Epz Export Processing Zone Commerce Essay

Michael Salamon ( 1987 ) defined a trade brotherhood as “ any administration, whose rank consists of employees, which seek to form, and stand for their involvement both in the workplace and in society and, in peculiar, seek to modulate their employment relationship through the direct procedure of corporate bargaining with direction ”

Sidney and Beatrice Webb ( 1896 ) defined trade brotherhoods as a “ uninterrupted association of pay earners for the intent of keeping or bettering the status of their work lives ”

In Mauritius, the industrial relation act defines a trade brotherhood as an association of individual, whether registered or non, holding as one of its objects the ordinance of industrial dealingss between employees and employers and includes a federation.

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Unions in Mauritius started to truly develop in the 1930 ‘s after the announcement of the trade brotherhood act in England in the same period and the industrial regulation of 1938. After the announcement of the industrial regulation of 1938, 47 trade brotherhoods were registered in the sugar industry ; edifice, bakeshop, transportation, printing and conveyance.

In the 1970 ‘s, the figure of brotherhoods registered amounted to 181 and today there are 333 trade brotherhoods of which 321 are trade brotherhood employees.

A Trade brotherhood have assorted maps among which the economic ordinance map, the occupation ordinance map, the power map, the self-fulfilment map and the societal alteration.

What is Industrial Relations?

There are, as salamon ( 1987 ) notes, as many definitions of the capable country of industrial dealingss as there are authors on industrial dealingss ( Turner, Morley ; 1995 )

“ The construct of industrial dealingss is historically the merchandise of western broad democratic societies which have evolved a capitalist signifier of industry ; powerful independent trade brotherhoods ; and forms of corporate bargaining between brotherhoods and employers in which provinces have played a greater or lesser function. From this historical development has grown a organic structure of societal scientific discipline theory which uses the term ‘ Industrial Relations ‘ to mention to those interaction. It is concerned with how work regulations are made and applied ; and how determinations are taken to administer amongst the processs their portions in the wagess of production. These things are done through constructions and procedures which can be called Industrial Relations Systems ”

1.1 Background

Mauritius was developed chiefly by Gallic settler as an agricultural economic system with merchandise such as spices foremost and so chiefly sugar cane. It was besides utilised as a platform for the trade paths between the E and Europe. The society was divided between the land proprietors who grew sugar or tea, and bargainers and craftsmen, administrative and proficient workers, and a bulk of slaves from Africa who worked in the Fieldss. After the abolishment of bondage in 1835, the slaves were replaced by Indian immigrants who, in malice of being free salaried workers, received no better intervention.

The state of affairs created a societal division which is still presented between the upper category and lower categories. The development of the lower categories continued into the twentieth century and led to the development of the labour motion in the 1930 ‘s. This motion has its beginnings in Europe and the United States and influenced Mauritius which was a British settlement.

The motion was propagated by the magnetic leaders who made many personal forfeits for the promotion of their political orientations and for the better support for workers, Supported by this motions and by the brotherhoods, the Mauritian Labour Party, a political administration founded in 1938. The Labour Party played an of import function in the independency procedure and logically became the first party to regulate the state after the independency in 1968. But the state has strong oppositions like Mr. Gaetan Duval who was against the thought of a Marxist province like many freshly independent provinces have become. The fright of mass nationalisation and the revenue enhancements on land created an initial battle of capital and a encephalon drain. With about all capital in the manus of a few proprietors of European beginnings and the constitutional rights under the democratic Westminster-like political system, no radical steps could be adopted despite some bold steps in wellness, instruction and substructure. But power remained in the manus of the land proprietors.

There was a population roar that the betterments in wellness and instruction brought. But the monocrop economic system could non absorb all new-comers on the labor market. The handiness of labor and the fact that the sugar industry was stilled controlled by the same few proprietors meant that the development continued. Even the puting up of the Export Processing Zone did non alter the state of affairs as the political instability, that the hapless societal conditions caused, deter investings. Indeed there was a new moving ridge of societal agitation in the 1970 ‘s which saw the rise of the Movement Militan Mauricien ( supported by trade brotherhoods ) . This new moving ridge of agitation did much injury to the economic system and the authorities of Dr. Seewoosagur Ramgoolam had to reconstruct the stableness by quashing the motion to avoid farther capital flight and to pull investors.

The defeat of the working category with 14 old ages of labor party regulation with grants, repressions and letdown led to a landslide triumph, with all the 60 seats of the parliament traveling to the MMM, the left-of-center party, at the 1982 general legislative elections. But shortly after the MMM split up into two cabals with one cabal following the symbolic figure of the party of Mr. Paul Berenger and the other cabal following the premier curate designated, Mr. Aneerood Jugnauth. To beef up his place Mr. jugnauth made confederations with the Parti Mauricien Socialist Democrat ( PMSD ) of Mr. Duval and the old challenger which was the Labour Party to retain power in the 1983, 1987 and 1991with an confederation with the MMM. Mr. Jugnauth tried to construct a strong government and instore subject. This brought political stableness that investors required before puting in Mauritius. The strong government played an interventionist function to modulate the economic system through financial, pecuniary and income policy every bit good as direct monetary value puting to stabilise the economic variables and restrict local competition that would hold fragilises the local manufacturers. It is possibly non coinciding that the EPZ started to surge after 1982.

