Estimation Of Genetic Parameters For Grain Yield Biology Essay
Wheat is the largest nutrient harvest in the universe. It provides more Calories in diet than any other harvest and is known as “ king ” of the cereals. The demand of wheat is bit by bit increasing due to of all time increasing population.Grain output is a composite of many traits and is attributed to its associated constituents. Therefore, the present surveies will be undertaken to gauge the familial parametric quantities ; phenotypic and genotypic discrepancy, coefficient of variableness, heritability, familial progress and correlativity. For this, 40 eight wheat genotypes will be planted at research country, College of Agriculture Dera Ghazi Khan utilizing Lattice Design with two reproductions.
The information will be recorded on yearss to heading and adulthood, figure of productive tillers per works, works tallness, peduncle and spike length, figure of spikes per works, figure of spines per spike, spike denseness, figure of grains per spike, 100 grain weight and grain output per works. Data recorded will be statistically analyzed utilizing Minitab statistical package on a computing machine plan to mensurate the familial parametric quantities. The consequence will be interpreted and information obtained will be helpful for wheat breeders to foretell successful wheat genteelness plan.
IV ) NEED FOR THE PROJECT:
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) is the most of import and widely adopted nutrient cereal of Pakistan.
Wheat is taking nutrient grain of Pakistan and staple diet of the people. Wheat quality depends upon endospermic protein, gluten, snap viscousness. It is a domesticated and world-wide cultivated harvest grown on an country of 9.062 million hectares, bring forthing 23.4 million dozenss with an mean production of 2.6 dozenss ha-1 ( Anonymous, 2009 ) .
The dead output of wheat in Pakistan is due to limited diverseness in the germplasm and wet shortage conditions ( Noorka et al, 2007 ) . Manifestation of wheat output fluctuates widely as a consequence of its interaction with environment because grain output of wheat is a complex familial character and is the merchandise of several lending factors impacting output straight or indirectly.The grain output related traits ; works tallness, figure of tillers, grains figure and grain weight are straight associated with output while peduncle length, spike length, yearss to heading and yearss to adulthood are indirectly affect the grain output of wheat.
Therefore, the familial information about these traits are helpful for bettering its grain output.Different techniques are available to calculate the familial parametric quantities and the index of transmissibility of characters. Knowledge of heritability of traits ushers to works breeder to foretell behaviour of wining coevals and helps to cognize the response for choice. High familial progress coupled with high heritability estimations offer a most suited status for choice. ( Larik et al. , 1989 ) . However, high heritability and familial progress clarifies that the choice among genotypes would be effectual for output and its associated constituents.
( Ghandorah & A ; Shawaf, 1993 ) .Similarly the higher the heritability estimates, the simpler are selection process ( Khan et al. , 2008 )Heritability measures the phenotypic discrepancy, which is attributable to familial cause, has prognostic map of engendering harvest ( Songsri et al. , 2008 ) .The public-service corporation of heritability therefore additions when it is used to cipher familial progress, which indicates the grade of addition in a character obtained under a peculiar choice force per unit area.
Therefore, familial progress is yet another of import choice parametric quantity that aids breeder in a choice plan ( Shukla et al. , 2004 ) . It provides an estimation of familial parametric quantities to a breeder for choice from a population under certain environment.
The present survey therefore, will be conducted with following aims.To measure familial variableness for quantitative traits.To mensurate the familial parametric quantities.To cognize the familial association for grain output and its constituents.To place the characters of extreme importance used as choice standards for successful wheat engendering plan in future.
V. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The survey of available information in the literature helps researcher to carry on farther research.
The information sing correlativity and familial parametric quantities of wheat is reviewed briefly.Jedynski ( 2001 ) explained the correlativity and coefficient for grain output and its constituents in wheat. He reported heritability estimations which were really high for works tallness, 1000- grain weight, intermediate for figure of grains per spike and really low for grain output per works.
