Explain how the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, and psychology differ in their study if individual and family behavior.
Sociology is called the science or the study of the society. Difference in the social strata or categories is important because it projects the diversity of the facts present in a society in accordance to that specific group’s context. Sociology presents the idea that different groups of people may perceive same phenomena but have different interpretation or meaning to these phenomena based on their cultural beliefs, customs and traditions. Set for example the difference of conception of birth control of Oriental countries to the Western countries. Most Oriental countries are conservative which will cause moral issues regarding the birth control. However, the Western countries are more liberal and progressive which may project a more acceptable attitude on the issue. If the society is practicing an economic form of thinking and this issue emerges, the people would most probably embrace the issue and support it. On the other hand, if the society is much inclined to the virtue of life or religion, they would absolutely contest the idea.
If there is the study of society, there is a countering study which individualizes the focus of the study. This is Psychology, the science or study of individuals. Human individuals are said to have two natures within them. The first is created by the individual traits which creates the mental processes as effects of collective representations. These collective representations are created by the individual’s mind. However, these thoughts or ideas are not created as a sum of the ideologies the individual thought of. Collective representations emerged from the interaction of an individual’s mind to the other minds of other people in a form of conversation, debate, or any form of interaction. The totality of the represented ideas collected on these experiences is the ones that comprise the collective representations. This then patterns the way an individual will think or reason to a particular conflict or argument.
Anthropology also falls under the humanities science. One major branch of anthropology is the cultural anthropology. This study the areas of social networks, laws and politics of a particular social group, diffusion, kinship patterns, social behavior, kinship patterns, religion and beliefs, ideologies, trade and industry, socializations, and other forms of expression of their culture. In simpler terms, it promotes the significance of culture in studying humanity. The basic argument of cultural anthropology is that the culture that human lives in is the nature that he basically exists with. The state of nature that anthropology looks for is the culture as based on the arguments of cultural anthropology. As a supporting premise to this point, it is said that all people are capable to distinguish experiences and sort them into different categories, explain it symbolically and retain it as well using the same procedure, and teach the abstracts of these experiences to others. Anthropologists also pointed out that people can actually adapt to their environment in a non-genetic way through their culture. However, these cultures are not the same for people have different forms of learning and following these cultures. Thus, the adaptation may be in a diverse manner.
If to be taken in individualized point of view, it is obvious that all of these affect oneself. Every individual has his own way of putting his thoughts together thus directing the flow of his reasoning. Every individual belongs to an immediate social group which is otherwise known as the family. This group of people interacting and existing together which is called a family uses different forms of thinking and ideologies. Thus, compromise and coexistence of course arise. This family belongs to a larger group of society. This society share similar beliefs and the same customs and traditions. Therefore, existing and adapting to the changes within them through their commonality which is in culture.
a) Discuss the ways that families must adjust if an adult child lives at home, taking into consideration the potential for conflicting family and individual roles
b) Summarize your recommendations in a letter of advice to a graduate who is moving home after living with roommates while away at college or university.
However, in a society, the most conflicts arise within the group which you interact in the most personal approach – the family. Having adults in a family creates the atmosphere of authority and power together with their position in the society. Parents usually have this atmosphere of obligatory respect from the younger individuals within the family. However, if the child which is considered as a young individual reaches adulthood and seeks the same status of a normal adult triggers the conflict in the group. First of all, the position in the family must be cleared out to the people involved such that the breadwinner, the parents, or any other adults will know and realize the boundaries of their capacity in meddling with the domestic issues encountered in the house. The child who is now an adult must be given the privilege of opinion as an adult. The adult-child must be given the privacy and respect he deserves not as dictated by age or seniority but as dictated by the position in the society and by the personal development of the person. The adult-child, on the other hand, must return the same respect and privacy to other individuals living with him in that house. His position as a child should still be retained in such a way that his respect toward the elders must be retained and humility within him should still be exercised.
One of the most common scenarios where this role clarification is most applicable is when a college student graduates from the independence he has in his college life and faces the reality of heading back to his home and live with his family again. The freedom and the control of the student will seem to be suppressed during this situation. The greatest adjustment of course will come from the student since the house and the people originally within it serve as the environment and the student who comes back serves as the subject. Although the adjustment will be given effort by the student, the people around him are liable for the length of time of adjustment that the student will be able to accomplish. Meaning, the people should not suppress completely what the person had used to experience. The gradual adaptation will help the adjustment to take place.
Gail Sheehy revised her “map of adult life” in 1995 to suggest a ten year shift. She defines adolescence as ending at 30. What marker would you use to define adulthood? Discuss the markers and determine the age that signifies the end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood. Draw a “map” to portray your conclusion.
Adolescence actually is the most critical and most confusing boundary of life. With this, the question arises: When do we know that adolescence is over? When do we welcome adulthood? Gail Sheehy created an efficient way of indicating that a person is already on his adulthood. According to Sheehy, during adulthood, people tend to live their years longer as compared to their younger years. They live longer and see dying as a farther element of life. Somehow, it is like putting a slow motion mode in your life. She also stated that changes in life actually come within decades. Literally, it means that a person provides evidences of his personal development when he reaches twenty, thirty, and forty years of age. When you start thinking of marriage and being serious with your life or settling and planning your career in a manner that you intend to support your family, this becomes an indication that you are already surpassing your adolescent stage and shifting to the adult “you”. This, in theories, is called the cognitive-based development of adulthood. People under this stage also have higher form of self-esteem and views the world in a more argumentative and critical manner.
