone designation figure to the handheld reader which reads the alone designation figure of the animate being. The pes and oral cavity disease that occurred in 2001 had a annihilating consequence on the UK economic system. The UK is said to hold the largest sheep population in the EU. The debut of the electronic designation of sheep is expected to hold a greater impact on the UK sheep industry than anyplace else in the EU ( www.defra.gov.uk, 2005 ) .
The entire net cost of farming industry and touristry is tantamount to 0.2 per centum of UKs gross domestic merchandise. During the pes and oral cavity disease that occurred in 2001 about 10,512 premises were affected and 4,200,000 animate beings were slaughtered. As a consequence of this, the agricultural industry lost about $ 1.
96billion to $ 5.89billion and about $ 4.91 billion to $ 7.36 was lost in the touristry industry. The UK could non make trade with other states that were non affected by the pes and oral cavity disease. It was because of these that the UK authorities had to present the electronic designation of sheep.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Information system has helped to determine our universe today and is needed in all countries of our life. Information is defined as informations interpreted in a meaningful context ( Paul Beynon Davies, 2002 ) . The universe biggest economic systems today are as a consequence of the information industries. This Data is defined as a natural fact or event. Information system is defined as the procedure of communicating between people ( Paul Beynon Davies, 2002 ) . Communication in information system is largely done through an electronic agencies.
Information system is besides defined as a system involved in the assemblage distribution and the usage of information. Information system can besides be defined as the procedure by which people make usage of engineering to acquire a piece of information. The usage of information system is necessary in our universe today because we live in a engineering driven epoch. The usage of information system gives us the chance to roll up procedure and shop information which helps to do our work easier. Information system has given directors the chance to cognize more about their company by giving them the necessary information they need to pull off it better.This essay negotiations about the economic forces driving the usage of information system in the electronic designation of sheep ( EID ) which is a compulsory EU demands for all sheep which is traveling to be in force on the 31st December, 2009 which is said to replace the dual labeling method of sheep which has being in topographic point since 1st January, 2008.
This was introduced by the UK Government to maintain path of sheep ‘s to forestall the spread of assorted diseases due to the pes and oral cavity disease eruption that happened in 2001.The usage of information systems in our environment has been realised every bit early as the 1960 ‘s. Harmonizing to ‘Alshawi et al, 1999 ‘ information system is defined as the gum between people and computing machine. ( Watson et al, 1991 ; Willcocks & A ; Manson, 1987 ) suggested that an information system is the usage of computing machines to automatize bing undertaking. ( Paul Beynon Davies, 2002 ) indicated information system is defined as informations interpreted in a meaningful context.
3. CASE STUDY/ANALYSIS
During the pes and oral cavity outbreak that took topographic point in 2001, the EU introduced a system for the designation of animate beings to forestall the spread of assorted diseases such as bovine diseases ( ‘www.
defrauk.com, 2009 ‘ ) . The eruption was worst in Great Britain when the record was taken. The state showed an estimation of 2,030 spread across the state ( ‘www.defrauk.com, 2009 ‘ ) . About 6 million animate beings were gathered which showed a loss of approximately 3.
1million to agribusiness and nutrient concatenation ( ‘www.defrauk.com, 2009 ) . About 4million of the animate beings were gathered as portion of disease control while the others died under assorted types of public assistance reject ( ‘www.defra uk.com, 2009 ‘ ) .
This eruption of diseases in the state affected so many things such as touristry. It was due to this the Government had to present the usage of EID.
3.1. ELECTRONIC IDENTIFICATION ( EID )
Electronic designation is a procedure used in designation through the usage of a micro chip or electronic transponder which is fixed in a ticket so as to place a farm animate being. EID in animate beings involves the usage of wireless moving ridges or wireless frequence designation ( RFID ) .
An EID makes usage of a reader and ear ticket, the reader sends a wireless signal which is received by the micro chip. The bit sends out the alone designation figure to the reader which so sends it to a computing machine. This shops information about the farm animate being ( www.ruralni.gov.uk, 2006 )The electronic designation of sheep was being put in force by the European committee and the UK authorities.
This was to maintain path of animate beings and prevent the spread of assorted diseases. This is traveling to be in force on the 31st of December, 2009. It will replace the dual labeling method of sheep which has being in usage. It will besides assist husbandmans to pull off their farm better, because they could utilize the EID to garner informations and information about their sheep. This would give information on the flocks wellness, weight and lambing ratios.
