Evolution Of The Influenza Virus Essay

There are three Influenza viruses groups, A, B and C, which are portion of the Orthomyxoviridae household of ( – ) strand RNA viruses. These viruses are segmented incorporating 8 separate cistron sections within a nucleocapsid protein ( Neumann, G. et Al. 2009 ) . The 8 cistrons in the influenza viral genome encode 11 proteins: two nonstructural proteins ( NS1 and NS2 ) , four RNA polymerase proteins ( PB1, PB2, PB1-F2, and PA ) , two surface glycoproteins ( HA and NA ) , two matrix proteins ( M1 and M2 ) and one nucleocapsid protein ( NP ) ( Kian-Meng Goh, G. 2009 ; Chen, Ji-Ming, et Al.

2009 ) . Segment 1 encodes for the PB2, section 2 encodes for PB1, section 3 encodes for PA, section 4 encodes the HA cistron, section 5 encodes the NP cistron, section 6 encodes the NA cistron, section 7 encodes the M cistrons and section 8 encodes the NS cistrons. Figure 1 shows the conventional representation of the grippe A virion ( McHardy, Alice C.

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and Ben Adams. 2009 ) .Figure 1. Conventional representation of an grippe A virion ( McHardy, Alice C. and Ben Adams. 2009 ) .

The grippe A virion is a ball-shaped atom sheathed in a lipid bilayer derived from the plasma membrane of its host. Two built-in membrane proteins, HA and NA, are studded in the lipid bilayer making a spike-shaped construction ( Kian-Meng Goh, G. 2009 ) . The HA ( haemagglutinin ) cistron, is divided into 16 subtypes ( H1-H16 ) and the NA ( neuramidase ) cistron divided into 9 subtypes ( N1 – N9 ) . Most of the 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes have evolved into some distinguishable line of descents and sublineages ( Liu, S. 2009 ; Kian-Meng Goh, G. 2009 ; Ghedin, E.

, et Al. 2009 ) The HA subtypes or discrepancies retain the capacity to attach the grippe virus to the host cells, but the difference in the subtypes allows the grippe virus to hedge host ‘s immune system by gulling it ( Watts, Geoff. 2009 ) .The hemagglutinin is a major surface glycoprotein that attaches the grippe virus to the sialic acid residues on the host ‘s cell surface.

The hemagglutinin fuses the viral membrane envelope to the host ‘s cell membrane, leting the viral genome to come in into the cell ( McHardy, A.C. , and Ben Adams. 2009 ) . Human grippe viruses ‘ hemagglutinin recognizes the host- cell receptors incorporating sialyloligosaccharides with an N-acetyl sialic acid linked to galactose with an I±2,6 linkage at the terminal. Avian viruses prefer an I±2,3 linkage, while hogs tend to incorporate both I±2,6 and I±2,3 linkages ( Horimoto, T. and Yoshihiro Kawaoka.

2005 ) .Another surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase, cleaves the terminal sialic acid residues from glycoproteins and glycolipids on the host cell surface thereby let go ofing any budding viral atoms from the infected cell. The host ‘s immune response recognizes and targets the hemagglutinin because the hemagglutinin is approximately 5 times more prevailing than the neuraminidase in the viral membrane ( McHardy, A.C.

, and Ben Adams. 2009 ) .The HA and NA cistrons each contain about 5 antigenic spheres, called antigenic determinants, that tend to be recognized by antibodies every bit good as holding the most outstanding mutants.

These mutants can cut down or suppress the binding of antibodies and suppress the interaction of antiviral drugs with the grippe virus. It is these mutants that allow for new subtypes to be created and antigenic impetus to happen ( Gurtier, Lutz. 2009 ; Ghedin, E. et Al.

2009 ; McHardy, A.C. and Ben Adams. 2009 ) . The NA subtypes are found in combination with the HA to make a assortment of different strains ( Watts, Geoff. 2009 ) .

Before 1889, the primary type of influenza virus was from the H1 household, while after 1889 new types of grippe began to go around. After 1889 a new strain of H2 grippe began distributing throughout Russia, replacing the H1 grippe strain in worlds ( MacKenzie, D, and M. Marshall. 2009 ) . In 1918-1919, a new strain caused by H1N1 known as “ Spanish Influenza ” began to distribute, going an epidemic.

Those who had the grippe of 1889 or before seemed to hold obtained some unsusceptibility to the 1918-1919 grippe strain. This enhanced virulency in the grippe may hold been due to a mutants or reassortment in the 8 cistron sections that make up Influenza ( Taubenberger, J. 2006 ; Nelson, M.