The subsequent rise in income for certain classs of working category could be more related to the deficit of labor that resulted from the fast economic growing instead than by steps for ideological grounds. The deficit of labor changed the balance of power off from the employers into the custodies of workers. Certain class of workers were able to successfully negociate pay additions and better work conditions because they or their brotherhoods held certain powers, political or economical, that allowed them to pull off successfully with their employers or authorities. To back up this point, pay rise faster for come occupations than for others. The authorities acted to avoid that the pay lift excessively fast, ensuing in rising prices.

The state of affairs was due to the fact that Mauritius was positioned as a low cost mass maker in the early phase of industrialisation required the semi-skilled labor. The low labor cost coupled with the favorable intervention that the state obtained from the European and the U.S market through the Lome Convention and multi-fibre Agreement gave Mauritius a existent cost advantage that attracted the investors. These investors usually are untalkative to see their cost rise and would non easy accept pay addition and could hold relocated their production elsewhere. But, the other states did non hold the same discriminatory intervention the same stableness, and a sufficiently educated work force that allowed them to get down bring forthing choice merchandise in the same topographic point. They could non travel their operations without losing haoma advantage. Furthermore, the degree of net income was big plenty to let for periodical pay addition. The description above about how the existent form of industrial dealingss developed showed the different picks taken by each societal histrion under the germinating structural conditions and their subjective significances. We saw that the different authoritiess were elected chiefly under a pro-labour platform. We have seen how instrumental-rational actions replaced value-rational actions as the authorities ‘s forfeits their proletarian political orientation to keep stableness and attract investing.

1.2 Purposes and Aims

This germinating environment poses new challenges to the brotherhoods. They have to get by with the macro environment and the behavior of the other histrions in this environment. The purposes of this thesis can be classified as followed:

Analyse maps of trade brotherhoods

Purposes and aims of brotherhoods

Prospects of trade brotherhoods in Mauritius

Analyse the altering employment dealingss environment

Assess the changing environment

1.3 Employment Relations Act 2008

The Employment Relations Act 2008 ( ERA ) had been introduced to implement a new set of regulations to be used by one and all to enable the state to do farther promotion in the field of industrial dealingss.

As per the ERA the maps, purposes and aims of a trade brotherhood are as follows:


Sub-Part A – Basic Workers ‘ Rights to Freedom of Association

29. Right of workers to freedom of association

30. Protection of trade brotherhood of workers against Acts of the Apostless of intervention

31. Protection against favoritism and exploitation

Sub-Part B – Basic Employers ‘ Rights to Freedom of Association

32. Rights of employers

33. Protection of trade brotherhood of employers against Acts of the Apostless of intervention

Sub-Part C – Prohibition of Closed Shop

34. Closed store understanding to be null

1.3.2 COLLECTIVE Bargaining

Sub-Part A – Code of Practice

35. Promotion of good employment dealingss

Sub-Part B – Negotiating Rights

36. Application for acknowledgment

37. Standards for acknowledgment of trade brotherhood of workers

38. Order for acknowledgment of a trade brotherhood of workers

39. Revocation or fluctuation of acknowledgment of trade brotherhood of workers

40. Entree to workplace

41. Access to information

42. Time-off installations

Sub-Part C – Check-off understandings and bureau store orders

43. Check-off understandings

44. Order for check-off understandings

45. Commissariats associating to check-off understandings

46. Agency shop understandings

47. Application for bureau store orders

48. Consequence of bureau store orders or bureau store understandings

49. Operation of bureau store understandings or orders

50. Payments in conformity with check-off understandings or bureau store understandings or orders

Sub-Part D – Bargaining Procedure

51. Procedure understandings

52. Footings of process understandings

53. Bargaining process

54. Unfair labour patterns

Sub-Part E – Corporate Agreement

55. Duration of corporate understanding

56. Application of corporate understanding

57. Scope of corporate understanding

58. Variation of corporate understanding

59. Extension of corporate understanding to another employer

60. Extension of corporate understanding to the whole of industry

61. Registration of corporate understanding

62. Procedure for reading of corporate understanding


Sub-Part A – Labour Disputes

63. Voluntary arbitration

64. Coverage of labor differences

65. Rejection of labor differences

66. Entreaty to Tribunal

67. Restriction on study of labour differences

Sub-Part B – Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration

68. Conciliation service by Oversing Officer

69. Conciliation and Mediation

70. Arbitration

71. Exclusion of legal power of Tribunal

Sub-Part C – Award of Tribunal

72. Award and its effects

73. Extension of award to another employer

74. Extension of award to the whole of the industry

75. Interpretation of award


76. Right to strike and recourse to lock-out

77. Restriction on right to strike or recourse to lock-out

78. Strike ballot

79. Notice of work stoppage or lock-out

80. Picketing

81. Minimum service

82. Acute national crisis

83. Legal consequence of work stoppage on contract of employment

84. Civil and condemnable unsusceptibility


Sub-Part A – Employment Relations Tribunal

85. Constitution of Employment Relations Tribunal

86. Functions of Tribunal

Sub-Part B – Commission for Conciliation and Mediation

87. Constitution of Commission

88. Functions of Commission

89. Mention by Minister

1.4 chapter lineation

The following survey focal point on the chances of trade brotherhoods and the altering environment. It aims at measuring this altering environment and its effects on the form of the Employment Relations. This new form, which would be developed out of this alteration in environmental factors, will find the function of trade brotherhoods, and the power of trade brotherhoods to play this function in the employment relationship.

This survey is divided into six chapters. One tries to demo the nature of the employment dealingss and the state of affairs in Mauritius.

