Fatty Acid Profile Oil Contents Tocopherol on pigeon Essay
Pigeons, whose relation with worlds hints back to antediluvian times ( B.C. 3000-5000 ) , are seen in about every geographical part of the universe except for the poles. Pigeons unrecorded side by side with worlds and other carnal species in the nature ; and they are bred as a beginning of nutrient, as a avocation, symbol, and for experimental purposes ( cooper et al.,1984 ) .
Pigeons constitute the bird household Columbidae within the order Columbiformess ( Baptista et al.,1997 ) .All races of strains of domestic pigeon
Columba livia domestica have been evolved from stone pigeon besides called a stone dove Columba livia livia or jungli kabootar ( wild pigeon ) that cohabits with adult male every where in the universe. The domestic pigeon strains are believed to hold been developed in the E and Europe had no original strain of its ain. Wild pigeons are pale Greies with two black bars on each wing ( Blechman et al. , 2007 ) .
There has been a turning involvement in meat from alternate carnal species like cervid ( Volpelli et al. , 2003 ) , ostriches ( Cooper, 1999 ; Horbanczuk, 2002 ) , and pigeons ( ZieleziA„ski and Pawlina, 2005 ) . Thin meat is really low in fat ( 20-50g/kg ) , porc and domestic fowl have a favorable balance between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids ( P: Second ) ( Wood et al. , 1997 ) . Pigeon meat is considered a daintiness and is deriving popularity among consumers in Europe chiefly in Great Britain, France, and Italy every bit good as in the United States and China ( ZieleziA„ski and Pawlina, 2005 ) .
Pigeon meat is characterized by high alimentary value. Due to moo cholesterin and a reasonably high protein content, it can be used as a valuable inclusive constituent of the human diet. Equally far as FA composing is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of domestic fowl species ( Pomianowski et al. , 2009 ) .
Vitamin E is a general term used for the appellation of vitamin Es and tocotrienols ( I±- , ?- , I?- , I?- ) ( Acker et Al. , 1993 ) . Variations in vitamin E deposition in fatty tissues have been found between different domestic fowl species ( Mecchi et al. , 1953 ) . It was found that concentrations of vitamin E in Meleagris gallopavo liver and chest musculus were merely one-fifth to one-third, severally, those of broilers fed similar dietary degrees ( Marusich et al. , 1975 ) .
They function as the most effectual lipid soluble antioxidant, protecting cell membranes from peroxyl groups and mutagenic N oxide species ( Acker et Al. , 1993 ) . Tocopherols provide immunoprotection ( Meydani,1995 ) , antiproliferative ( Azzi et al.,1995 ) and anticlotting effects ( Dowd et al.,1995 ) , platelet adhesives and thrombosis ( Hodis et al. , 1995 ) . Increased vitamin E consumption has been reciprocally associated with the lower hazard of cardiovascular and coronary bosom diseases ( Losonczy et al.,1996 ) .
Bell ‘s paralysis or idiopathic facial palsy is a disfunction of cranial nervus VII ( the seventh cranial nerve nervus ) that consequences in inability to command facial musculuss on the affected side. Several conditions can do a facial palsy, e.g. , encephalon tumour, shot, and Lyme disease. However, if no particular cause can be identified, the status is known as Bell ‘s paralysis ( Salinas et al. , 2010 ) . Bell ‘s Palsy is a status doing drooping of one side of the face.People frequently retrieve exposure to a cold before developing Bell ‘s paralysis. Anywhere from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 250 people develops Bell ‘s paralysis in any given twelvemonth, most normally dramatic people over 70 old ages. but could happen at any phase of life ( Rister, 2003 ) . Named after Scots anatomist Charles Bell, who foremost described it, Bell ‘s paralysis is the most common ague mononeuropathy ( disease affecting merely one nervus ) and is the most common cause of acute facial nervus palsy ( Salinas et al. , 2010 ) .
Nutritional Addendums required for Bell ‘s Palsy Treatment, include:
indispensable fatty acid ( 5,000 mgs daily )
Pyruvate ( 3000 mgs daily )
Vitamin E ( 400 IU daily ) ( Rister, 2003 ) .
No intervention for Bell ‘s Palsy, whether conventional or alternate is more effectual than vitamin B12, but if patient has herpes zosters three other Addendums may besides assist to speed up recovery. Lab experiments have shown vitamin E, Sodium Pyruvate ( a support addendum ) and membrane stabilising free fatty acid ( Rister, 2003 ) .