Identify the arguments that have been used to explain why women earn less than men, and suggest what evidence exists to support each argument.
Evidently, as people steps into adulthood, their professional life sets another issue to be argued about. It is currently the twenty-first century, however, sexual discrimination still penetrates the shields of time. No matter how progressive the society is, the economic and labor aspect seems to always have that tarnished image of discrimination. Women still earn less than men because of a very basic and biological reason – giving birth. Maternal leave has a specific span of time wherein the women need to rest and get back to work. Otherwise, their absences will not be covered by the leave thus leaving them with no pay for their absence. In 2002, studies also show that women only earn 78 cents compared to a dollar received by men. Since there was not much difference in the wage of men in the past years, the increase or decrease of the women’s wages become significant. Equality and gender freedom has been and will always be an issue.
What are the legal requirements of marriage in Ontario? Conduct an Internet search to see how these requirements may differ from other province in Canada.
Gender is not limited to female and male alone. It also covers the same sexes. The recognition to these genders is expressed through marriage in a legal way in Canada. In Ontario, the requirement for marriage, which also includes the same sex marriage, is the marriage license costing to $130.00 which will be furnished from Ontario’s municipal office. The couple must then fill and pass a marriage application form. Identification documents will be needed from both parties. 16-17 years old applicants would need parents’ consent. A copy of Decree Absolute will be needed if one of the parties for marriage is from a divorced relationship. However, in the case of a widower, no death certificate is needed as proof. Interpreters are also required if one of the parties do not understand English. No citizenship or residency required from the parties. No medical test is required. Almost all provinces share the same procedure in accomplishing their marriage initiation.
Couples who cohabit, and those who cohabit before marriage, are less likely to have a satisfying and lasting relationship than couples that marry. Based on marriage research, design a course for cohabiting couples that might improve their chances to success. Identify the topics you would include and a rationale for each.
Cohabitation is another option for couples who want to spend their time together for the rest of their life or at least for a long-term trial. Couples live together rather than committing themselves in marriage for several reasons. It is possible that the couple want to put their compatibility in a test before they pledge to a legal union. Financially, the retention of their single status might be a reason. Sometimes, the law forbids the legal union of two persons leaving them no other choice but to cohabitate. Radically, the couple may simply see no reason for marriage. The idea of satisfaction is decreased for a possible reason that there is no legal bond that would hold them back in the commitment. The difficulty is not as crucial as to the legally married couple for no expenses and moral records will be bypassed. The couple can leave the situation if they intend to do so. Thus, the idea of commitment and satisfaction is somehow not on the deeper level as compared to other couples bound legally.
Without the clear boundary of legal matters set between the couple, the relationship absorbs no power from the external interference. If ever the relationship is ended by the couple, finances and assets are also at stake for these have no clear division. The couple nevertheless may hire an attorney to set the issues straight in case the finances and properties become an issue. To resolve this conflict, the couple must put into legal aspect the division or the partition of the assets that they conjugally produced. They may hire lawyers that will categorize the properties into individualized properties to resolve the anticipated events in the relationship.
Explain which theory of spousal violence provides the best explanation of the evidence. Evaluate whether the laws concerning spousal violence and the social services available in your community reflect that theory
Conflicts are just basic elements of a relationship. However, if it leads to violence, this becomes another issue. The theory of spousal violence is explained by a cycle wherein predictable stages follow a pattern. It is cited that the first stage is the tension building, followed by the battering stage. Lastly, is the loving contrition, and everything else goes back to normal. Obviously, the process or the cycle never stops because of a recoil effect from the pressure applied by the dominant partner to the abused partner. If ever that there is still an emotional aspect involved in the relationship while this treatment happens, there is a huge probability that the violent treatment will just be repeated again and again. This will only stop when somebody outside the cycle actually intermediates between the two or if one of the parties concludes to stop the cycle of violence.
Different non-government organizations provide hotlines for persons who experience spousal violence which most frequently occurs to women. Aside from the international projects conducted by organizations like the United Nations, there are other community services that will be provided to victims of spousal violence. A lot of projects from the government also present the same objective. The initial aid that the authorities or organizations will give to the victim is the legal action of taking the victim away from the perpetrator. Filing of legal cases will follow if permitted by the victim. It will then be followed by treatments and rehabilitation for the victims in order to heal the psychological and emotional effects caused by the aggression experienced.
Investigate infant mortality rates in Canada from the early 1900’s to the present. Use a computer program to create a graph to show how rates have declined over the past century. (Explain in 3 sentences)
What was presented above was from the yea 1960 up to 1990 only. This however already shows the trend of every decade decrease in the infant mortality rate. Nevertheless, it was documented that in 1900, six to nine women died in giving birth out of a thousand women. One out of five children, however, died on the first five years of their life. The continuous decrease on the population was somehow attributed to the distribution of information and propagation of knowledge about contraception and family planning strategies which were legal under the laws of the state and the federation.