Chapter two trades with the literature reappraisal of the survey.

Chapter three is concerned with the methodological analysis used to measure all the inquiries of this survey.

Chapter four describe the analytical model in which the function of trade brotherhoods would be analysed in the changing environment.

Chapter five really describes the employment relation environment.

And eventually six is the decision and the menaces that trade brotherhoods have to get by with.

2.0 literature reappraisal

In this altering context, trade brotherhoods all over the universe have been sing reduced rank and have to get by with a more diversified work force, more complex issues and broader social concerns. In order to guarantee their very endurance, many trade brotherhood organisations, at single to national and international degrees, have taken some interesting enterprises. A sum of merely 102,901 workers are organised in every bit many as 338 Trade Unions in a entire active labor force of some 544,800 – which means about 18 % nonionized workers – a sensible rate as compared to many states. While the rate of unionization in the Public Sector is about 54 % , it is flooring to larn that merely 11 % of workers in the Private Sector are nonionized. However, what is more dumbfounding is the figure of brotherhoods stand foring such a little work force. 338 trade brotherhoods, out of which we have every bit many as 76 brotherhoods to-date with less than 30 members – far below the rank demand for a trade brotherhood to go on to be under the Employment Relations Act. This means that these brotherhoods have until February following twelvemonth to guarantee they are in conformity with the demands by taking relevant actions. Otherwise, they will be merely scrapped off the official list of trade brotherhoods by the Registrar of Associations. It should be noted that under the old jurisprudence, viz. the IRA, merely 7 workers were needed to organize a trade brotherhood.

We have about 175 brotherhoods holding less than 100 members, and another 100 brotherhoods holding between 100 to 500 workers. Merely 27 brotherhoods have between 500 to 1000 members, while another 22 represent between 1000 to 5000 members. Interestingly there are more than 50 brotherhoods in the instruction sector entirely.

In 1997, a Trade Union Trust Fund ( TUTF ) was set up by authorities holding as primary aims: the publicity of workers ‘ instruction and of supplying fiscal aid to merchandise brotherhood administrations. Notwithstanding the activities of the TUTF organised so far, it remains, nevertheless, an sarcasm that since the origin of the TUTF, the figure of Trade Union Federations, alternatively of worsening, have further increased from 10 to 23. Some of these administrations have had their rank dwindled well, while others have managed to increase their rank.

The present dislocation reveals that there are 4 bona-fide Alliances under the present statute law, and 19 Federations. These 4 alliances, 5 registered under the ERA are viz. : The National Trade Union Confederation ( NTUC ) , Confederation Syndicale de Gauche-Solidarite ( CSGS ) , Confederation of Independent Trade Unions ( CITU ) and Confederation des Travailleurs du Secteur Prive ( CTSP ) . As respects the Mauritius Trade Union Congress and Mauritius Labour Congress, they are no longer perceived as alliances. Under the Employment Relations Act, they are now registered as Federations. It should besides be noted that the Registrar of Associations is really treating an application for the enrollment of a new alliance of trade brotherhoods.

In add-on to the jobs of trade brotherhood proliferation, the Trade Union motion has besides to face its short approachs in footings of Capacity-Building. With the exclusion of a few, many trade brotherhood administrations do non hold a proper office. They have unequal finance, a deficiency of trained and effectual officers and negotiants. All these most surely have an impact on the quality of services provided by these administrations to their members. Other factors that have compromised the strength of brotherhoods are inter-union competition, the inability to perforate new emerging sectors of the economic system, amongst others.

( Workshop on Trade Union Unity ‘ in coaction with International Labour Office/ACTRAV and the International Trade Union Confederation. ) Beginning: Africa 2010

In several non-union endeavors, workers ‘ associations exist, peculiarly in workplaces where direction travel the excess stat mi to put in good human resources direction patterns. These associations by and large deal with non-wage issues, such as staff public assistance and grudge handling. In such endeavors, the human resource section is on a regular basis working with these associations to guarantee that issues that are of import to workers and which could take to grudges are quickly identified and dealt with. In such instances, while labor and direction cooperation is the trend, direction in non-union endeavors constantly execute some maps of the brotherhood.

Beginning: Africa 2010

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

The word method has a Grecian derivation, “ meta ” ( along ) and “ hodos ” ( manner ) and in both scientific survey and learning it means the manner along which an purpose is reached. In didactic, method refers to the manner in which cognition is imparted and learnt. Harmonizing to Drechsler, the term methodic means contemplation on didactic methods ; in other words, one method of learning and larning. Methodic, hence, is the concentration of didactic thought on didactic method and is a aspect of the didactic field of survey and non didactic itself. Science in general besides reflects on methods but with a position to detecting cognition. This contemplation is called methodological analysis.

Beginning: Didactics Theory and Practice. P.A Dunning ; W.F sohnge.

3.2 Research inquiries

The research inquiries trades with Trade Unions rank, importance of trade brotherhoods, functions of trade brotherhoods in society, the conditions of work of employees, the relationship of workers with their trade brotherhoods, the sentiment of workers on their hereafters in their occupation, the service offered by trade brotherhoods, the installation with which they get into contact with trade brotherhoods and the hereafter of trade brotherhoods.

Furthermore, this thesis was realized in order to analyze the relationship between the function of trade brotherhood in society and the importance of trade brotherhood to an employee and secondly to analyze the relationship between the age group and what did workers believe about their trade brotherhoods.