ECONOMIC FORCES DRIVING THE USE OF ELECTRONIC IDENTIFCATION OF SHEEP
Electronic Identification is said to be the most expensive scheme for designation of sheep, but it besides has its impact on the economic system. Before the debut of EID in 2007, the sheep industry was deserving 628million overall. The eruption of pes and oral cavity disease in the state reduced UK ‘s GDP to about 0.2 per centum ( www.publicsafety.gc.
ca, 2006 ) . The UK could non command the disease because they found it hard to turn up where the animate beings are coming from. That was why the Government had to present electronic designation of sheep ( EID ) . Below are economic forces that affect the usage EID.
4.1 TO REDUCE THE COST SPENT ON DIESEASE OUTBREAK
An probe was being carried out by the UK Government, to see the demand of utilizing EID to command assorted diseases. Introduction of a full electronic system could offer some betterment in commanding disease, including decreases in eruption costs, septic premises and animate beings culled ( “ www.
defra.gov.uk, 2009 ” ) . During the pes and oral cavity disease that happened in 2001. The authorities lost & A ; lb ; 58bn lbs to revenue enhancement gross and & A ; lb ; 379bn in 2002 ( www.nottingham.
ac.uk, 2001 ) . An estimated & A ; lb ; 1.4 billion were paid to husbandmans in compensation to the authorities, hence doing a loss of & A ; lb ; 2.4bn in two old ages ( www.nottingham.ac.
uk, 2009 ) . These decidedly had a negative impact on the economic system. It was because of this authorities had to present EID to cut down the spread of a disease eruption. These saved the economic system some sum of money on cost spent. These would cut down the cost of a disease eruption by up to 15 % ( “ www.defra.
gov.co.uk, 2009 ” ) . The success of hint back probes is extremely dependent on the handiness of single carnal designation and thorough recordkeeping as the carnal advancements from birth to slaughter.
4.2 TO HELP FARMERS PRODUCE BETTER QUALITY FARM PRODUCTS
The usage of EID would assist husbandmans to pull off their farms better and thereby adding a value to their farm merchandise.
Through the usage of EID the husbandmans would cognize their sheep ‘s for illustration carnal weight. When exporting their sheep ‘s to other states, husbandmans would cognize the right 1s to export because EID gives them the existent information they need. The usage of EID has a farm tool provide husbandmans with information on which sheep is doing the greatest income and profitableness to farm income.
Therefore husbandmans will divide the sheep ‘s harmonizing to their entire net incomes. The EID informs husbandmans which of the sheep ‘s produce the best wool and meat.
3 HELP TO PROVIDE TRADE RELATIONS BETWEEN COUNTRIES
It provides trade dealingss between states. Peoples would desire to purchase farm merchandises from states that make usage of the EID. This is because they know the animate being would be free from diseases since it keeps path of animate beings. Most states would non desire an animate being that is infected with a disease because this most likely would impact both human wellness and the wellness of the economic system ( www.ukip.
org, 2009 ) .
4.4 TO SOLVE UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS
The sheep industry is seen has an industry that is traditional, in which there is no demand for alumnuss as practicians, advisers or research workers. The usage of EID would assist to cut down unemployment in the state. Due to the ground, that some husbandmans do non cognize how to do usage of the EID engineering. Peoples that are graduate in information engineering field can develop husbandmans on how to utilize the system. And assist them to pull off their farms better hence making occupation chances for fresh alumnus in the information engineering field.
5. Drawback OF THE ELECTRONIC IDENTIFICATION OF SHEEP IN THE UK
Many people will therefore travel out of the distant countries to the metropoliss hence doing unemployment in the state. This would ensue in many industries falling for illustration like schools.
In which the rural community will be greatly affected.EID would convey a diminution in the sheep industry due to the extra cost that is involved. In Britain for illustration the husbandmans would be expected to cover about 92 per centum of the estimated 65million cost therefore taking them out of concern and that would decidedly impact the UK Farm industry. ( Jamie Mcgrigor, 2009 ) stated that a sheep ticket costs like & A ; lb ; 3, apparatus for the EID will be about 1000 lbs to 2000pounds per husbandman, while to label one sheep is traveling to be like 3,000 lbs per twelvemonth. As a consequence of these most husbandmans would wish to cut down their flock due to the cost of a sheep. Making the husbandmans go out of concern, particularly for the little graduated table 1s ( “ www.
theyworkforyou.com, 2009 ” ) . They could besides be trouble in puting a ticket on the animate being. Like the carnal fighting while puting a ticket on them. Therefore the sheep might acquire injured taking to a diminution and these will do adequate strains of sheep ‘s to be written off.