Ashfaq ( 2002 ) worked on 45 wheat assortments under drought conditions and found that figure of tillers per works, peduncle length, spike length, figure of spines per spike, figure of grains per spike and 1000-grains weight exercised positive correlativity, whereas works tallness showed negative correlativity with grain output per works at both genotypic and phenotypic degrees. Plant height showed positive correlativity with figure of tillers, peduncle length and figure of spines per spike at both genotypic and phenotypic degrees. Number of tillers was positively correlated with all other traits. Peduncle length showed negative correlativity merely with spikes length. While, spike length was found to be negatively with peduncle length and works tallness. Number of spines per spike showed positive correlativity with all other traits studied.
Path analysis revealed direct positive effects of works tallness ; figure of tillers per works, figure of spines and figure of grains per spike whereas peduncle length, spike length and 1000-grain weight indicated negative direct effects on grain output per works.Khan et Al. ( 2003 ) studied wheat to find the wide sense heritability and familial value for works tallness, figure of tillers per works and grain output per works.
The wide sense heritability values for works tallness and figure of tillers per works ranged from 49.83 to 88.83 and 52.25 to 88.82 % , severally. The wide sense heritability for grain output per works ranged from 65.58 to 90.
01 % .The familial progress values for works tallness, figure of tillers per works and grain output per works ranged from 6.30 to 19.88,1.87 to4.
42 and 4.95 to 11.61, severally.Kashif and Khaliq ( 2004 ) estimated moderate to really high wide sense heritability for all the morphological characters except fertile tillers per works.
Plant height exhibited the highest heritability value of 92.08 % , while fertile tillers per works showed minimal value of 40.71 % . Genotypically works tallness, spike length, spines per spike, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight was positively and significantly correlated with grain output while extremely significantly associated phenotypically.
Asif et Al. ( 2004 ) tested 10 bread wheat elect lines and important fluctuation was observed for all traits studied viz: yearss to heading, yearss to adulthood, works tallness and grain output. Genotypic and phenotypic correlativities, heritability and way coefficient were computed and direct and indirect parts of each trait towards grain output were determined. Dayss to heading and works tallness showed comparative higher heritability. Grain output showed important association with works tallness.Tila et Al.
( 2005 ) studied correlativity and way coefficient analysis in 35 bread wheat assortments. Consequence showed that yearss to heading had negative and important correlativity with harvest index and grain output. Days to adulthood were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic degrees with biological output, harvest index and grain output and the degree of negative genotypic correlativity was important with harvest index and grain output. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlativity with harvest index and grain output. Positive direct consequence of yearss to heading and yearss to adulthood with grain output were observed. Path analysis showed the importance in order of crop index, works tallness, yearss to adulthood and yearss to heading in grain output.Hayee ( 2005 ) reported that works tallness, figure of tillers per works, spike length, peduncle length, figure of spines per spike and figure of grains per spike exhibited positive correlativity whereas spike denseness and 1000-grain weight showed negative association with grain output per works in 16 wheat assortments. Spike denseness was found to be negatively associated with works tallness, figure of tillers per works and spike length.
Peduncle length showed negative correlativity with spike length and 1000-grain weight. 1000-grain weight indicated correlativity with works tallness and spike denseness. Path analysis revealed positive direct consequence of figure of tillers per works, peduncle length, spike denseness and figure of grains per spike on grain output per works. On the other manus, works tallness, spines per spike and 1000-grain weight exercised negative direct effects on grain output per works.Cheema et Al.
( 2006 ) reported that a considerable sum of familial variableness nowadays in the research stuff indicated the possibility of choice for farther betterment. Broad sense heritability estimations were observed as 61.62, 72.05, 47.38, 75.58, 79.
94 and 80.59 % , for figure of productive tillers/ works, spike length, figure of spike lets/ spike, figure of grains/ spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/ works severally and familial progress values at 5 % choice strength were obtained as o.967, 1.
