Examining The Structure Of Aids And Hiv Biology Essay
AIDS ( Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ) is a cosmopolitan fatal disease and its mortality is 100 % . In China, the figure of patients with HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ) has been significantly increasing during the latest decennaries, excepting the unreported, untold, and unknown patients. HIV is about found in every portion of China, including 30 one states, municipalities, and independent parts ( Wang, 2007, as cited in Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) . In February 2009, harmonizing to the official Chinese authorities study, there were 5,389 deceases led by HIV infection in 2008, which had become the taking cause of decease caused by infective disease in China ( Ministry of Health, 2009, as cited in Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) . Chinese authorities shows great concerns about AIDS/HIV and supports puting up new plans to assist the people who suffer from HIV/AIDS, particularly for those babe victims who get the virus from their parents. Harmonizing to Zhao ( 2010, p. 1 ) , with the committedness of Chinese authorities to heighten the national and international support bureaus for diminishing and forestalling HIV/AIDS epidemic and supplying HIV intervention and attention in China. Furthermore, those plans have resulted in a dramatic addition in the figure of patients who are HIV-infected having antiretroviral therapy ( ART ) and the development of a national HIV attention substructure ( Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) .
HIV is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus and it is one of the cistrons of virus called lentivirusses, which in the virus household called Retroviridae ( Engelkirk, Duben-Engelkirk, 2011, p. 50 ) . Besides, it can acknowledge, attach and invade cells which have receptors and the most of import receptor is designated CD4 and its receptor is called CD4+ cells ( Engelkirk, Duben-Engelkirk, 2011, p. 50 ) . Furthermore, there are six regulative cistrons in HIV, which are tat, rpm, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu, and they can bring forth protein with needed information ( National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2009 ) . The protein can command the ability of HIV virus to infect a cell, maintain bring forthing transcripts of HIV virus, and doing disease afterwards ( National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2009 ) .
Harmonizing to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( 2010 ) , medical scientists identified the original beginning of HIV infection in worlds is from a type of Pan troglodytes in West Africa, which could be the natural reservoir of HIV virus. Furthermore, when the people contacted with the Pan troglodytes decennaries ago, the simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV from the Pan troglodytes ‘s organic structure mutated into HIV when it got into worlds ‘ organic structure through blood and it spreads to the other continents.
There are different attacks that people can be HIV-infected easy. The most common ways or more possibility to acquire the infection if person is holding unprotected sex with his/her spouse is HIV-infected, or holding more than one sex spouses, holding sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ) , sharing panpipes, acerate leafs or other clinical equipment for injection, particularly for those who are addicted to drugs, and mother-child transmittal ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to Barber, Gama, Dudaronek, Voelker, Tarwater, and Clements ( 2006, p. 963 ) , the reservoir of HIV is the encephalon and the vector is the septic people but as mentioned above, the natural reservoir is the Pan troglodytes.
Speaking of China ‘s state of affairs, soiled acerate leafs with HIV virus are shared among injection drug users ( IDUs ) was the prima manner of transmittal before 2007, peculiarly in the western and southern states which are at the Chinese boundary line ( Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) . This certain country in China is comparatively hapless and many people populating there are non extremely educated. It is normal for the injection drug users to portion acerate leafs because of poorness and deficiency of cognition. The 2nd big epidemic was caused by improper blood aggregation patterns among plasma givers in several cardinal China states ( Wang, 2007 ; Zhang et al. , 2008, as cited in Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) . The possible grounds for that could be deficiency of proper pattern of nursing instruction system, deficiency of cognition of blood givers, and deficiency of supervising by authorities. The current prima transmittal of HIV in China is sexual contact, including migratory workers, work forces who have sex with work forces, and commercial sex workers ( Wang et al. , 2009, as cited in Zhao, 2010, p. 1 ) . Due to globalisation, China has become a less conservative and traditional state because there were no homosexturality or homoerotism old ages ago but it is still considered to be a negative behavior today in China.
In the early 1990s, illegal plasma contribution by rural husbandmans in cardinal China propelled the spread of HIV throughout the state ( Wu, Liu, & A ; Detels, 1995 ) . Poor, rural husbandmans sold plasma repeatedly in insanitary conditions as a manner to augment their income, ensuing in untold Numberss of infection. Plasma givers sold their blood and plasma for little sums of money, frequently repeatedly, as there were loose ordinances or clip enforcements.