Government puting a batch and people non doing usage of the EID because of its cost would impact farm economic system. Most husbandmans are non technologically inclined and are non really educated and hence might non be able to do used of the EID, they would necessitate to be trained in order to do usage it.
5.1 THE COST ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRONIC IDENTIFICATION
The EU says the electronic designation of all sheep is traveling to be in force on the 1ST of January, 2009. And most people feel that the cost of implementing the EID is far more than the benefits. The EID therefore is cheaper than the conventional method of designation of sheep ‘s when it comes to big scale animate beings of about 500-1000.
Below is a cost analysis of the whole EID.
- Flock Structure: The figure of offspring is calculated for flocks of 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 genteelness animate beings on the footing of an mean one-year production rate of 90 % ( “ www.idea.jrc.it, 2007 ” ) . Harmonizing to the member provinces, 22 % of progeny is said to be used for replacing, 60 % is sent for slaughter before 12 months of age and 18 % are go forthing the retention and are non intended for slaughter before the age of 12months ( “ www.idea.
jrc.it, 2007 ” ) . The cost of the flock construction is shown in the tabular array below.
- Costss for designation equipment: The equipment therefore includes conventional, electronic ear tickets, standard Ruminal boluses and the appliers. The conventional ear ticket is said to be 0.30euros, keeping ticket 0.
10euros, electronic ear tag 1.00euros and standard bolus 1.50euros ( “ www.idea.jrc.it, 2007 ” ) .
- Cost for work force: For people that are traveling to develop the husbandmans on the electronic designation of sheep are traveling to be paid an norm of 20euros/hour. It says it takes a trained individual about 1minute to use the ear ticket to the sheep ( “ www.
idea.jrc.it, 2007 ) . And for the processing of the read identifier for each download that is done on the handheld reader the cost is hence tantamount to the 5 proceedingss of work ( “ www.idea.jrc.it, 2007 ) .
5.2 PER HEAD Cost
To label an animate being with a standard Ruminal bolus and conventional ear ticket is said to be about 2.25 euro, while to label an animate being with a electronic or conventional ear ticket is said to be about 1.
80 euro ( “ www.idea.jrc.it, 2007 ) . Taging with two conventional 15-digit ear tickets would be like 1.03 euro and it would be 0.29euros for labeling slaughter lambs with one retentions ( “ www.
idea.jrc.it, 2007 ) .
Below is a tabular array that shows the per caput cost of sheep ‘s that use the EID.
5.3 EQUIPMENT AND MANPOWER
For a big flock of about 1000 caputs it would be 0.10 euro to utilize a handheld reader and 0.38 euro for a inactive reader with merely one reading a twelvemonth. The cost would drop to approximately 0.04 to 0.
06 euro when it is used to read the 10 times a tear. This is related to 0.17 euro of one conventional reading of an single identifier.
5.4 Cost OF EID IN INDIVIDUAL MEMBER STATES
In different member provinces in the EU the cost of EID is traveling to be between 1.92 euro and 2.
45 euro when utilizing the Ruminal boluses. It would be 1.47 euro and 1.
99 euro when utilizing the electronic ear ticket ( www.idea.jrc.it, 2007 ) .
The electronic designation of sheep harmonizing to the EU is traveling to be in force on the 1st of December, 2010. The chief purpose of the electronic designation of sheep by the authorities is to maintain path of animate beings in the UK so as to forestall the spread of diseases such as the bovine disease and the huffy cow disease. The electronic designation of sheep is hence resisted by most husbandmans due to the fact that they feel that the cost of implementing an EID is far more than the benefits.
Electronic designation of sheep is hence utile to the economic system has it helps to supply occupation chance, trade dealingss between states, better farm merchandises and to forestall the spread of diseases across the economic system.
- Agribusiness and Rural Development, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/bussys/information_technology/eid.htm
- Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs, October 2009 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.
- Electronic Designation in conformity with ordinance EC ( ) 21/2004 hypertext transfer protocol: //idea.jrc.it/EIDpages/documents/tg/tech_papers_costanalysis.php
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