In 1995, 5.5 female infants died out of 1000 babies. The male infant mortality rate then was 6.7 babies per thousand. The ratio since then has become constant at 1.3 until the late 1990s. In 2005, the ratio has progressed to 1.5.
Write a personal essay about the death of a child from the perspective of a parent, caregiver, sibling, grandparent, aunt, or uncle. Describe the impact of the death on the family.
It is expected that the gravest impact of a child’s death is to its parent simply because biologically, they were the ones who “created” them, brought out into the world, and financed them. Nevertheless, this will not always be proven to be correct. Grief is an emotion that will only be felt if something emotional was invested on that particular entity. However, if in any case that a caregiver spent more time and shared more common experiences and memories with a child, the grief would cost more to the caregiver because it is the caregiver who has more invested emotions compared to the parents. This also goes for the grandparent, sibling, aunt, or uncle. The grief over the death of a child is relative to the time spent of a member of the family to the child. Somehow, the sibling might also have a hard time recovering from the loss. The sibling may have a lot of experiences that have been shared with the child. A sibling considering that it is a child also, will have a harder time accepting the fact of death because the sibling is still not critical and realistic with the world he is living in.
Having fathers benefited or suffered from their wives’ working outside the home? Using the social exchange theory, write and essay supporting your opinion on the impact of dual earner families on fathers.
Having dual earners in the family has its cons and pros for the father or the head of the family. Economically, the father will have the ease of hardwork and the sole burden of provision to the family. The physical and mental stress will be minimized. Therefore, the health of the father will be maintained. Since there will be lesser work on the part of the father, he will be able to provide more quality time to his family especially to the children. These are the advantages of having someone to share the burden with. On the other hand, it is inevitable to have conflicts with the dual earner in families. First, the egocentrism of every individual will be bypassed. Male is more egocentric or ego-sensitive compared to female. Thus, the idea that the provision for the needs of the whole family is shared with the wife somehow reflects the capacity of the breadwinner which is most commonly the father of the family. Social stigma will be laid to the father who seemed to be incapable of feeding his own family through this concept.
Write an essay presenting and supporting an opinion on the role of employment in generality for women in midlife. (15 sentences)
Midlife is one essential aspect of womanhood. It is a turning point in a woman’s life. This is when stress on family management takes place. This stage also serves as the identity or role crisis of a woman since the focus of her life turns to the family and her children. If she is not married at midlife, she may also have the possibility of depression. Having a career at this point will contribute to the diversion of the excessive attention a person has aside from what is needed for survival. Employment plays a great role because it is one thing that provides the security missed or not fulfilled by the people around a person. Since women at midlife are very much preoccupied with their personal and other responsibilities in life, their personal security compensates for the loss security among themselves. Another issue which may be incorporated to the employment issue is the independence of women in midlife. Having a family or living alone in midlife will eventually call for independence. Married women need to be independent for the children to have someone to depend on. Single women at this point of life need to be independent because basically, they have no one immediate who can be accountable for every action and expense she will have to take. Therefore, the responsibility of monetary and social responsibility of women lies with the idea of employment and the idea of being economically stable at the point of being unaided.
If there is “good death” and “bad death”, what would a good death from illness be like, according to the research described in this chapter?
Good death is said to depend on a person’s culture and society. The customs followed for the idea of good death vary on the customs followed by the society. Basically, the idea of good death is much influenced by religion and morality. If a person died in his sleep and showed neither struggle nor pain in dying, the person died a good death. However, if a person was brutally murdered and dumped somewhere, he eventually died a bad death. Aside from religion, the freedom of an individual also affects the idea of good death and bad death. Euthanasia and palliative care are examples of free will of an individual. Both seek support for personal autonomy from the society. These both seek the individual rights to have the will of the person to end his life or to continue living. Lastly, the length of time an average death takes place. Say for example, a person dies of cancer. It took him two years before being in peace in death. The normal death, i.e. death in sleep or old age, would just take a night, the person died a bad death. Diseases are somehow incorporated to the idea of bad death. Natural death or death in old age is one of the examples of good death. In a warrior’s point of view in imperial times in oriental countries like Japan, a good death is defined by the death of a warrior in a battle. Some society may perceive this as a brutal death thus, a bad death.
U.S. Department of Labor, “Employment and Earnings,” vol. 28, no.1 (Jan.1981), p.81, Table A-77.
U.S. Department of Labor, “Employment and Earnings,” vol. 37, no.1 (Jan.1990), p.79, Table A-73.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statisitcs, Report 972 (2002) “Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2002,” text and Table 1. (http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2002.pdf)
Arnett, J. J. (2001). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gelles, R. J., & Conte, J. R. (1990, November). Domestic violence and sexual abuse of children: A review of research in the eighties. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 1045-1058.
Gelles, R. J., & Straus, M. H. (1988). How violent are American families? In R. J. Gelles & M. H. Straus (Eds.), Intimate violence (pp. 98-115). New York: Simon and Schuster.