This undertaking was designed to happen out the biochemical footing of the recommendation of the pigeon meat by most of the doctors for the patients of Bell ‘s Palsy “ In the present undertaking, the flesh of wild and domestic pigeons will be analysed and compared for the concentrations of oil, Tocopherol and Fatty acid profile. This comparative survey will besides supply the scientific ground of preferred usage of wild or domestic pigeon for the intervention of patients of Bells’Palsy.
The chief aims of the present survey are as follows:
To measure & amp ; compare oil contents in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
To measure & amp ; compare Tocopherol contents in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
To measure & amp ; compare Fatty acerb profile in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Pomianowski and Mikulski ( 2009 ) excised Two musculuss, chest and thigh, from 3 pigeon meat-type strains ( Europigeon, WrocA‚awski, King ) and were analyzed for proximate analysis, cholesterin content, and fatty acid ( FA ) profile. Among the strains considered, the lowest protein content of chest musculus was found in Kings ( 21.73 % ) , whereas the highest fat ( 7.07 % ) and ash ( 1.11 % ) content of chest musculus ( P a‰¤ 0.01 ) was located in WrocA‚awski pigeons. The cholesterin content of both musculuss was lowest in Europigeon ( 23.6 to 25.2 mg/100 g of tissue ) as compared with the King and WrocA‚awski pigeons ( 30.2 to 44.4 mg/100 g of tissue ) . The entire content of polyunsaturated FA was lower in thigh than in chest musculuss ( by 4.5 to 12 % , depending on the strain ) . Equally far as FA composing is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of domestic fowl species. However, due to low cholesterin and a reasonably high protein content, pigeon meat can be used as a valuable inclusive constituent of the human diet.
Young and Stagsted ( 2003 ) illustrated that in nonstressed birds, antioxidative position was reflected in reduced TBA-reactive substances ( TBARS ) in pectoral muscle major ( PM ) , iliotibialis ( IL ) and liver of ascorbic acid-I±-tocopherol-supplemented poulets and likewise in liver from oregano-supplemented poulets compared to that of nonstressed control birds. However, postmortal temperature, pH, and water-holding capacity were non affected by supplementation. Drip loss from oregano-supplemented poulets showed increased protein oxidization in specific sets, but this did non associate to water-holding capacity or antioxidative position. When exposed to emphasize, the concentration of TBARS in the control animate beings increased in PM and IL. Ascorbic acid-I±- vitamin E supplementation
protected IL, and oregano supplementation protected PM from stress-induced additions in TBARS. This differential consequence between musculuss may bespeak differences in protection
mechanisms. In decision, ascorbic acid-I±-tocopherol and marjoram addendums to poulets protect against stress-induced addition in TBARS, in different musculuss.
Abulude et Al. 2006 determined the Anatomical weight, proximate composing, selected mineral contents and centripetal rating in male and female pigeon birds ( Columba guinea G ) found in Akure, Nigeria utilizing standard methods. The species analyzed separately, were high in protein ( 60.63-66.92 % ) , fat ( 13.28-15.34 % ) and ash ( 11.17-15.54 % ) . Moisture, fiber, and saccharide contents varied within a narrow scope. The average energy degree was 386.93 A± 30.45 Kcal. The mineral contents were extremely variable. The abundant elements were Na, K, Ca and Mg and the staying elements were present in sums below toxic degrees, while Cd was non detected. The centripetal tonss in footings of succulence, attraction, tenderness, texture and spirit revealed that these samples were good for ingestion. The chemical values indicate good quality protein and dietetic minerals.
Sheldon et al.2007 studied, the consequence of changing dietetic vitamin E degrees on the oxidative stableness, spirit, colour, and volatile profiles of refrigerated and frozen Meleagris gallopavo
chest meat was examined. Breast meat was excised from four carcases per intervention and evaluated after infrigidation ( 1 and 7 vitamin D ) or frozen storage ( 30, 90,150 vitamin D ) for oxidative
stableness and centripetal quality by Thiobarbituric acid ( TBA ) analysis, descriptive spirit profiling, and headspace gas chromatography. The TBA values were reciprocally related to the dietetic vitamin E degrees. Refrigerated samples had TBA values 78 to 88 % lower for the 10A? and 25A? vitamin E interventions, severally, than for the NRC control intervention. No differences in TBA values ( refrigerated samples ) were detected for the 10A? , 25A? , and 20A? ( 3 wk feeding continuance ) or across all interventions for samples frozen for 5 minute. The 10A? and 25A? NRC diets produced the most typical and acceptable Meleagris gallopavo meat spirits with the fewest oxidised off-flavor notes for both fresh and frozen samples as opposed to the more oxidised spirit notes detected in the control samples. Mean colour tonss increased, declarative of less pale meat, as the degree and continuance of feeding dietetic vitamin E increased. These findings showed that changing dietetic vitamin E degrees significantly influenced the oxidative stableness and functionality of Meleagris gallopavo chest meat.