3.3 Data Collection

The appraisal of the environmental factors will be achieved chiefly through bing publications. These publications are from diverse beginnings including publications viz. the international pecuniary fund ( IMF ) , articles from diaries and even books or text editions.

The appraisal of the different histrions will be done by the undermentioned methods:

The authorities: publications from the international pecuniary fund ( IMF ) , the publication by the governmental bureaus, the World Bank ( WB ) but besides interviews by trade brotherhood leaders.

The employers: studies from the Mauritian employer ‘s federation ( MEF ) which is the chief administration stand foring employer.

The trade brotherhood: the action of trade brotherhood would be chiefly analysed from a questionnaire which was administered by face to confront interviews.

3.3.1 Survey Design

The questionnaire was designed in order to reply the inquiries of the survey. It was composed of 19 inquiries practically all qualitative, regrouped under four subdivisions. Section one was on general personal information subdivision two assesses the sentiment of workers on their on the job environments. Section three assesses the options of nonionized employees on their brotherhoods while subdivision four buttockss why non-unionized respondents were non members of brotherhoods. The response rate was as follows:

3.3.2 sample size

Table 3.0 Sample Size


No of questionnaire set

No of questionnaire received

Response rate %













The undermentioned rate of response is explained by the job of disposal. The questionnaire had to be administered at the workplace. The questionnaire had to be left to randomly selected marks and would be collected at a ulterior day of the month. On the aggregation day of the month, some targeted people could non be traced, returned empty questionnaire, or did non reply.

Some of the consequences were as follows:

3.3.3 informations coding entry and analysis

Figure 3.0 Trade Unions Membership

52 % of the people who participated in the study were members of trade brotherhoods. This maybe reflects the democratic side of Mauritius.

Figure 3.1 Importance of Trade Unions

Most respondents believe that it is of import that employees become members of a Trade Union. This is shown by the diagram above. Merely 20 % of the respondents believe that brotherhoods are unimportant.

In add-on to this, the respondent believes that Unions have an of import societal function to play as the diagram below shows.

Figure 3.2 Role of Trade Unions in Society

However, the high degree of response in favor of Trade Unions could non be straight linked to unsatisfactory occupation conditions, conflictual dealingss with employers, or hazard of unemployment. Indeed, the respondents were rather satisfied with their employment conditions, had a instead affable relationship with their employers. This is shown in the undermentioned figures:

Figure 3.3 Conditionss of Work

The respondent were most satisfied than dissatisfied with their employment conditions. The rate of respondents on the satisfactory side sums to 43 % . However, the proportion of unsated is 27 % .

Figure 3.4 Relationship with Employer

Merely 36 % finds that the relationship with their employer is friendly and 43 % find it conflicting go forthing 21 % holding really conflicting relationship.

Figure 3.5 Future in your Occupation

As the above graph shows, merely 60 % were confident about their hereafter in their occupation. 20 % were unsure about their future 13 % were unsure and 7 % did non cognize where to stand, so, we can state that 60 % were optimistic.

Most of those who were members of trade brotherhoods were rather satisfied by the service they got from their brotherhoods as the undermentioned figures shows:

Figure 3.6 Services offered by Trade Unions

The frequence at which the respondent could speak to their representatives is rather good as most of them agreed that they could acquire in touch with their representatives rather easy.

Figure 3.7 Geting in contact with Trade Unions

A large per centum of workers get in contact easy with their trade brotherhoods, this means that trade brotherhoods are more or less active and willing to be more present.

Figure 3.8 Future of Trade Unions

Despite the positive response shown supra, most of the respondent believes that trade brotherhoods would confront hard hereafters. The fact that trade brotherhoods seldom inform their members about what they truly do can make this feeling as shown below.

Figure 3.9 Whether representatives inform members about their activities

This pie chart shows that 50 % seldom inform members about their activities and this means that there is merely one manner communicating and it is a really bad facet. This can be the beginning of many of the job described in this thesis.

4.0 Analysis and Discussion

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter the consequences of the information analysis are presented. The informations were collected and so processed in response to the jobs posed in chapter 1 of this thesis. A sample size of 31 people was used ; nevertheless we are witting that this sum is excessively little to obtain the most relevant results. Workers from both the populace and private sector were given questionnaires to reply. The consequences were presented in chapter 3 – methodological analysis. Now in this chapter we hypothesis proving had been undertaken and the findings had been analysed.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

4.2.1 Hypothesis 1

Ha‚’ Do Trade Unions have a function to play in society?

H1 is the 2nd hypothesis: what is the importance of a trade brotherhood to an employee

Correlation coefficient has been used in order to analyze the relationship between the function of trade brotherhood in society and the importance of trade brotherhood to an employee and they are shown in the tabular array below

Table 4.1


function of trade brotherhood in society

importance of trade brotherhood

function of trade brotherhood in society

Pearson Correlation



Sig. ( 2-tailed )





importance of trade brotherhood

Pearson Correlation



Sig. ( 2-tailed )





** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Since the Sig. ( 2-tailed ) value is0.008, that is less than 5 % , the void hypothesis that correlativity is non important is rejected. Furthermore, the correlativity coefficient shown in the tabular array is 0.476, intending that there is rather a strong positive relationship. This correlativity coefficient indicates that 0.476 % of the respondents agree that there is a positive relationship between function of trade brotherhood in society and importance of trade brotherhoods to employees, r=0.476, n=30, and p=0.008

Therefore, hypothesis 1 is accepted.

