Recent progresss in information engineering and alterations in societal and economic relationships have led single workers and organisations to research assorted types of distributed work agreements ( Venkatesh and Vitalari, 1992, p. 22 ) . One of these working agreements is Flexible Working Arrangement ( FWA ) . FWA are patterns and policies of an organisation that allow workers to hold an option to where and/or when they need to work. The perceptual experience of leting employees their pick as when to get down and complete their working times was foremost introduced in Germany in 1967. At that clip, FWA was seen as a agency of cut downing transposing clip jobs. Shortly after, FWA began to derive disciples in Switzerland as a manner to pull adult females with household duties into the work force. Hence, “ Flexible working agreements in houses have been identified as one of import agencies of equilibrating work and other committednesss ” ( O’Connell, P.J. , McGinnity, F. , and Russell, H. 2009 ) . FWA major aim is to enable the company ‘s employees to pull off their work better without compromising their household duties. FWA includes part-time or decreased on the job hours, flexitime, occupation sharing, tight workweeks, family-related foliages and other foliages, calling interruptions, and teleworking. These working agreements are besides frequently referred to as family-friendly, work-family, or more late work-life policies ( Cooper and Robertson, 2003 ) . This FWA implies an employee focal point, but the extent to which these policies chiefly profit employees or employers, particularly in the 24/7 economic system ( Presser, 1998 ) . However, FWA has besides become topic of difference in the workplace because of its negative impact into the workplace which leads to the misinterpretation among co-workers and among employee and employer.
1.2 Overview of Flexible Work Arrangement in Singapore
FWA has increased in Singapore but it has non established widely in the state. These are the findings from “ Conditionss of Employment, 2008 ” reported by the Ministry of Manpower ‘s Research and Statistics Department on the consequences of the Labour Market Survey conducted in mid 2008 ( Ministry of Manpower, 2008 ) . In add-on, FWA in Singapore is more motivated towards operational efficiency instead than employee ‘s public assistance. This is evidenced by the comparatively greater usage of part-time and impermanent working as compared to other flexible work agreements like flexi-time and occupation sharing ( Manpower Research and Statistics Department, January 22, 1999 ) .
2.1 Conditionss of Employment in Singapore
Employers are traveling off from the cardinal statutory demands to offer a scope of household friendly benefits, one of this is the usage of FWAs here in Singapore. Because of the turning figure of adult females in the labour force and the societal weight put upon to adult females to go on a primary function in the household, the Singapore authorities has sought to bring forth a balance between these two functions. Cherlyn Granrose stated that, Singapore has promoted assorted policies and enterprises to make direct and indirect long-standing impacts on the place of adult females and the public assistance of the Singapore society at big ( 2005, p. 129 ) .
In the past decennaries, there has been a encouragement in portion of improved qualified workers who preferred more constructive leave benefits and this has led to an addition in the per centum of employees who are entitled to at least 15 yearss of paid one-year leave from 31 per centum in 1992 to 39 per centum in 2008 in the private sector.A Including the populace sector, the portion was somewhat higher at 41 per centum in 2008.A The proportion of private sector employees on FWA increased from 5.1 per centum in 2006 to 7.4 per centum in 2008. Together with the populace sector, the figure of employees on FWA was higher at 9.4 per centum in 2008, elevated by a important per centum of public sector employees on staggered hours.
An tremendous proportion of organisations granted non-statutory leave benefits such as matrimony leave and compassionate leave to their employees. 85 per centum of constitutions granted compassionate leave while 70 per centum gave matrimony leave.A A important proportion of constitutions besides granted paternity leave 47 per centum to their employees. The five twenty-four hours work hebdomad continued to be the norm, with a higher measure of employees now on this agreement than two old ages ago ( from 43 % in 2006 to 44 % in 2008 ) . The six twenty-four hours work hebdomad ( 18 % ) , five and half twenty-four hours ( 15 % ) and shift work ( 14 % ) accounted for less than one in five employees each in 2008 in Singapore.
Flexible work agreement in Singapore can be seen in different sort of industry but is more preferable in the commercialism sector ( Kochan amd Ladsbury 1995, p. 68 ) .
2.2 Tripartite Programs for Flexible Work Arrangement in Singapore
Tripartite plan is the accrued terminal consequences of the coaction among the three histrions ( authorities, brotherhood and direction ) in Dunlop ‘s theoretical account. Ministry of Manpower ( MOM ) in Singapore has been promoting companies to present Best Work-Life Practices which include Flexible Work Arrangement ( FWA ) . Tan Chwee Huat points out that, Flexible Work Arrangements ( FWAs ) are offered by companies to enable its employees to better manage work and household duties ( 2007, p. 359 ) . Last August 2004, the National Tripartite Advisory Panel ( NTAP ) has issued sets of guidelines on Family Friendly Work-Place to back up and promote different organisations to pattern such patterns and these guidelines cover two countries: the basic rules on following household friendly workplace patterns and using pregnant employees and those with immature kids.
