Firstly, red line. On the other hand,
Firstly, it is necessary to look back the Ghana’s historical changes from starting of independence of Ghana to until now for understand its foreign policies and relations with other states and organizations. After 1957, Ghana kept most of foreign policies until nowadays including 10 different administrations.
First step of this policy about geographically, historically and economically has done in the First Republic Period. In the beginning of the 1960’s first time Kwame Nkrumah defined clearly to Pan-Africanism ideology and foreign policy of Ghana shaped by this ideology. According to Kwame Nkrumah, independence is without the allies of east and west also support the non-aligned states at the global level against eastern and western blocs. Additionally, by leading of president of Ghana who was Kwame Nkrumah started to non-aligned movement which means that Ghana implemented their foreign policy to all world especially western bloc with a red line. On the other hand, Pan-Africanism is a policy of gain independence from west colonialism and makes unification between economic and political life in the African Continent. From 1981 to 1993 The Provisional National Defense Council governed the Ghana and it attempted to implement Pan-Africanism ideology with the National Democratic Congress. Additionally, Ghana is against to intervene to other states’ internal affairs.
However, this attitude was not like Kwame Nkrumah’s foreign policy because according to Nkrumah Togo and Ivory Coast were ideologically conservative that is why Kwame Nkrumah blamed Togo and Ivory Coast to collapse the African Regime. On the other hand, The Provisional National Defense Council adopted the ideology of “self-determination”. The roots of Ghana’s foreign policy has shaped by not intervene other states’ inferior affairs without looking their ideologies and create a friendship relationships with each other.
One of the most significant purpose of foreign policy of Ghana is make Africa independence. The foreign policy of the creator member of African Union which is The National Democratic Congress would be based on rules of the African Union. Other significant feature of foreign policy of Ghana is citizens would make cooperation with neighbor states which have same ideologies and living under the same cultural history and economy. By this way, even ideological differences between Ghana and other states, they sustain cooperation and visits for trade agreements. These kinds of relations have a big role to decrease tension among states and creating cooperation at the sub-state level. Then, there were a lot of working for develop the foreign policy of Ghana such as make foreign policy more available to changes in international area and criticize with more positive perspective in especially 1982 and 2001.
In Ghana’s foreign policy, foreign ministers focused on all factors of national interest directly or indirectly. Foreign policy of Ghana includes sustain peace and order, protection of borders and aid to international peace and security. Foreign policy of Ghana is also significant about provide politics, social and economic integration among African states.Secondly, The National Democratic Congress government of Ghana tries to develop relations with especially Ivory Coast, Togo and Nigeria for increase communications because these states are neighbor states of Ghana that is why strong relations are very significant for Ghana.
In the past, The Provisional National Defense Council of Ghana had bad relations with Togo, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. After 1994, Ghana developed relations with Togo and Ivory Coast as eastern neighbor. Additionally, although sometimes high tension between Ghana and Togo, this relation started to getting well by last developments between Ghana and Togo. The relations between Ghana and Togo sometimes can be broke because of political differences and smugglings in the common areas. These problems rooted by colonial age then both states gained their independence but citizens of Ewe stayed at the common area because of this reason sometimes tension is increasing sometimes and makes some problem betweentwo states. In the middle of the 1970s Ewe’s citizens sent a petition to United Nations and Togo supported this movement clearly that is why tension increased again.
In 1994, Ghana supported to Rawlings who was president of Togo to be a candidate for being president of Economic Community of West African States by this way problems solved and relations became better. Moreover, the relation between Ghana and Ivory Coast is also fluctuated as Togo. In 1984, Ivory Coast supported the groups which organized sabotages against Ghana that is why various problems occurred between two states. Common Borders Commission established in 1988 and determined the borders by this way relations became better between Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Thirdly, Ghana maintained relations with Britain after gained independence from Britain. Kwame Nkrumah led African states which gained independence from Britain to make them a member of Commonwealth. After 1959, Queen Elizabeth II visited Ghana and according to Nkrumah Commonwealth is an opportunity to supply technology, economic and cultural cooperation for African states which gained their independence. In 1966, Britain and Ghana had good relations until collapsing of Nkrumah. Between 1981-1993, in the period of The Provisional National Defense Council, the relation between Britain and Ghana had damaged and Ghana lost its membership in Commonwealth but after 1993 Ghana gained membership of Commonwealth again and in 1994, the conference of Commonwealth organized in Ghana.
