Hairdressing is considered the art of organizing the hair or otherwise changing its ordinary condition. Intimately related to headgear, hairdressing has been a major component of the dress of both men and women given that antiquity and, similar to dress, provides a number of functions. Several of the earliest known works of art are statuettes of women, thousands of years old, presenting complex hairstyles. According to Emmanuel, Melita (1993-94), hairstyles are both an exhibit and can be a communication showing social status and membership of a tribe or group.
Headdress was a worldwide term for any category of ornament worn on the head. With Undress, caps or more on the odd event, veils, were worn. Once one went out walking or in a carriage, bonnets and turbans were the custom. On the other hand, in summer, a veil could be worn on a walk or promenade. According to Payne, Blanche (1965), with full dress, bandeaux, veils, or tiaras were worn. At Court, feathered bandeaux were the norm. Caps were usually made of muslin, lace, or satin and often trimmed with lace, ribbons, and artificial flowers. Bonnets and hats could be styled with artificial flowers, ribbons, lace, fur, feathers, shells, and even jewels. The bonnet could be prepared of straw, dyed or natural, or an abundance of fabrics incorporated velvet, satin, or even fur. One fashionable trend was to tie the bonnet on the head with a handkerchief or scarf; this was generally called “a gypsy bonnet.” Turbans and bandeaux were normally trimmed with feathers and jewels though the later might be ornamented with artificial flowers as well. Tiaras were usually gold or silver with or without gems. Furthermore to the customary turquoise, cut stones, coral, pearls, and cameos were popular for tiaras.
ICE AGE HAIR STYLES
The well-known Ice Age statuettes known as the “Venus of Willendorf” and “Venus of Brassempouy” illustrate apparent evidence of stylish hair.
The Ancient Egyptians, known for their concentration to beauty and cleanliness, used combs and hairpins in their tresses from the time when about the 4th century B.C. Egyptian women supposed thick hair was best and used hair extensions and wigs made of genuine hair or sheep’s wool (Geringer, Susan 1997). They even dyed their hair and wig a numerous of colors, with blues, greens, blondes and gold being the favored choices.
According to Breward, C. (1995) that throughout the Medieval era, both men and women of the superior social classes wore the hair in loose curls. Rubin, Mrir. (1998) said that women occasionally fastened gold balls at the end of the hair. The inferior classes wore the hair undecorated and commonly shorter, at the chin or shoulders. Katrine de Baillie du Chat (1980) said that noble women wore flat bonnets that covered the hair, or ribbons and gold threads in the hair. Afterward bonnets, hats and veils turned out to be even more popular when church tradition pronounced that married women were to keep the hair covered (Sherrow, V. 2006). Cone-shaped hats with a veil were furthermore popular throughout this era. Women at times had hair styled into what seemed like two identical mounds on the both sides of the head.
In the 15th century, The Renaissance period, the ladies of the higher classes really took ‘plucking’ to its limit! The rest of the hair was securely scraped back to show off the elaborate headdresses of the day. Emmett, Alanna (1984) said that this was a practice ordinary in Europe where the upper class ladies of Italy favored to cover the hairline with low caps and jeweled turbans. Toward the end of the Renaissance, the common trend in fashion toward elaborate and fanciful styles extended to hairstyles. Women started wearing headdresses, at first a plain hood which then turned out to be peaked. Men wore broad hats that were at times trimmed with gemstones.
According to Bigglestone, Janet and Carolyn Schultz by the 16th century Queen Elizabeth was the key female icon and set the trends for the era. Her lily-white skin texture and red tresses set women everywhere rushing for copious amounts of white face powder and red wigs. Those actually serious in relation to achieving a pallid complexion used the very successful but extremely poisonous white lead, adding glowing cheeks with lead based rouge! Follow this with a thin layer of egg-white to join it all together and you were ready to party.
A headdress recognized as a snood was a kind of hairnet that turned out to be highly popular. Similar headdresses appeared, such as a bag-coif which attributed a gathered bag at the back covering the wearer’s head.
In period portraits, cauls were made of fabric, or fabric enclosed by netted cord. Cauls were also often decorated with applied cord, couched or embroidered on, plus pearls, gems, and other expensive decoration for the nobility.
Baroque women parted their hair down the middle, frequently using a cross or a round parting in the hair. They furthermore had curls that trimmed the foreheads and fell like ringlets down the sides of the face. Occasionally these ringlets were somewhat thick.
Throughout the same time, another fashion trend appeared called a “hurluberlu coiffure”. Eubank, K. and Tortora, P. (2005) said that this style obligated that the hair be worn short, in a mop of downward-pointing curls which were set densely at the back of the head and neck.
The religious importance of hair is seen in the shaved heads of Christian and Buddhist monks, representing renunciation of the world, and in the particular long lock on the shaved heads of Muslim men, by which, they supposed, Allah would pull them up to heaven (Suliman ibn Jafar, 1982).