Dsemeth and Messeyne ( 1981 ) , studied that the fatty acerb form of the triglyceroides ( TG ) and phospholipids ( PHL ) from liver, adipose tissue and harvest of the pigeon at assorted phases of posthatching development and determined the influence of the altering diet. In each tissue and at all ages PHL contained more stearic and polyenoic but less monoenoic acids than the corresponding TG. Particularly in the immature squabs the acerb composing of the liver ( TG every bit good as PHL ) is different from that of the adipose tissue and the harvest. In each tissue and at all ages of pigeons, the TG had a comparatively simple fatty acid form dwelling chiefly of Ci6 and C, AA»components and incorporating more palmitic ( 16:0 ) , palmitoleic ( 16:1 ) and oleic ( 18:1 ) acid but merely trace sums of long-chain polyunsaturated acids compared to the corresponding PHL. This category contained a higher sum of stearic ( 18:0 ) and linoleic ( 18:2 ) acid and up to 31 % ( liver at hatching ) C20 and C22 polyenoic acids, chiefly arachidonic ( 20:4 ) and docosahexaenoic ( 22:6 ) .
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Topographic point of working:
The survey will be conducted at following research labs:
Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, GC University Faisalabad
Pesticide Chemistry Lab, Plant Protection Division, Nuclear Institute For Agriculture And Biology ( NIAB ) .
Random samples of domestic pigeon ( Columba livia domestica ) and wild pigeons ( Columba livia livia ) will be procured from local provider at Faisalabad metropolis.
Preparation Of Samples:
The selected pigeons will be slaughtered, defeathered and excised to take out four organic structure parts ( Chest, Wings, legs & A ; liver ) .
Proximate analysis of the samples for wet, Protein, Fat, ash and minerals will be done harmonizing to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists ; AOAC ( 2000 ) .
Analysis For Tocopherol & A ; Fatty Acid
For the analysis of Tocopherol & A ; Fatty acids composing, following methodological analysis will be adopted:
Blending / commixture of Flesh:
High Speed liquidizer ( Braun Multimix MX_32, Germany ) will be used to blend flesh thoroughly.
Extraction Of Fat From Pigeon Flesh:
The extraction of fat will be done by utilizing Soxhlet setup.25g of each sample will be taken in extraction thimbles.And 125 milliliter of n_hexane will be taken in 250ml unit of ammunition underside flask ( Quickfit ) .The extraction will be proceeded for 12 rhythms to roll up complete oil.
Concentration of oil:
From the infusion of n_hexane and oil, n_hexane will be evaporated by utilizing rotary vaporization setup. The infusion will be transferred to Round underside flask, and so will be evaporated the content of n-hexane at appropriate temperature of H2O bath ( 60°c ) under suction up to dryness.
Preparation Of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters ( FAME ) – Fatty Acid Analysis – :
Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters ( FAME ) and Fatty acid analysis will be done by utilizing Official Method and recommended patterns of American Oil Chemists Society ; AOCS ( 1993 ) .
Vitamin e Analysis:
For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of vitamin E HPLC coupled with Fluorescence sensor will be used ( Gliszczynsha – Swiglo and Sikorsha,2004 ) .Analysis of Tocopherol will be done by utilizing all HPLC analysis of vitamin Es at room temperature on Waterss 600 high public presentation liquid chromatograph ( Waters, Millford, M.A, USA ) . For finding of vitamin Es in oils, a nomadic stage dwelling of 50 % acetonitrile ( Solvent A ) And 50 % of methyl alcohol ( Solvent B ) was used with the flow rate 1ml / min. Injection volume was 20 Aµl ; rheodyne injection was used.
Vitamin es were identified by utilizing their keeping times with those of corresponding criterions and by spiking of samples with appropriate criterions.