Examining The Majority Of Crime In Society Criminology Essay
This essay will analyze and discourse the nature of offense in our society. As the essay progresses it will look into and find the nature of offense whether it violent or non? Findingss of this essay are based upon the research done through the diaries and articles written by celebrated criminologists. Furthermore, types of offense and its nature are discussed in item.
1 ) What is force?
In order to find if the offense is violent or non, understanding the significance of force is of import. Harmonizing to Wikipedia “ Violence is the look of physical or verbal force against one or more people, obliging action against one ‘s will on hurting of being hurt. “ It can besides be described as an assault, maltreatment or slaying. Violence is relentless everyplace. It is present in the streets in the signifier of assault or battles. It is present in the media in the signifier of violent telecasting seriess, picture games or movies. It is besides common in the topographic points like schools or work topographic point in the signifier of intimidation, pluging or slapping among pupils or workplace statements turning into battles among colleagues.
2 ) Types of Crime
Crime can be loosely classified in to two classs Violent and Non-Violent
2.1 ) Violent offenses: Samantha Bricknell in his article “ Trends and issues in offense and condemnable justness ” ( Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, June 2008 ) defined Violent offense as the offense classs which included of homicide, assault, sexual assault and robbery ( both armed and unarmed ) . Other offenses like domestic force, arm trading and intoxicant and drug related offenses are classified as violent offenses by Australia institute of criminology. Some of these violent offenses are briefly discussed below.
Homicide: Homicide is described as the most serious offense committed once more an person. The primary ground behind the homicide is geting money. Most of the homicide offenses are committed under the influence of intoxicant. Harmonizing to an article written by Jack Dearden and Jason Payne ( Trends and issues in offense and condemnable justness no. 372 Australian capital: Australian Institute of Criminology, July 2009 ) based upon their research has shown that intoxicant is strongly related to homicide offense. They besides mentioned that every twelvemonth about 4.5 per centum of Australians ( 775,000 individuals aged 14 old ages or older ) has reported being physically abused by people influenced by intoxicant and about 25 % study being verbally abused ( AIHW 2008 ) . Furthermore Jack Dearden and Jason Payne have conducted a survey on intoxicant related homicide in Australia. They found that 729 instances of homicides were classified as intoxicant related, stand foring 47 % of all homicides recorded between July 2000 & A ; June 2006. It was besides mentioned that in about 60 % of these instances both the victim and wrongdoer were under the influence of intoxicant. ( Trends and issues in offense and condemnable justness no. 372 Australian capital: Australian Institute of Criminology, July 2009 )
Sexual assault: Joanne Spangaro claimed in his article “ colza and existent colza ” ( Without consent: confronting grownup sexual force Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, January 1993 ) that it is hard to garner exact statistic in the country of sexual assault as the reported rates to the constabulary do non reflect the existent incidences. Survey conducted by Australian agency of statistics in 1993, shows merely one-fourth of sexual assault, 3rd of assault victim and half of robbery victims reported offense to patrol. Reason past offenses were non reported to the constabulary because of the offense committed these yearss were non even categorized as offense in the old clip. Sexual assault is a offense in which the wrongdoer forces the victim to indulge in sexual activity without victims consent. Sexual assault is classified as a violent signifier of offense because it causes great injury to the victim non merely physically but besides psychologically. This signifier of offense is non merely limited to adult females, but it is besides common against kids and some instances against work forces every bit good. Australian institute of offense has mentioned in one of its survey that during the period of 1996 to 2003, the happening of recorded sexual assault for kids aged between 0-14 old ages was about 40 % of all reported sexual assaults ( Bricknell 2008 ) . During 1999 and 2003 the sum of instances reported for sexual assault in the age group of 0-14 twelvemonth age has doubled than that of people aged 15 old ages or more ( 37 % compared with 17 % ) . It besides mentioned that the rate of this offense has increased for both males and females aged 0-14 old ages. But the addition was far lesser for males than females, 27 % of female victims compared with 19 % of males. ( Crime facts info no. 178 ISSN 1445-7288 Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, August 2008 )
Robbery: Robbery can be armed and unarmed in both cases it is violent in nature as the victim is terrified by the wrongdoer and largely the victim is physically assaulted to halt from defying. Robbery can happen both in residential and commercial location, commercial robberies may ensue in physical assault or slaying and residential robberies end up in physical and sexual assault. AIC in their article ( Victims of armed robbery by location ” Crime facts info no. 188 ” April 2009 ) has mentioned that “ 42 % of victims of armed robbery were in public locations such as the ‘street or pathway, approximately 9 % of victims are people who are at transport-related locations. Approximately one in eight people are targeted in their ain place averaging approximately 12 % , 6 % in corner stores/takeaway, 4 % in service Stationss and 3 % accredited premises.