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
The marks and symptoms of different HIV-infected patients vary and there are several phases. Harmonizing to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( 2009 ) , during the first phases of infection, many patients will non hold terrible symptoms. This is the average ground that people will non detect that they have already got infected by HIV virus. With one or two months, the patients may endure from concern, fatigue, febrility, and in the cervix country, besides, they might hold enlarged lymph nodes ( National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2009 ) . At this phase, some patients are still incognizant of their HIV infection because they think that they are merely holding a cold or febrility and may non pay much attending to these mild marks and symptoms. In add-on, these symptoms normally disappear with a hebdomad to a month, but during this period there are big measures HIV virus in their blood and venereal fluids ( National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2009 ) . Surprisingly, some people may hold no symptoms for more than twelve old ages ( National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2009 ) .
After a longer period of clip, terrible marks and symptoms will be shown up because the immune system is badly weakened by the HIV infection. Base on National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( 2009 ) , those symptoms could be pneumonia, rapid weight loss, sore oral cavity, anus and genitalias, utmost fatigue for no grounds, memory loss, depression, repeating febrility, profuse dark workout suits, diarrhoea that lasts for more than seven yearss, pink, brown, ruddy or purple splodges inside the nose, palpebras, oral cavity and on or under the tegument, and enlarged lymph secretory organs in different countries for a long period of clip, such as cervix, inguen, and axillas.
There are assorted ways to acquire tested for the patients or the their babes to see if the individual is infected by HIV virus. Harmonizing to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( 2009 ) , the patients can supply a sample of blood to make the blood trial to look into if it contains human antibodies specific to HIV. The two cardinal types of HIV antibody trials are the Western smudge and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent check ( ELISA ) .
On the other manus, acquiring tested for HIV before bringing is of import to pregnant female parents. Mother-to-child HIV transmittal will destroy the newborn babies ‘ life. However, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( 2009 ) pointed out that it is non easy to find if the babes are really infected since they have been transporting the HIV antibodies for months from their female parents, who are infected with HIV virus. P. Liu, Shi, Wang, Yang, Li, Dai, Y. Liu, Sun and Pu ( 2008, p. 72 ) demonstrated that the widely used trial method in China is the specificity and the sensitiveness of the double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent check for HIV-Ab trial.
In 1999, Antiretroviral ( ARV ) medicines were foremost used in China and there were 150 patients received this medicines as a clinical test while another 100 patients purchased imported medicines for comparing ( Wang, He, Li, Yang, Chen, Fennie, and Williams, 2008, p. 72 ) . The first Chinese ARV agent and AZT was produced by Northeast Pharmaceuticals August 2002, and in December 2002, DESANO Pharmaceuticals of Shanghai was manufactured three more ARVs: DDI, D4T, and NVP ( Wang, et, al. , 2008, p. 72 ) . Two old ages subsequently, six ARV drugs were made domestically for intervention in China, which were 3TC ; NVP ; AZT ; D4T ; DDI and EFV ( Wang, et, al. , 2008, p. 72 ) . In add-on, during 2002 to 2003, the Chinese authorities launched the China CARES Program for people populating with AIDS and low income ( Wang, et, al. , 2008, p. 72 ) . There is no HIV inoculation in anyplace around the universe yet.
Role of the Nurse
The Chinese nurses are playing a important function in helping physicians and wellness organisations to assist HIV-infected patients. Since the population of China is immense and it is still a underdeveloped state, so it would be highly disputing for nurses to take attention of comparatively larger figure of HIV-infected patients compared to western states and there are limited advanced intervention in China. Besides, in the rural countries, the conditions of wellness attention system are highly low every bit good as the natural environment is partly polluted and the many rural people are non good educated so they might pay small concerns about their wellness and executing hygiene. On the other manus, Chen and Han ( 2010, p. 3232 ) illustrated that Chinese nurses are often splashed by the patients ‘ organic structure fluid and exposed to goad sticks. However, due to educational factor and they are non to the full cognizant of the possible hazard of acquiring infected by HIV virus ( Chen & A ; Han, 2010, p. 3231 ) .
HIV/AIDS is a highly harmful pandemic virus/disease but presently there is still non preventative inoculation produced. It is a serious planetary wellness issue and it requires international cooperation to develop an advanced intervention. China ‘s HIV/AIDS epidemic spreads out rapidly during these old ages because of alone Chinese economic, societal, and cultural factors, the single patient ‘ peculiar experiences. The Chinese authorities, the wellness section, and clinical installations and the whole society should all lend to the HIV bar plan.