The 18th century saw the materialization of elaborate wigs, mile-high coiffures and extremely decorated curls. White powdered wigs with lengthy ringlets were the order of the day frequently tied back with a black bow for men or ornamented with feathers, bows and garlands for women. According to Baer, Neil R. (1964) that big hair was certainly the ‘in’ thing and several styles were modeled over a enclose frame or horsehair pad, the larger the better. Several immensely tall coiffures took hours to make and were greatly starched and powdered. Women wore their hair up and secure their buns with ornamental combs, bonnets, diadems and silk ribbons. They divided their hair in the shape of T, V, Y and U’s. Regency girls frequently curled the hair at the front to crown the faces with soft ringlets. Ladies moreover wore bonnets, hats or turbans.
Subsequent to the decadence of the previous era, the Victorians took a much more subdued and puritanical line. Middleclass ladies, even though not abandoning make-up totally, did tone things down greatly with more of an emphasis on natural beauty. A Victorian lady would play up her normal features and intended at a healthy hygienic look. Kennel, Stephanie A. H. (1991) said that hair was believed to appear sleek, shiny and healthy and styles were all in all more elegant and demure. The hair was frequently smoothed down with oils and curled into long ringlets, fringes were short and ornamentation was more subtle. Hairnets were frequently worn throughout the day to maintain curls confined and clipped to the back of the head with a plain ivory comb or black bow. Later in the century hair was frequently plaited and wound into heavy coils pinned tidily to the nape of the neck.
In the early 1840’s, women took to wearing these curls next to a coiled chignon, which was positioned at the back of the head. Women sustained to wear hats throughout this era. Fine milliners fashioned fanciful styles decorated with plumes and ribbons. throughout the 1870’s, the hair at the back of the head was seldom permitted to hang loose, long and full, a lovely ordinary look that was featured in numerous pre-Raphaelite portraits. Occasionally the hair was seen in ringlets, and at times in large loops. In 1872, a significant invention in hairstyling was invented: crimping. Crimping permitted for a “turned up hairstyle” in which the hair was pulled over a hot iron, resulting in a nice-looking wave. The “Marcel wave” was a new fashion formed by the hot iron, and consisted of free waves arranged around the head. By the end of the 1880’s, pompadours were worn. This was a fashion in which the hair was swept up high from the forehead. Frequently, fake hair pieces were used to add height and intensity. In addition, the “Titus” hairstyle turned out to be popular from the 1880s. This hairstyle involved cutting the hair very close around the head. The hair was then curled, and styled with different ornaments as well as flowers. In the commencement of the 19th century pads and frames of false hair assisted the hairstyle of this era seems full and soft with the promise of being luxurious caught up tresses. According to Harris, Kristina. (1995), the pompadour style sustained in the early Edwardian years and was attained not only by supports, but by back combing. All the back hair was pulled together into a plait or flat coil and drawn onto the crown of the head. Striking bands or bandeaux made of embellished fabric were first seen throughout this timeframe and they continued as hair decoration well into the 1920s. Many of them acted resembling swathes of fabric after styles set by Poiret. Several of the headbands were very slender jewel strips and corresponding combs fulfilled a hair set. None of the hairstyles of the day would have been accomplished without rigid hair pins made of much heavier wire measurement than those used in hairpins nowadays. According to Courtais, Georgine de. (1974) that in 1920s approximately all societies have found it essential to cut or confine the hair in order to remain it out of the way. They further arranged the hair to fulfill man’s fundamental desire for personal adornment, which may differ in form from the ornately curled, blond wigs of Roman matrons to the smooth shin heads of flappers. One tremendously significant function of hair styling, particularly in traditional pre-industrial societies, is to specify status. 1940’s women sustained to follow their on-screen idols, with the importance on feminine, romantic styles. According to Willett, Julie A. (2000) that soft curls falling onto the shoulders or long, wavy normal looks were well-known and for the first time sun-tans turned out to be popular, perhaps inspired by Hollywood starlets. Obviously these styles would have been saved for evening wear as the war years raged somewhat of a more practical nature was needed. By the 1950’s, with the limitations of war at an end, glamour turned out to be popular and women tried to attain a look what implied ‘domestic goddess’. Simon, Diane. (2000) said that the idea that all household chores could be attained whilst still appearing stylish and well groomed was aspired to. Returning to the home duties subsequent to the demands of war-time meant women could spend more time on attaining the ‘50’s ideal of beauty. Eyebrows, mascara and eyeliner turned out to be heavier with strong colored lips highlighting a pale complexion. Hair started to suffer abuse on the other hand and was teased, sprayed, sculpted, permanently waved and forced into completely formed curls. Hair frequently resembled a perfect helmet and women began to visit salons on a weekly basis for her ‘shampoo and set.’ Men of the day were also arranged to spend time copying their idols James Dean and Elvis and greased back hairdos were joined with long, heavy sideburns. Long, free and normal best illustrates hair in the 1970’s. Manes of free-falling curls, soft partings and long outer edge were balanced by bronzed skin and glossy lips, soft tailored clothes and the final aim was soft, feminine and romantic. According to Worthington, C. (2002), the “Age of Excess”, otherwise recognized as the 1980’s saw less limitations and more freedom of choice in styles and fashions. People were no longer ready to conform to a set image and numerous variances occurred. On the one hand were the ‘power dressers’ perfect women with strong tailored clothes and thoroughly groomed hairstyles. The long-bob was extremely favored-precisely cut and consistently curled under; a high-quality hairdresser was a vital part of this woman’s life. According to Philip Scranton, (2001) that throughout the 1990’s hair and beauty styles were continually changing and pretty much anything were suitable A enormous fad was the ‘Rachel’ cut, Jennifer Aniston’s character in ‘Friends’ hair was long and sleek with longer length layers, a ‘grown-out’ fringe and framed with highlights around the face. Furthermore tremendously popular were short, choppy styles as Meg Ryans and several variations on the same theme. Messed-up hair was very much in but whether long or short it appeared the whole world had certainly gone blonde! Multi-toned highlights, all over blonde – any shade of blonde actually, even formerly brunette models and film stars turned blonde. With golden tresses and full, pout silky lips and humid eyes the look was absolutely a throwback to the Bridget Bardot ‘Sex Kitten’ style. According to Tung, J. (2004) that men however were very minimalist in their approach – shaved heads being the order of the day. Actually whatever thing over an inch was seemed long and there was a new fashion for products. Earlier to the nineties men had made do with shampoo alone, or seldom pinched the girlfriends hair gel but the ‘new man’ figure encouraged companies to generate all kinds of new products for men. With new all-male packaging of men’s toiletries it turned out to be entirely acceptable for men’s bathrooms to sport as various products as females.
Baer, Neil R. (1964), Some Directions to Art. Ames, 1964 -The use of dyes and colors to beautify clothing.
Bigglestone, Janet and Carolyn Schultz. Elizabethan Costuming for the Years 1550 to 1580. Oakland: Othertimes Productions, n.d. 128 pp.
Breward, Christopher, (May 15, 1995), “The Culture of Fashion” (Studies in Design and Material Culture) (Paperback), Manchester University Press, 304pgs, ISBN: 0719041252.
Courtais, Georgine de. (1974), Women’s Headdresses and Hairstyles- in England from AD 600 to the Present Day. London: B.T. Batsford.
Emmanuel, Melita.(1993-94), “Hairstyles and Headdresses of Empresses, Princesses and Ladies of the Aristocracy in Byzantium,” Deltion tes Christianikes Archaiologikes Etaireias, volume dedicated to the memory of Doula Mouriki, vol. 17, pp. 113-120.
Emmett, Alanna. (1984), “An Early Fourth-Century Female Monastic Community in Egypt?” in A. Moffatt (ed.) Maistor: Classical, Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning. Canberra: Byzantina Australiensia.
Geringer, Susan. (1997), The History of Fashion. Glencoe-McGraw Hill: New York. -A comprehensive look at fashion since prehistoric time.
Harris, Kristina. (1995), Victorian Edwardian Fashion for Women 1840-1919. Schiffer Publishing. -An overview of victorian fashion of woman.
Katrine de Baillie du Chat (1980). Medieval Costume. Albuquerque: Raymond’s Quiet Press. 170 pp.
Kennel, Stephanie A. H. (1991), “Women’s Hair and the Law: Two Case Studies from Late Antiquity,” Klio 73. pp. 526-536.
Payne, Blanche. (1965), History of Costume. Harper and Row: New York -The factors that influence what styles are worn by people.
Philip Scranton, (2001), ed. Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America. New York, NY: Routledg. (340 pp.)
Rubin, Mrir. (1998), “A Decade of Studying Medieval Women,” History Workshop Journal 46. Autumn, pp. 213-239.
Sherrow, Victoia, (February 28, 2006), “Encyclopedia of Hair : A Cultural History”, Greenwood Press, 488pgs, ISBN: 0313331456.
Simon, Diane. (2000), Hair: Public, Political, Extremely Personal. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. (238 pp.).
“Suliman ibn Jafar (Markus the Blue)”. (1982) Moslem Costume. Sacramento: Lemur Publishing. 21 pp
Tung, Jennifer, (October 15, 2004), “InStyle Getting Gorgeous” (Hardcover) (Hardcover), Time Inc Home Entertainment, 192pgs, ISBN: 1932273557.
Eubank, Keith and Tortora, Phyllis (2005), Survey Of Historic Costume 4th Ed., Fairchild Books, ISBN1563673452.
Willett, Julie A. (2000), Permanent Waves: The Making of the American Beauty Shop. New York, NY: New York University Press. (249 pp.)
Worthington, Charles, (2002), “The Complete Book of Hairstyling”, Firefly Books Ltd, 304pgs.