4.2.2 Hypothesis 2

Ha‚’ : Age group

H1 is the 2nd hypothesis: what workers think about Trade Unions

Correlation coefficient has been used in order to analyze the relationship between the age group and what did workers believe about their trade brotherhoods and they are shown in the tabular array below.

Table 4.2



workers think that:


Pearson Correlation



Sig. ( 2-tailed )





workers think that:

Pearson Correlation



Sig. ( 2-tailed )





** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Since the Sig. ( 2-tailed ) value is 0.007, that is less than 5 % , the void hypothesis that correlativity is non important is rejected. Furthermore, the correlativity coefficient shown in the tabular array is -0.661, intending that there is rather a strong positive relationship. This correlativity coefficient indicates that -0.661 % of the respondents agree that there is a positive relationship between age group and what did workers believe about their trade brotherhoods, r= -0.661, n=30, and p= 0.007

Therefore, hypothesis 1 is accepted.

4.3 Analysis aim

When asked about the outlooks of their brotherhoods, the respondents make the undermentioned remarks most of the times:

Defend employee rights and involvements with more energies and without fright:

Be more responsible, sincere, loyal and professional ;

Be less politically motivated ;

To better pass on the rights of employees show better transparency in the employment rights procedure and results, and more frequent individualized face -to-face duologue to be cognizant of jobs and to instore trust ;

Be closer to employee demands and be involved in the mundane concerns ;

Fight enemy Torahs that are more employee favorable ;

Be more watchful to menaces of occupation losingss and insecurity ;

To be more active and offer more services ;

Be united and speak of a individual voice, and avoid internal or inter-union division ;

Improve work conditions, societal conditions and life criterions.

Educate employee to let them to be better equipped to understand their state of affairss and confront them.

15 respondents were non-unionised, 16 were members of trade brotherhoods. Of the 16 who have been members, 7 were non members in their old occupation and had to go forth their former brotherhood as they move in their new occupation and there is no brotherhood in their occupation. Two were non satisfied with their brotherhood, and one had lost religion in brotherhood in brotherhood. Of the five who have ne’er been members, two were non interested in brotherhoods ; one did non cognize how to go member and two worked in a place where there is no brotherhood.

From the responses obtained above it can be said that employees believe in the being of brotherhood. This belief seems to be due largely to uncertainness on the one side as figure 3.5 has shown where merely 60 % were optimist about their occupation and proletarian values explained by the high power distance society of Mauritius. The degree of occupation satisfaction and the quality of the relationship with the employers were relevant excessively but non every bit of import as the two above. The employees want more societal justness and better conditions but above all they want a secure environment.

Despite demoing some satisfaction about their brotherhoods, the respondents clearly showed that they want their brotherhoods to be more vigorous and effectual in their actions.

5.0 Employment Relations environments

5.1 The altering Employment Relations environment

The first chapter describes the employment dealingss as a dynamic field germinating as the environment evolves excessively. These few old ages we have seen important alterations taking topographic point in this environment. This germinating environment poses new challenges to the brotherhoods. They have to get by with the macro environment and the behaviour of the other histrions in this environment. The inquiries are:

Are they witting of these alterations?

How can they get by with these alterations?

What will be the behaviour of the other histrions?

5.2 The analytical model.

The analytical model that will be used to turn to the above inquiries has been developed by Michael poole ( 1986 ) in his book “ industrial dealingss: “ Beginnings and Patterns of National Diversity ” . Michael poole is a reader in Industrial Relations in the Cardiff Business School at the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology. He has besides lectured at the University of Sheffield, and in 1983 he was research associate of the Institute of Industrial Relations at the University of Berkley and California. He has published widely in the Fieldss of Industrial Relations, direction and industrial sociology and his old book include workers engagement in industry ( 1978 ) , theories of trade unionism ( 1984 ) , and collaborated on books like industrial dealingss in the hereafter ( 1984 ) ; and towards a new industrial democracy ( 1986 )

In “ industrial dealingss: beginnings and forms of national diverseness ” , Michael poole aimed at depicting the differing forms of industrial dealingss among different states. But most of import of all, he non merely describes these forms, he besides analyses why these forms exist and are different. To accomplish this he has devised a theoretical model for analysing forms of industrial dealingss. It is in this model which will be used as an analytical tool. Even though poole classified states in wide classs for his work, the model could be used for any specific instance. The ground why this tool is used is because most text editions in industrial dealingss were:

Descriptive merely of forms in industrial dealingss and provided small or no accounts as to why these form existed.

The text editions usually describe merely forms of industrial dealingss as it exists in the state of beginning of their writers. Even if the text edition attempted at comparing differences in industrial dealingss they usually compared it between states with cultural affinities ( for illustration united land and the United States, the first and the existent taking industrial power, where most text editions in industrial dealingss are signifier ) .

5.3 Explaining the analytical model

5.3.1 The environmental conditions

Environmental conditions are divided into subjective significance and constructions. Subjective significance and structures goes side as the perceptual experience of histrions and their reactions to the environment construction they face is biased by their subjective significance. For illustration ; states with similar economic, political, legal, societal and technological construction do non needfully develop the same form of employment dealingss because of different subjective significance. Subjective significances are classified under 5 headers:

Social-cultural values

Political political orientation

Economic policies

Legal policies

5.3.2 Social-cultural values

Kroeber and Kluckhohn ( 1952 ) viewed civilization as “ the forms, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by the symbols, representing the typical accomplishment of human groups, including their incarnation in artefacts ; necessities nucleus of civilization consists of traditional ( i.e. historically derived and selected ) thoughts and particularly their attracted values ; civilization systems may on one manus be considered as a merchandises of action, on the other manus as conditioning elements of farther actions ” . Culture is really hard to measure, there is no individual definition to what it means and it is used in many different contexts.