2.2 ) Non-Violent Crimes: non-violent offenses are besides referred as white collar offenses. These types are offense do non ensue in physical injury to the victim but can ensue in emotional and mental emphasis. Cyber offense, environmental offense, fiscal offense, organised and transitional offense can be classified under non-violent classs.
Cyber offense: In recent times with the coming of engineering new signifier of offense has emerged called Cyber-crime. It can be described as stealing person ‘s individuality and utilize it for fraud intents. Protecting one ‘s privateness online has become a major issue. Most of these felons are good educated and cognizant of the defects of cyberspace engineering. Most of the victims will non even be cognizant that person is stealing their private information and utilizing it illicitly. Credit card frauds are one of the major country where victims are targeted apart from this hackers try to chop in to the computing machines and steal private informations such as security Numberss and bank watchwords. Recently many people have experienced that their private exposures are misused or morphed and spread over the cyberspace. Crimes like Identity fraud, illegal electronic financess transportations, Phishing, electronic money laundering and Gross saless and investing cozenages are some of the illustrations of cyber offense. Most of these offenses are non reported and in many instances the victims are non cognizant of the offense itself.
Consumer cozenages: many consumers are cheated mundane on the cyberspace every bit good as by the people presenting as representatives of reputed companies and offering incredible trades to the consumer who are frequently get lured in to such trades and stop up losing money. Harmonizing to a paper on Consumer cozenages in Australia by AIC ( Crime facts info no. 144 March 2007 ) the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission ( ACCC ) conducted a pilot survey in March 2006, in this survey 85 % of companies to the ACCC ‘s national hotline has completed a questionnaire in respects to their experiences of cozenage over last one twelvemonth. Callers were asked inquiries on what method did the swindlers used to reach them. The consequences showed that the most familiar cozenage offers were linked to lotteries ; most of it was received by mail and electronic mail. Most popular method for money transportation petitions was sent by electronic mails, phishing cozenages, and fiscal advice offers are other methods used to gull consumers.
Human smuggling: Australia is confronting tonss of jobs with refugee boats and refuge searcher. AIC in one of their survey ( Organised offense and migratory smuggling: Australia and the Asia-Pacific: June 2002 ) has stated that “ every twelvemonth, 1000s of migrators are being smuggled to Australia, throughout the Asia-Pacific part and around the universe, by progressively sophisticated condemnable endeavors that earn one million millions of dollars by working those flying poorness and persecution ” ( Andreas Schloenhardt, AIC 2002 ) . This offense is non violent in nature but has a great impact on the lives of the people. Many people who are fighting in their fatherland to do a support, gamble everything they own and try to migrate to another state in hunt of better life are ruthlessly duped by these agents, most of these people end up set downing in detainment Centres and some of them even lose their life during such unsafe journeys.
Most of the non-violent offenses are committed by people who have good cognition about the jurisprudence. Many of these felons are good dressed and they create an feeling on the other individual that what they are offering is echt.
Crime can either be violent or non-violent but it will ever harm its victims either physically, emotionally or financially. Violent offenses normally attract more attending than that of non-violent offenses even though some offenses like fiscal cozenages or individuality larcenies can destroy the lives of the victims. It is really hard to find the rate of non-violent offenses because most of the offenses are non reported to the constabulary. Australia ‘s chief concern is in respects to the province of violent offense committed which is frequently related to intoxicants and drugs jobs. There is important grounds that many childs restore to violence which they learn from their parents, equals and the media. Government has introduced many Torahs to protect citizens but it ‘s non merely up to the jurisprudence enforcement bureaus to command offense but it ‘s besides a duty of the citizens to lend to do society more safe and peaceable.