Ghana was the first state that had own government by election because rest of Western African states were under the rule of military which were Gambia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. The good relation of Ghana and Britain caused by supports from Britain to Ghana to developments in economic reforms. Also Britain developed relations with Ghana by supply money and logistics as well.Fourthly, after the period of Ghana’s independence, the relations between United States of America were getting well except Nkrumah attitudes.
However, Ghana and United States of America signed more than 20 agreements about health, education, technical, national defense and transformation. Between 1981-1993, in the period of The Provisional National Defense Council, the relation between United States of America and Ghana has damaged because US started to disturb to relations of Ghana and Libya but after late 1980’s tension decreased and relations became stable again. Because of this reason, old president of United States of America who was Jimmy Carted went to Ghana officially and by this visit United States of America started so money supply to Ghana and supported political reforms of Ghana. In the Period of Barack Obama, president Obama visited to Ghana in 2009 and in United States of America view, Ghana became the one of the most significant state for lead to provide peace and security around Africa. Because of this good relation, United States of America increased their supports to Ghana.Moreover, after 1981 The Provisional National Defense Council’s foreign policy was creating friendly relations and cooperation with other states without looking ideologies and political tendencies for develop Ghana’s economy and provide welfare. In this period, Ghana developed relations with ideological close states such as China, Democratic Republic of Germany (Eastern Germany), Cuba, North Korea, Ethiopia, Bulgaria and Romania. These states erased all loans of Ghana and helped Ghana economically.
Additionally, The Provisional National Defense Council and its successor The National Democratic Congress created good relations with Arab states from 1981 to 1993. In 1994, Saudi Arabia and Ghana signed credit agreements for Islamic education by this way Arab states helped Ghana economically.In addition, Turkey and Ghana started to relations since Ghana’s independence in 1957 mutually because they wanted to develop strategically relations as a significant actor ininternational area. In the last period of this relations there were various visits such as 11’th President of Turkey Abdullah Gul visited Accra in 2011 or President of Ghana visited Turkey in 2013. These visits strengthened relations between Ghana and Turkey and by this visits various agreements have signed. Also Turkish Airlines added flights into Accra from Istanbul all week and Turkey maintained their supports to Ghana.
These factors also very significant to develop relations between Ghana and Turkey. Turkey provided 150 scholarships to Ghana for university and master degree in between 2012 and 2015.Finally, as an example of national interest of Ghana in regional cooperation, in 1975 Ghana supported the existing of Economic Community of West African States. This organization created for especially developments interregional economic and political cooperation. Also Economic Community of West African States, tried to create good relations with west African states as neighbor for Ghana and ECOWAS tried to oriented exports of Ghana into regional markets. Since 1990 Economic Community of West African States attempted to power of peace in Liberia. Ghana helped power of peace mission by military. Also Ghana participated other international power of peace missions by this way Ghana provide military to United Nations in between 1993 and 1994.
In August of 1994, president of Ghana Jerry Rawlings became the president of the Economic Community of West African States. Jerry Rawlings attempted to reduce conflicts and tension in the West Africa urgently. The most significant example of these attempts is Akosombo Agreement which was ended civil war in Liberia in 12’th September of 1994. Ghana is not only member of United Nations as international organizations.
Ghana is member of various international organizations as well for provide national security, develop peace and democracy. Also, foreign policy of Ghana based on ideologies of United Nations, African Union and Commonwealth. Ghana also member of international organizations such as UNESCO, World Health Organization, G-24 and G-77 as well.