5.3.3 Political political orientation

An political orientation is a “ construct of the societal universe explicitly and coercively maintained by the collectivity, which derives from it a general program of action as an designation of the beginnings of legitimate authorization, and attempts the control of its societal environment in a manner consistent with this construct ” Source ( Giner, 1972 ) . The construct of political orientation is capable to the same jobs as that of civilization, i.e. it is hard to measure. However, an political orientation may be supposed through the lines of action and statements of political cabals through the lines of action and statement of political cabals through the latter tend to be more of an electoral motto or propaganda than an political orientation. Example of political political orientation is totalitarism, liberalism, socialism or social- Democrats.

5.3.4 Economic policies

These are guidelines, regulations and consistent classs of actions over clip in the direction of economic variables. For exemplifying purpose financial policies refer to the authorities plan of revenue enhancement, disbursement, and borrowing which frequently applied in a position to command the manner resources are distributed in society. Incomes policies, on the other manus had normally been advocated as a agency for leting a community to bask full employment and monetary value stableness at the disbursal of free corporate bargaining. This enhances the function of the province in the employment dealingss system and the formation of a centrally organized organic structure of employers every bit good as trade brotherhoods ( Flanagan, Soskice and ulman, 1983 ) . Economic policies tend to be capable to political political orientations.

5.3.5 Public and legal policies

This refers to the rules of administration of public personal businesss and the function of the province at big in societal planning and societal advancement. This is achieved through assorted legislatives passage. Public and legal policies are capable to political political orientation excessively.

Side by side with subjective significance, there is the structural dimension of the environmental conditions. Environment construction is categorized under:





The histrions are constrained in their actions by the environmental construction.

5.3.6 Social construction

It refers to the manner the society is divided into societal categories and the position and power each category possess. Weber ( 1868 ) and Marx ( 1874 ) are innovators in the survey of societal inequality in production and distribution relationship. Giddens ( 1973 ) identified two types of beginnings for societal stratification, i.e. divisions. The first type is based on the market capacity and including ownership of the agencies of production ; ownership of educational and proficient makings ; and manual labour power. The 2nd located within productive endeavor, in the division of labor ; in authorization dealingss and in assorted internal “ distributive groupings ” .

5.3.7 Economic construction

It refers chiefly to what extent economic determinations are centralized or decentralized, i.e. to the extent the economic system is controlled by the authorities. It besides includes the size of the economic system and the competitory environment that exists. Economic construction is an of import determiner of forms of industrial dealingss. If the construction is decentralized, ownership and ownership rights of resources are in the custodies of the private sector that is free to dispose of these resources as they wish. The allotment of resources or distributive facet is decided by the market forces. The size of the economic system and the competitory environment will make up one’s mind on the comparative power that each resource proprietor will hold when negociating. But if the economic system I controlled by the authorities, the ownership and ownership right of resources will be restricted and the competitory environment will be given to be controlled instead than liberalized. The power that is held by each resource proprietor will therefore be restricted. The demand for industrialised agencies of dialogue will be greater instead than the market forces.

5.3.8 Political/legal constructions

The economic constructions of peculiar societies are closely related to their political signifiers and dominant political orientations ( Poole, 1986 ) . Political and legal constructions refer to the type of political system, for illustration broad ; democratic ; societal democratic ; or totalitarism, bing in a society. This is reflected in the manner authorities in the society is established and the powers that the authorities has. The powers of the authorities are exercised through legislative assembly and province or parastatal organic structures. The type of political system determines what powers the different societal categories have in the behavior of public personal businesss and so on the procedure of legislation.

5.3.9 Technology

The incidence of engineering is so widespread in term of societal, economic, and political construction that it has to be discussed in conjuncture with the other structural factors. For illustration the cyberspace has brought so many alterations in economic, societal and political environment that prompted researches at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to prosecute of import research plan to insulate the incidences.

The environment facets discussed supra focused on the power and restraints faced by the societal histrions and how they conceive these factors and respond to them

5.4 Measuring the changing environment

5.4.1 The economic environment

The industrialisation of Mauritius was based chiefly on the EPZ which was able to develop inside a protected economic environment both locally and internationally due to active authorities intercession and discriminatory trade understanding. Companies puting here were looking for stableness, labour cost and discriminatory trade entree to the U.S and Europe which usually restricted to other low cost states due to protectionist steps. The success of the EPZ paved the manner for the development of the other two pillar of the economic system viz. the touristry and service sector.

5.4.2 The societal environment

As stated in subdivision 1.1 there has been a societal division which has built up over clip between the working category and the capital proprietors. Even though he economic growing has created comparatively large center and upper in-between category composed of comparatively educated individuals working in industry, proficient places and in offices, there is still people working below the ceil of poorness. The authorities and more specifically the ministry of societal security, the ministry wellness and ministry of instruction have to pass a of money on societal aid and alleviation in the signifier of free wellness, free instruction, and diverse signifiers of pensions and compensations.