, et Al. 2008 ) .Since the 1918-1919 “ Spanish Influenza ” epidemic, there have been legion influenza eruptions, each affecting a different unique strain. In 1931, the swine grippe was isolated from a hog in Iowa, and in 1933 the first human “ Swine ” grippe was isolated in London ( MacKenzie, D, and M.

Marshall. 2009 ) . In 1957, the grippe virus evolved into H2N2 strain displacing the H1N1 viruses antecedently go arounding in worlds.

The 1957 virus was besides called the “ Asiatic ” grippe and the beginning of a new pandemic. In 1968, the “ Hong Kong ” grippe, a new grippe strain H3N2, created a new pandemic. The “ Hong Kong ” grippe differed from the H2N2 virus by merely the hemagglutinin protein.

Those persons infected by the 1957 grippe strain seemed to hold some unsusceptibility to the H3N2 strain ( MacKenzie, D and M. Marshall. 2009 ; Nelson, M.

, et Al. 2008 ) .Graham Laver and Robert Webster discovered in 1972 that avian water bird was a natural host for the grippe virus. These strains could reassort with human strains taking to new human strains that may perchance go more deadly than the current strain. ( MacKenzie, D, and M. Marshall.

2009 ) . From 1976 – 2009, several H1N1 viruses appeared that seemed to hold jumped from hogs to worlds. The newest H1N1 virus in 2009 triggered terror that another 1918 pandemic might happen sometime in the close hereafter. Table 1 shows the development of the swine influenza A virus from 1918 until 2009. The inquiry ( s ) that is frequently asked for the grippe virus is why there are so many different types or strains of grippe and is it due to “ switch ” and “ impetuss ” or recombination and reassortment?Table 1: Development of swine grippe A virus ( Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ) .1918 – 1919




H1N1 pandemic besides affected swine.


1930The first isolate of H1N1 in hogs.


1968H3N2 infect swine in Asia after human pandemic1976Outbreak of new H1N1 swine strain of



A/New Jersey/1976 occurred in military



forces at Fort Dix, New Jersey.


1998Triple reassortant viruses were isolated from hogs.1958 – 200537 human swine-origin grippe were reported.2005-200911 sporadic three-base hit reassortant swine grippe


viruses were reported in homo.


2009New quartet reassorted swine grippe


H1N1 strain ( A/California/07/2009 ) emerged


in human populations and caused planetary grippe pandemic.








Influenza A viruses are extremely varied due to natural point mutants, cross-host transmittals and genomic section re-assortment among and within the subtypes, line of descents and sublineages ( Chen, J-M.

et Al. 2009 ) Antigenic impetus ” is when minor mutants occur in the H and N proteins taking to decelerate, but important alterations in antigenicity over clip. This may be due to the grippe virus holding hapless proofreading abilities doing legion mistakes in offspring cistrons taking to frequent mutants. “ Antigenic Shift ” is due to more significant subtype alterations of the H1 and H2 assortment in a shorter clip with or without similar alterations in the N cistron. “ Antigenic displacement ” occurs when new H or N cistron sections are acquired by a procedure called “ reassortment ” ( Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ; McHardy, A.

C. , and Ben Adams. 2009 ; Ghedin, E. , et Al. 2009 ) .

The differences and grounds for “ antigenic displacement ” and “ antigenic impetus ” are displayed in table 2.

Table 2: Antigenic impetus and displacement








Minor alteration within subtype


Major alteration, new subtypePoint mutantsExchange of cistron sectionsOccurs in A and B subtypesOccurs in A subtypes merelyMay cause epidemicsMay cause pandemicsEx-husband: A/Fujian ( H3N2 ) replacedEx-husband: H3N2 replaced H2N2 in 1968A/Panama ( H3N2 ) in 2003-2004




( Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ) .Shuffling of cistron sections occurs if two or more different subtypes of grippe A virus infect the same host cell, normally in swine. Susceptible swine cells have receptors for both avian and human grippe strains.

Pigs serve as commixture vass for interchanging of familial stuff between human and avian viruses making new fresh subtypes, as shown in figures 2 and 3 ( McHardy, A.C. and Ben Adams. 2009 ) . All 16 HA antigens and 9 NA antigens are found in avian H2O poultry, while merely H1-H3 and N1-N2 viral subtypes are found in worlds.

Gene section scuffling leads to antigenic alterations making new viral subtypes ( Kian-Meng Goh, G. , et Al. 2009 ) .Figure 2. Coevals of familial diverseness and antigenic impetus in the development of human grippe A viruses.Blue and xanthous viruses depict two antigenically similar strains of the same subtype circulating in the human population.