230, 1.336, 5.658, 4.110 and 1.826 severally, for the works traits studied. It was suggested that choice based on works traits such as productive tillers/ works, spike length, grains/ spike and 1000- grain weight could efficaciously be practiced for developing high grain giving wheat assortments for the rainfed countries.Aycicek and Yildirim ( 2006 ) reported the appraisal of heritability of output constituents for 20 bread wheat genotypes.
They observed low heritability for the characters such as grain output, spike figure per square metre, works tallness, grain figure per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 meat weight and clip to header.Memon et Al. ( 2007 ) evaluated seven F2 offsprings and their 8 parental lines of spring wheat for some familial parametric quantities viz ; coefficient of variableness, familial discrepancy, heritability per centum and familial progress in 7 quantitative characters ( grain output and its associated traits ) .Highly important differences were observed viz, works tallness, figure of grains per spike, seed index and grain output per works among all the genotypes ; bespeaking more variableness. The highest heritability with more familial progress for works in tallness, figure of spines per spike and figure of grains per spike were observed in progeny Khirman x RWM-9313.
Two offsprings Soghat-90 showed more figure of tillers per works, spike length and grains per spike with more heritability and familial addition. The parental line Khirman showed outstanding public presentation with regard to more figure of tillers per works and grain output per works besides uniting acceptable familial parametric quantities.Jamali et Al. ( 2008 ) conducted an experiment to happen out the relation between the output and output constituents with works height in semi-dwarf wheat. They studied 18 genotypes with 2 cheque assortments holding highest grain output. Correlations were calculated for pooled output and output constituents informations of assorted genotypes. Plant height showed positive and extremely important correlativity with spike length, figure of spines per spike, figure of grains per spike and chief spike grain output but no correlativity with figure of grains per spines.
Main spike grain output exhibited positive and extremely important correlativity with works tallness.Akram et Al. ( 2008 ) revealed positive correlativity in instance of figure of spines per spike, figure of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight with grain output at both genotypic and phenotypic degrees. However, figure of tillers per M2 and spike length contributed negatively towards grain output at both degrees. Plant tallness was positively correlated with grain output at genotypic degree, whereas negatively correlated at phenotypic degrees. It was, hence, suggested that figure of spines per spike, figure of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight should be given accent for future wheat engendering plan.Waqar et Al. ( 2008 ) evaluated 10 wheat genotypes for appraisal of heritability and familial progress of assorted output related parametric quantities among all the studied characters, figure of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain output per works showed high values of heritability coupled with high familial progress that resulted in turn outing suited conditions for choice.
Majumdar et Al. ( 2008 ) estimated familial variableness and familial association for grain output and its constituents from the survey of 20 wheat assortments. Both genotypic and phenotypic discrepancies were extremely important in all the traits with small higher phenotypic fluctuations as usual. Similarly, the low differences between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of fluctuations indicated low environmental influences on the look of these characters. High heritability coupled with high familial progress was obtained with works tallness, grains per spike, 100-grain weight, crop index and grain output. Genotypic correlativity coefficient was higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlativity coefficients in most of the traits. Spikes per works, grains per spike, spike length, 100-grain weight and harvest index were the most of import characters which possessed positive association with grain outputAjmal et Al. ( 2009 ) estimated wide sense heritability, familial progress and correlativity coefficient for assorted works characters in six wheat assortments and their 12 F2 offsprings.
The genotypes were significantly different for works tallness, figure of tillers per works, figure of spines per spike, grain per spike and grain output per works. The magnitude of wide sense heritability of works tallness, tillers per works, and grains per spike and grain output was high with values 0.94, 0.98, 0.92 and 0.