5.4.3 The legal / political environment

The legal environment of an employment dealingss system has been described in above. It is a to a great extent institutionalised system with a batch of authorities. The authorities has been suspected, by trade brotherhoods and the employers, of utilizing the system for the promotion of political aims. Whether true or non, is that the party that has the greater power can act upon the authorities in their manner.

The political matter of Mauritius is non of local consideration entirely. The planetary forces that the consequence of globalization and the domination of multinationals in the universe economic system mean that the authorities can non establish its policies with a local position merely. The WTO, for case, dictates to some extent the type of policies that authorities can follow. The authorities can has to warrant some actions before the WTO or face countenances. The IMF and the World Bank can besides act upon the authorities by the conditioning their assistance or loan.

Economic policies are taken at planetary degrees and to do their voices heard, little states have to organize regional blocks with all the troubles that this could intend in footings of diverging involvement and sovereignty jobs. Small states have besides to buttonhole in forepart of the bigger states will prefer their place state multinationals to safeguard employment and economic growing back place.

5.4.4 The Technological environment

The part of engineering to the alterations in the economic, political/legal or societal environment is tremendous. Refering the economic alterations, Brooks and Guile ( 1987 ) had this to state:

“ A technological alteration, through its impact on the economic sciences of production and on the flow of information, is a principle factor finding the construction of industry on a national graduated table. This has now become true on a planetary graduated table. Long-run technological tendencies and progresss are reconfiguring the location, ownership and direction of assorted types of productive activity among states and parts. The addition easiness with which proficient and market cognition, capital and physical artefacts, and managerial control can be extended around the Earth has made possible the integrating of economic activity in many widely detached locations ” .

Technology is responsible for the creative activity of new merchandises and new markets for these merchandises. The velocity at which engineering evolves makes these sectors extremely competitory. To maintain the impulse, multinationals corporations are incorporating cardinal resources and competency in new and more efficient transition systems on a planetary graduated table. They are replacing unskilled activity once done by inexpensive labor by more efficient machines issued from technological progresss and are turn uping their labour intensive highskill activities like research and development in states where these cognition are present viz. the already developed and industrialized states. This explains the tendency in foreign direct investing and the delocalisation from certain states with low skilled work force.

6.0 Decisions and recommendations

6.1 chief findings

Trade brotherhoods have played an of import function in the development of Mauritius by leting the working category to bask a better life style than usually it would hold been able to. During the rough old ages of development, they give self-respect to the workers. However the environment in which brotherhoods operated is altering. From protected hub to liberated universe, the environment is going more dynamic, competitory and helter-skelter.

They want to better the engineering used in the production procedure to develop new efficient production procedure. They besides want these procedures to be more flexible to accommodate to the market. However, the legal model for employment relationship and work force direction accompanied by the establishments responsible for using the Torahs as described in the first chapter limits the control of internal factors by employers. It is easy to enroll people but the ordinance of the relationship between employers and employees is really complex. The degree of pay is negociated on a annual footing. This means that the employer can non make up one’s mind on the degree of pay that would suit organisational conditions. The colony of difference is at length explained in the Era 2008.

Therefore employees are inquiring that the full legal model be reviewed and that the establishments that exist be restructured to avoid the rigidness that exists in the current employment relation procedure.

These alterations will impact the employees excessively. As the employment relationship is being redefined, their on the job environment, conditions, and wonts will alter. The constructs of occupation security, wage strategy based on senior status and the long-run employment are things of the yesteryear. The tendency is more on Performance Related Pay, mobility and flexibleness. The tendency will besides be to delocalise bing low accomplishment operation to Madagascar for illustration or replace them by high skilled operations or by machines. These tendencies will convey many uncertainnesss particularly for low skilled employees.

With this instability and uncertainness in their income on one side and the lifting cost of populating on the other side, employees are trusting on brotherhoods to protect their involvements.

But brotherhoods can non move in an irresponsible mode, they are witting of the tendency in globalization. They are cognizant that excessively many houses depend on multinationals for investing or foe orders. They are besides cognizant of the demands to be more competitory and can non put on the line the hereafter of the economic system. Therefore, the inquiry about cooperation with employers is going more and more relevant.

However, there is a hazard that cooperation do non win. The ground is that the apparent divergency involvement between employers and employees and diverging values. Mauritius has a capitalist signifier of economic system, even though market mechanism is non allowed to run wholly free of control. Employers tend to hold capitalist values. On the other side it would be hard for brotherhoods to accommodate these diverging involvements and values. The members would coerce brotherhoods to follow a more traditional employee centred attack or lose their part.

In add-on to this, non all workers are educated plenty to understand all the issues and that the environmental alterations explain earlier would convey. Even if the brotherhood launch runs to explicate these issues and jobs, It is non certain that their members would accept that state of affairs. They are more interested in fulfilling their physiological and safety demands. ( Maslow, 1964 ) foremost.

Even if brotherhoods could really corporate with employers, with the understanding of members they may non be in a place to force their thoughts frontward. As it is noted trade brotherhoods are in a quite weak state of affairs. They lack fiscal resource, solidarity, the active support of all members, professional guidance and educated representatives. This means that employers are more in a place to force their ain dockets instead than doing grants to brotherhoods.