The familial diverseness of the go arounding viral population additions through mutant and reassortment. Single white pointers indicate relationships between hereditary and descendent viruses. White Markss on the sections indicate impersonal mutants and ruddy Markss indicate mutants that affect the antigenic parts of the surface proteins. Incoming braces of orange pointers indicate the coevals of reassortants with sections from two different hereditary viruses. As these viruses continue to go around, unsusceptibility against them builds up in the host population, represented here by the narrowing of the constriction.

In parallel, viruses with mutants impacting the antigenic parts of the surface proteins roll up in the viral population. At some point a fresh antigenic impetus discrepancy, indicated by a ruddy coloured virus, which is less affected by unsusceptibility in the human population, is generated. This discrepancy is able to do widespread infection and founds a new bunch of antigenically similar strains. ( McHardy, Alice C. and Ben Adams. 2009 ) .

Fig. 3 Genesis of swine-origin H1N1 grippe viruses.In the late 1990 ‘s, reassortment between human H3N2, North American avian, and classical swine viruses resulted in ternary reassortant H3N2 and H1N2 swine viruses that have since circulated in North American hog populations.

A ternary reassortant swine virus reassorted with a Eurasiatic avian-like swine virus, ensuing in the S-OIV that are now go arounding in worlds ( Neumann, G. , Noda T. , and Y. Kawaoka. 2009. )The 1918 Spanish Influenza developed in three moving ridges: “ first moving ridge ” in spring ( March thru April ) of 1918, “ 2nd moving ridge ” in autumn ( September thru November ) of 1918, and eventually the “ 3rd moving ridge ” in early 1919.

During the clip between the first and 2nd moving ridges, a mutant or reassortment perchance occurred that made the Spanish grippe significantly more deadly ( Tanbenberger, J. 2006 ) . The H1N1 virus of 1918 contained antigenically fresh hemagglutinin protein, which most worlds and swine were susceptible to. The NA protein was besides replaced during antigenic switching before the pandemic started. Sequence and phyletic analyses suggests that both surface proteins were derived from an avian-like grippe and that the precursor virus did non go around widely before 1918 ( Tanbenberger, J. 2006 ) . There are arrested development analyses that suggest that the primogenitor of the 1918 virus may hold entered the human population every bit early as 1915 ( Reid, A. , et Al.

2004 ) . The H1N1 grippe virus circulated within the human population from 1918 – 1957 and once more from 1977 to the present.In 1947 a major antigenic alteration, where legion base and amino acid differences in the antigenic parts of the hemagglutinin ( HA ) , occurred due to antigenic divergency. The alterations in the antigenic parts of the hemagglutinin created an epidemic in 1950-1951, without any alterations in the existent antigenic subtype, A/H1N1, is called intra-subtype mixture ( Nelson, M. et Al.

2008 ) . The PB1, NA and M sections of the 1947 virus were from A/H1N1 and combined with fresh PB2, PA, HA, NP and NS cistron sections. Then in 1951, genomic reassortment took topographic point between fresh PB1, PA, NP, NA, M and NS cistron sections combined with older PB2 and HA cistrons ( Nelson, M. et Al.

2008 ) . This epidemic occurred in the United Kingdom and Canada and the mortality degrees exceeded that of both the 1957 and 1968 pandemics, without a alteration in antigen subtype,Another genomic reassortment occurred in 1957, where the HA ( H2 ) , NA ( N2 ) and a viral RNA polymerase cistron section PB1 from an avian grippe virus merged with other cistron sections from a antecedently go arounding human H1N1 grippe virus ( Horimoto, T. and Yoshihiro Kawaoka.

2005 ) . The 1951 A/H1N1 disappeared merely to be replaced with this new novel subtype H2N2 reassortant virus. Reassortants of the HA avian cistron section ( H3 ) and PB1 avian cistron section once more led to a fresh grippe virus in 1968, H3N2. H3N2 displaced the H2N2 and still circulates today alongside an H1N1 that emerged in 1977 ( McHardy, A.C. , and Ben Adams. 2009 ; Horimoto, T. and Yoshihiro Kawaoka.

2005 ) . Both the 1957 and 1968 strains contained avian cistrons encoding for PB1 and HA, bespeaking that these two cistrons interact functionally, either at a protein or nucleic acerb degree to heighten the replicative ability of the intercrossed viruses ( Horimoto, T. and Yoshihiro Kawaoka. 2005 ) .The reemergence of human H1N1 grippe viruses in 1977 was due to a research lab mistake when the virus was released from a research lab deep-freeze. The H1N1 virus has been go arounding endemically and epidemically from 1918 until 1957 and once more from 1977 until the present ( Taubenberger, J.K.

and David M.Morens. 2006 ) . In 1998, the classical swine grippe viruses reassorted with the human H3N2 grippe virus bring forthing ternary reassortants H3N2 swine virus ( rH3N2 ) . It has besides believed that farther ternary reassortment between rH3N2 and classical swine H1N1 viruses generates new reassortant swine A/H1N1 and A/H1N2 viruses ( Garten, R.J. , et Al.