91 severally, and was low in instance of figure of spines per spike. The values of familial progress ranged from 0.044 in 1000 grain weight to 25.289 in works tallness.Eid. ( 2009 ) conducted an experiment of wheat genotypes and found that the average norm for works tallness, spike length, figure of spikes per works, figure of grains per spike, 50 % header day of the month and 1000-grain weight revealed extremely important differences among genotypes and crosses under both sowing conditions. Low, medium and high heritability was found in different output traits under survey. High heritability accompanied by high familial progress was observed for spike length and 1000 grain weight.
Low heritability coupled with low familial progress was for works tallness and figure of grains per spike.Mohsin et Al. ( 2009 ) reported from survey of 95 man-made elites of wheat that crop index exhibited highest heritability value of 83.31 % while 1000-grain weight showed minimal value of 42.32 % . Grain output correlated positively with flag leaf country, works tallness, biomass, figure of spikes, spike length, figure of spines per spike, figure of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and crop index.Khan and Dar ( 2010 ) studied 37 wheat genotypes and three cheques. They estimated genotypic correlativity coefficient were higher than matching phenotypic correlativity coefficient for all the character combination.
Seed output was significantly and positively associated with figure of spines per works, followed by figure of effectual tillers and 100-seed weight at both phenotypic and genotypic degree. Among the important inter-relationships, the association of yearss to 75 % spike outgrowth with yearss to adulthood and 100-seed weight were important and positive but were negative and significantly associated with figure of seeds, spines per spike and figure of grains per spike.Haq et Al. ( 2010 ) studied 10 wheat genotypes and found analysis of discrepancy showed extremely important differences among the genotypes for all the traits. The correlativity coefficient indicated that spike length, figure of spikes per works, figure of spikelerts per spike, figure of grains per spike, figure of tillers per M2, 1000 grain weight were significantly and positively correlated with grain output per works, while yearss to heading, yearss to adulthood and works tallness showed non important correlativity with grain output per works.Lagari et Al. ( 2010 ) conducted an experiment to gauge heritability in F5 segregating coevals of a cross between HT5 ( female ) and HT37 ( male ) of bread wheat.
The familial parametric quantities calculated were familial discrepancy, environmental discrepancy and heritability per centum in wide sense ( h2 % ) , familial progress and heritability coefficient. The highest heritability was observed for spike length ( 79.3 % ) , figure of grains per spike ( 54.
5 % ) and chief spike output ( 69.5 % ) associated with familial progress ( 2.8,22.8 and 1.
5 severally ) .Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length ( 48.75 % ) and figure of grains per spine ( 47.2 % ) which associated with high familial progress ( 2.3 and 0.68 severally ) .From the literature reviewed, it is emphasized that familial parametric quantities estimated from the present research will enable us to do anticipations about the possible advancement that can be achieved by effectual choice. Choice can merely be fruitful if desired familial variableness is present in the germplasm.
The recommendation will be made for the traits with higher heritability and familial progress along with positive association with grain output, would be preferred for choice during engendering plan.
VI. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present undertaking of familial probe will be carried out at College of Agriculture D. G. Khan. Forty eight genotypes will be sown in field during harvest season 2009-10 utilizing Lattice Design with two reproductions. Keeping plot size of 0.6 M2, works to works and row to row distance will be maintained as 10 centimeter and 30 centimeter severally.
All recommended direction patterns will be applied every bit to all genotypes. The information will be recorded from 10 indiscriminately selected workss from each secret plan for the undermentioned traits and norm will be computed.
Dayss to heading.
Dayss to adulthood.Number of productive tillers per works.Plant tallness ( centimeter ) .Peduncle length ( centimeter ) .Spike length ( centimeter ) .Number of spikes per works.
Number of spines per spike.Spike denseness.Number of grains per spike.100 grain weight ( g ) .Grain output per works.The information will be statistically analyzed utilizing the method as advocated by Steel et Al, 1997.
Familial parametric quantities ( genotypic and phenotypic discrepancy, heritability, familial progress and correlativity ) will be calculated following different methods as mentioned by Singh and Narayanan ( 2000 ) .Results will be interpreted for the familial information to be utilized in future genteelness plans.
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