Evolved Psychological Mechanisms Essay
Evolved psychological mechanisms, this is specific psychological processes that have evolved because they solved particular adaptive problems which include A. Sexual behavior: attraction between sexual partners maintaining relationships and caring for children. Here there is sexual attraction based on physical appearance and also sexual attraction based on a man’s ability to provide resources. B. Parental behavior: for parents who nurture their children they ensure survival of their genes but sometimes the parents and children have divergent interest.
C. Aggression and dominance: aggression could be defending against attack negotiating status and power hierarchy. There is a higher rate of aggression among men than women especially when competition among men serves as an evolutionary purpose of selecting the fittest women. D. Culture: the transmission of ideas from one generation to another and this may include elaborate symbolic representations such as religion. E. Language and thought: this has given us the capacity to develop a theory of mind that understands the thoughts and intentions of others.
Conditions necessary for therapeutic process 1) Unconditional positive regard: this means that the therapist accepts the client but this does not mean the therapist approves, clients are most likely to be more open when they feel the therapist accepts them for who they are. 2) Congruence: here the therapist behavior should match his or her inner experience. This deals with a feeling of things being consistent between the real self and the ideal self. It helps when the therapist is transparent so that the client can see him or her for who he is. ) Empathetic understanding: here the therapist tries to understand the subjective experience of the client and not forgetting other approaches that could be used to reduce the client’s pain. The therapist tries to share the experience of the client empathetically. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 1) Psychological needs: these are the lowest level of needs like water food sleep sex to name a few.
They are very essential to our survival, this could be seen as in a man who is really hungry there is nothing else he wants but food ) Safety needs: here familiarity is perceived as safe; people feel threatened when new situations occur such as physical violence safety is always threatened by emergencies. 3) Love and belonging needs. At this point or level people seek love and friendship. There is always the need to give love as well as need to receive love. 4) Esteem needs: this will actually result from our actual activities and achievements. When these needs of ours are not met, we tend to feel inferior and if they are met we feel self confident at that point in our lives. )
Self actualization; this is where a person now has just the need to actualize and is no longer motivated by deficiencies. Here the person just wants to fulfill his or her potentials. At this point what a man can be he must be an example could be a singer who must sing or an artist who must paint. The behavior motivated from self actualization tends to vary from person to person. 1) Types: a category of people with similar characteristics. Traits: a characteristic of a person that makes the person unique Factors: a statistically derived quantitative dimension of a personality that’s broader than most traits
2. Comparing the type A/B and my results with my sensation seeking results, I think they are almost similar. Am a type B which comprise of easy going people and with this test my level of sensation seeking is average, I like doing things when am stressed as such the sensation seeking comes into play doing things which are not preplanned. 3. The result of the PSQ was not consistent with the sensation seeking results. 4. It was just random so I do not think it’s really accurate because some of the questions were not straight forward and am not sure about the criteria used to calculate them so I will not just say they are accurate. . I try to see what aspects could be changed so that I might have a better scorer if need be but it just bothers me because the first time I did it everything was accurate even if I change some habits it won’t be for long before I go back to my real or old regular habits. 6. The Big Five has some questions which are similar to that of Cattell but we get more results on Cattell more than on the Big Five. On Cattell you actually know more about yourself and that makes it different other than just the five results we get bag after the analysis is done on Big Five.
7. I think I will get the same results since when I did was actually how I felt; I did not just choose random answers so I believe to an extent that I will get the same results. 8. not exactly but I believe that someone who knows me really well might get the same or get something close but they are a lot of questions that can only be answered by the individual taking the test. IAT reflection questions 1. Implicit attitudes are ideas based on personality that are held by ordinary people not based on formal theory. The IAT is similar in that you say what you think from what you see and different people interpret every image differently . I think the test measures manual dexterity because it will depend on which hand someone is more swift with a right handed person will be influenced in clicking as much as a left hand person, and for me my right hand is swifter than my left hand. 3. It does not really modify my bias that much but it does to an extent. 4. Most people have a strong preference for straight people rather than gay people. I think the test is reliable because even if you take it over and over you might just get the same results every time.
Role construct Repertory test 1. The goal is to know the construct a person uses to understand others. This occurs when a client fills out a form he uses certain criterion which is what he or she thinks of the people he is talking about. 2. The generated set of construct offer insight. 3. Cognitive complexity is elaborateness of a person’s construct system reflected in a large number of different construct, cognitively complex people are able to view social behavior from different dimensions thus have greater flexibility. Cognitive complexity is reflected in the REP test in that they are many nd unfortunately they do not really correlate with one another. 4. Integrative complexity is when people think and write about the challenges of negative life events and look for ways to resolve contradictions. 5. I think most people will ask questions or group characters according to the personality rather than what they feel or think they ought to be like. 6. My overall opinion is that I think it’s a good test to know what someone uses to group or what someone thinks of others. Also I think it’s not really reliable and our opinions about people too change with time.