2009 ) .Two distinguishable H3N2 grippe viruses were isolated from swine in late 1998 in several provinces that were either dual reassortant viruses or ternary reassortants. The dual reassortant contained HA, Na and PB1 similar to those of human H3N2 grippe viruses and M, NP, NS, PA and PB2 similar to those of classical H1N1 swine grippe viruses. The ternary reassortant were more complex in that they contained HA, Na and PB1 of human grippe viruses, M, NP and NS or classical swine H1N1 every bit good as PA and PB2 of avian grippe viruses. Merely the three-base hit reassortant virus was established in the swine population and continued to go around and germinate ( Brockwell-Staats, C. , et Al. 2009 ; Smith, G.

J.D. et Al. 2009 ; Hay, A.J. , et Al. 2001 ) .

Since 1998, the original H3N2 strain along with discrepancies of the original three-base hit H3N2 three-base hit reassortant virus have been co-circulating in swine alongside the H1N1 virus. Occasionally, the swine H1N1 crosses into the human population, which has been confirmed to hold occurred 43 times from 1974 to 2005. From December 2005 through February 2009, 11 human infections with swine grippe H1N1 or H1N2 were reported to the CDC ( Brockwell-Staats, C. , et Al.

2009 ; Shinde, V. et Al. 2009 ) .In April 2009, a new H1N1 virus arising from swine grippe A viruses was isolated from worlds in both Mexico and the United States. This new H1N1 virus threw the universe into a terror at the idea of a possible visual aspect of a similar pandemic to the 1918 Spanish grippe pandemic.

Scientist hurried to find what the familial sequence of the virus was and where the cistron sections came from. The virus was determined to incorporate combinations of cistron sections that had non been seen in swine or human grippe viruses in the US or elsewhere earlier. The NA and M cistron sections were determined to be from the Eurasiatic swine familial line of descent, while the HA, NP and NS cistron sections are from a classical swine line of descent. The PB2, and PA cistron sections are from the swine three-base hit reassortant line of descent, the American H3N2 avian virus.

The PB1 cistron section, in the new H1N1 of 2009, had started in swine entered human and birds around 1968 from the H3N2 strain ( Garten, R.J. , et Al. 2009 ; McHardy, A.C. and Ben Adams.

2009 ; Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ; Neumann, G. et Al. 2009 ) . Figure 4 and figure 5 shows the host and line of descent for the cistron sections of the 2009 A/H1N1 virus ( Garten, R.J.

, et Al. 2009 ; Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ) .

Fig. 4 Host and line of descent beginnings for the cistron sections of the 2009 A ( H1N1 ) virus: PB2, polymerase basic 2 ; PB1, polymerase basic 1 ; PA, polymerase acidic ; HA, hemagglutinin ; NP, nucleoprotein ; NA, neuraminidase ; M, matrix cistron ; NS, non-structural cistron ( Garten, R.J. , et Al. 2009 ) .

Figure 5. 2009 Influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus genotype ( Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh. 2010 ) .The 2009 swine H1N1 grippe virus has been determined to incorporate one of the swine cistrons from the original 1918 human grippe virus. This means that the 2009 strain is a 4th coevals descendent of the 1918 virus ( Hajjar, S. and Kenneth McIntosh.

2010 ; McHardy, A.C. and Ben Adams.

2009 ) . Each of the grippe pandemics/epidemics shows that reassortment or “ antigenic displacement ” of the hemagglutinin with or without neuraminidase, along with cross-species debut into worlds from swine ( and on occasion avian ) can happen as a individual event or multiple events from genetically similar viruses. The other six cistron sections have been determined to hold undergone reassortment that may impact the grippe virus in several ways, but chiefly by increasing the virulency or pathogenicity of the virus. Some of the cistron sections have changed due to changes in the bases or aminic acids doing minor alterations in the cistrons through “ antigenic impetus. ” Swine besides play a important function as an intermediate host in the cross-species debut of new strains from avian to swine to worlds. The grippe strains that emerge through the usage of swine as an intermediate host are through familial reassortment and the formation of fresh human viruses ( Hay, A.

J, et Al. 2001 ) .The WHO and CDC will maintain supervising the universe for eruptions, possible epidemics and pandemics to find any possible novel human grippe happenings that may turn into pandemics.


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