The large inquiry that arises is the function authorities intends to play. Despite stating that in the hereafter it may play a lesser function in the employment relationship, the authorities has non shown indicants it intends to play. The authorities is divided into economic worlds and political popularity. There are besides uncertainties refering the actions of authorities in the face of the recommendations of the IMF refering the liberalization of the economic system and the decrease in authorities outgo. However, the reforms in the instruction system and the publicity of the development of proficient accomplishment and other professional accomplishment will better equipe the employees to confront these challenges. The job is that these steps will non give consequence in the immediate hereafter because the development of the accomplishments and reforms in the instruction system takes clip to be implemented and produce consequences.

6.2 Recommendations

Therefore, the attack of trade brotherhoods in the face of these challenges should be to foremost unite themselves to go more powerful and portion resources to be able to enroll professionals. They have to instore duologue amn be amongst themselves to set aside their differences. They have to develop preparation programme for their members in both trade unionism and professional accomplishments. The mere fact of possessing a accomplishment makes an employer more in a place ton negociate than several unskilled workers. It is merely after that, that a more corperative attack can be adopted.

The biggest strength of brotherhoods really is their full international associations. They should non undervalue it. In a universe where determinations are taken at a planetary degree and where little provinces are fring their power to follow their ain policies, these association allow the brotherhoods to do their voice heard and take part in these determinations. Theses association plays an of import function in the Davos Summit or the international labor administration ( ILO ) for illustration, and helps to cut down the negative effects of globalization.

These associations of trade brotherhoods from several states constitute a lobbying force for the acceptance of conventions like the ILO Conventions or Socio – economic determinations at the Davos Summit. These associations are active in many other ways

These international associations besides provide developing installations and counsel to local brotherhoods affiliated to them.

6.3 restrictions of survey

The survey is really restricted, all the constituents have non been analysed and the most of import point is that a sample of merely 30 individuals have been used. With a sample of 30 individuals a good study can non be done, it would be irrelevant.

Appendix 1

Title: Prospects of Trade Unions under altering environment in Mauritius

Purpose: This study is conducted as portion of the demands for the fulfilment of a BSC ( Hons ) Management with jurisprudence at the University Of Technology, Mauritius. It is done to analyze the sentiment that employees have about their trade brotherhoods. All the information given would be kept anon. and confidential.

Instruction manual: The questionnaire is made up of 4 subdivisions ; subdivision 1 is general and can be answered by everyone. If you are a member of a trade brotherhood please reply subdivision 3, nevertheless if you are non a member of a trade brotherhood reply subdivision 4.

These are multiple pick inquiries, you are given 4 or 5 picks, chose the right one or the most relevant 1. You are besides given open complete inquiries.

Section1 ( general )


A 20 – 29

B 30 – 39

C 40 – 49

D 50 – 60

Tocopherol Others ( delight specify )

You work for how many old ages?

A 0 – 5

B 6 – 10

C 11 – 15

D 16 – 20

Tocopherol Others ( delight specify )

What place do you busy really?

A Manual

B Technique

C Administrative

D Scientific / technology

Tocopherol Others ( delight specify )

Section 2

Are you member of a trade brotherhood?

Yes B. No

If yes reply to subdivision 3 ; if no reply to subdivision 4

5 ) Do you believe that workers should be members of trade brotherhoods?

A. Yes B. No

6 ) How is your relationship with your employer?

A Very friendly

B Rather friendly

C Conflicting

D Very conflicting

7 ) How are your conditions of employment?

A Very satisfactory

B Rather satisfactory

C Not plenty satisfactory

D Not satisfactory at all

8 ) How do you see your hereafter in your work?

A Brilliant

B Quite good

C Uncertain

D Very unsure

Tocopherols Do non cognize

9 ) What is the importance of a trade brotherhood to an employee?

A Very of import

B Important

C Not of import

D Not of import at all

10 ) Do trade brotherhoods have a function to play in society?

A A really of import function

B Important function

C Not an of import function

D Not an of import function at all

11 ) How do you see the hereafter of trade brotherhoods?

A Very promising

B Promising

C Difficult

D Very hard

Section 3 ( for those members of trade brotherhoods )

12 ) In your trade brotherhood, you are an active member?

A Very active

B Active

C Passive

D Very inactive

13 ) How do you see the services offered by your trade brotherhood?

A Very satisfactory

B Rather satisfactory

C Not satisfactory

D Not satisfactory at all

14 ) Can you reach representatives of your trade brotherhood?

A Very easy

B Rather easy

C With trouble

D Very difficultly

15 ) Representatives of your trade brotherhood inform you of their activities?

A Frequently

B Frequently plenty

C Rather seldom

D Rarely

16 ) What do you believe of the resources put frontward for your trade brotherhood?

A Satisfactory

B Rather satisfactory

C Rather insufficient

D Insufficient

17 ) You think that

A Head of trade brotherhoods have excessively much privilege

B Head of trade brotherhoods have adequate privilege

C Head of trade brotherhoods do non hold adequate privileges

18 ) What do you anticipate from your trade brotherhood?

Section 4. ( for those who are non members )

19 ) Have you of all time been member of a trade brotherhood?

A Yes B No

If yes what have you leave your trade brotherhood?

A I have change occupation, so hold to go forth

B I do non desire to pay the fees

C I was non satisfied with my trade brotherhood

D I have lose trust in my trade brotherhood

Tocopherol Others ( delight specify )

If your reply is no why have n’t you of all time been a member of a trade brotherhood?

A There is no trade brotherhood for my place

B I do non cognize how to go a member

C My co-workers are non members

D I am non interested in trade brotherhoods, it is of no usage

E The authorities support my rights

F Others ( delight specify )


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