The general rule of these patterns is to handle and retain employees based on their virtue and non because of their conditions ( gestation, childbearing or pregnancy leave ) . Tan Chwee Huat stated that, employment patterns and benefits should be reasonably applied to all classs of workers which includes staff who are non covered by the Employment Act, every bit good as employees on non-traditional work agreements such as those in flexi-time agreements ( including part-time ) and contract ( 2207, p. 361 ) .
Tan Chwee Huat besides added that, Employers should guarantee that all employees are eligible to be considered for available FWAs ( 2007, p. 359 ) . Nevertheless there are occupations that are non suited for FWA, as a consequence the three-party commission comes out with different guidelines prior to the execution of FWAs.
2.2.1 Tripartite Guidelines on Flexible Work Agendas
To vouch that the executing of FWS is in the good involvement of both employees and employers, steering rule has been issued to companies which can be apply to MOM for permission to implement FWS.
The Guidelines are as follows:
Reasons for Implementing Income Stability
Occupational Safety and Health
Addition Sharing for Employees
Consent signifier Unions an Employees
Regular Review and Renewal, of Exemptions
These guidelines are utile non to mistreat this type of working agreement and to do certain that this agreement is cater to the most worth employees who genuinely need this type of working agreement to travel back into the work force. FWS besides benefit employees, Tan Chwee Huat states that, while employees may confront possible loss of overtime wage, they are assured of a stable monthly income and greater occupation security ( 2007, p. 365 ) .
2.3 Impact of Flexible Work Arrangement to ER System in Singapore
The Steering Committee suggested that, a good employment relation involves different attacks and different value judgements about relationship at the workplace ( NB, 185b ) . In Singapore context the four chief illustrations of FWAs are: flexi-time, tight work agenda, parttime and telecommuting and this type of agreements comes with negative and positive impact into the workplace.
2.3.1 Advantage of Flexible Work Agreement
FWA allows responsible workers the flexibleness to be after their ain work agendas, encouragements morale, and strengthens trueness to the house. Hence, FWA enables companies to hike productiveness and fight every bit good as to minimise retrenchments during economic downswing. FWA attracts adult females to acquire back into the work force without compromising their family and rearing duties. However, offering flexible work agreements can affect a paradigm displacement for organisations, particularly smaller 1s that may non hold the critical mass of engineering, budget, direction and competitory flexibleness necessary to do extended usage of flexible work agreements ( Bliss and Thornton, 2006, p. 21 ) .
2.3.2 Disadvantage of Flexible Work Agreement
FWA comes with jobs and challenges: It places a heavier weight on directors in footings of supervising and programming of employee ‘s on the job clip ; some staff may defy its execution, particularly if certain sum of range and tolerance has already been permitted under the bing system. In add-on certain employees will be excluded from the flexible clip agreement in order to keep the concern flowing, and this might do discourtesy among those that have non selected from this agreement.
Singapore is slow in accommodating FWA as FWA is a new construct in Singapore compared to other Western states. However, exerting FWA enables organisations to pull and retain endowments who are assets to the company and the chief subscriber in assisting their organisations to accomplish success in the long-run. In every new plans and/or agreements in organisations comes with its negative and positive effects in ER systems. A thorough apprehension prior to the execution of each agreement is a must to meticulously see avoiding negative issues in the workplace.
Therefore, FWA must be implemented without compromising the company ‘s ends and aims. Prior to the execution of FWA, organisations should be after on the cardinal issues in audience with their CEOs and relevant employees such as HR and other executives in the company. Some of the cardinal issues are: eligibility standards of the persons, compensation and benefits, calling construction and chances, preparation and development, and the right of the employee to return to full clip work.
Employment relation issues towards flexible work agreements in Singapore could be addressed by the interaction of the authorities, brotherhoods and direction or otherwise we called Tripartism. The positive terminal consequences of FWAs should take to heighten the ER systems in Singapore, which would assist increase the Singapore Company ‘s productiveness. With all the companies in Singapore being productive, the Singapore economic system will be productive as good, which will profit the Singapore people at big. Any organisations should non know apart workers because of their household duties, alternatively organisations should concentrate on the employee ‘s virtue. FWA is one of the good agreements in an organisation because it helps to construct a family-friendly plan where you do n’t necessitate to give your clip for your household in exchange to give them a financially stable life. A good employment relation means understanding what the workers ‘ demand and non merely the employers ‘ demand.