Examining cost reduction processes through VAVE with reference to TQM Essay

Value Analysis and Value Engineering ( VAVE ) methods are really of import and utile in driving down the merchandise cost which helps companies retain market portion and prolong their profitableness.

What is VAVE?

Value technology began at General Electric Co. during World War II. Because of the war, there were deficits of skilled labour and natural stuffs.

Lawrence Miles and Harry Erlicher at GE looked for acceptable replacements for stuffs. They noticed that these permutations frequently reduced costs, improved the merchandise, and in some instances, both.What started out as an experiment driven by necessity was turned into a systematic procedure. They called their technique “ Value Analysis ” . As others adopted the technique, the name bit by bit changed to “ Value Engineering ” . VAVE is a systematic procedure used by a multidisciplinary squad, directed at analysing the maps of a undertaking, merchandise, procedure, system, design, or service for the intent of accomplishing the indispensable maps at the lowest life rhythm cost consistent with needed public presentation, dependability, handiness, quality and safety.VAVE is the procedure of cut downing costs in a development undertaking.

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This procedure is achieved by measuring stuffs, procedures and or merchandises and offering options. The result should ensue in nest eggs to the client / terminal user without compromising the purpose of the design, i.e.

by keeping or bettering public presentation and quality demands of the merchandise.The cardinal metric/factor is to accomplish the coveted consequences without compromising on quality and public presentation of the merchandise. Undertakings that use Value Engineering in the early development or sonable deliverables, and demands. At this point, major design and development resources have non yet been committed and the mode in which the basic map of the undertaking is to execute has non been established, so alternate ways may be identified and considered.

Applied with flexibleness and creativeness, Value Engineering is about limitless in its ability to place countries of possible nest eggs.An of import facet of Value Engineering lies in its ability to react with seasonableness, flexibleness, and creativeness. It can be used for new or bing plans, all stages of a undertaking, and for organisational procedures. Value Engineering can be used to better quality, achieve lower costs, assure conformity, better efficiency, construct teamwork and cut down hazards.


The purpose of the TQM is to bring forth the Top quality goods at a sensible low monetary value and thereby fulfilling client outlooks.

Costss of Quality

“ costs of making it right the first clip ”

Quality Cost

A Manufacturing a quality merchandise, supplying a quality service, or making a quality occupation – 1 with high grade of client satisfaction – is non plenty. The cost of accomplishing these ends must be carefully managed, so that the long term consequence of quality costs on the concern or organisation is desirable one.These costs are a true step of quality attempt.

A competitory merchandise or service based on a balance between quality and cost factors is the chief end of responsible direction. This aim is best accomplished with the assistance of competent analysis of the costs of quality.


The analysis of quality related costs is a important direction tool that provides:A method of measuring the effectivity of the direction of quality.

A agency of finding job countries, chances, nest eggs, and action precedences.A The necessary activities will incur costs that may be separated into

Prevention costs

Quality planningQuality confidenceThe creative activity and care of the quality systemInspection equipmentTrainingAssortedA Resources devoted to prevention give rise to the ‘costs of making it right the first clip

Appraisal costs

Appraisal costs include:ConfirmationQuality auditsInspection equipmentSeller evaluationAppraisal activities result in the ‘costs of look intoing it right ‘ .

Failure costs

Failure costs can be farther split into those ensuing from

Internal failure costs

External Failure costs

Internal failure costs:

A Internal failure includes the followers:WasteBitRework or rectificationRe-inspectionDowngradingFailure Analysis


External Failure costs

External failure includes:Repair and serviceGuarantee claimsAilmentsTax returnsLiabilityLoss of good will




External and internal failures produce the ‘costs of acquiring it incorrect ‘ .

Merits of TQM

Focus on quality from top to bottomQuality focal point additions client good will and market portionZero tolerance for even little inefficienciesIn TQM, there is a squad attack in work outing jobsWaste is besides reduced down to a lower limit

Restrictions of TQM

TQM does non merely go on in a twenty-four hoursIt needs committedness from the employeesThis means that the company needs a really low labor turnover rate this because the staff needs to be really good trained.Some staff members possibly immune to alter because there so much involved to alter to a TQM.


Alternatively of bear downing operating expenses to production by utilizing merely one factor, ABC adopts a considerable figure, depends on how many activities can be isolated within a peculiar entity ( Dyson, 1997 ) .

ABC avoids over-costing high volume merchandises and under-costing low volume 1s. The net incomes rise because the cost drivers reflect the activity generated by peculiar merchandises. For illustration, in an ABC system, if both merchandises A and B require one set-up, but A consists of one unit and B 1000, they will both be charged the same sum of operating expense.Activity-based bing systems use more types of cost driver than the traditional volume-based bing systems.

Merits of ABC

Highlights Value added activities to salvage costs and better net incomesEliminates Non-value added activitiesLinkss cause and consequence i.e. cost drivers that consequence overheads.

Designation of cost drivers helps in apportioning ohd ‘s in more accurate wayand thereby achieve merchandise costing.Avoids under / over pricing that leads to better determination devising

Restrictions of ABC

More detail analysis requiredDoes non ever conform to SSAP 9.The ABC system encourages all costs, including merchandising and distribution costs, to be charged to work-in-progress and finished goods as merchandise costs. This cuts across the normal footing for valuing stocks for fiscal accounting intents.

‘SSAP No.9 requires stocks and work-in-progress to be valued at entire production cost up to the phase of production reached ‘ ( Hussey & A ; Hussey, 1999: 313 ) , which would usually except merchandising and distribution costs.A more complex system of soaking up bing – ABC is regarded by some as non so really different from soaking up bing in that soaking up rates for each driver are still required.


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