Effect Of Dc Current And Ac Current Biology Essay

For this undertaking, the chief aim is to analyze and make comparing between the consequence of DC current and AC current electroplating techniques on electrodeposition procedure. An experiment apparatus has been realized in order to make research on DC and AC electrodeposition procedure.DC current electroplating technique was foremost implemented to make research.

This is because the electrodeposition procedure is usually carried out by utilizing a DC current alternatively of an AC current. Therefore, one of the chief aims of this undertaking is to detect how the AC current would do an consequence in electrodeposition procedure. Resistance measurings consequences from the deposition home base will be obtained for difference electroplating conditions. Meanwhile, the observation on the surface morphology of deposition home base utilizing AFM ( atomic force microscopes ) machine besides will be performed.The undertaking started off by making a elaborate research on the basic theory, stuff used and setup method of electroplating. First, chemical reactions in electrodeposition procedure are studied.Based on research, stuff of this undertaking used are copper home base and Cu sulphate, CuSO4 solution in footings of low costs, low opposition and common used in current industry.Other than that, the opposition measuring consequences will be obtained by interface of LabVIEW within those setups such as power supply, keithley 2000 multiammeter and keithley 6485 picoammeter.

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Meanwhile, DC current electroplating and AC curremt electroplating apparatus will hold a difference on power supply setup used. It used DC power supply and map generator severally.Last, the comparing between AC current electrodeposition and DC current electrodeposition will be performed. These comparings include their opposition and status of plating surface morphology by AFM machine.

1.3 Motivation

Many experts believe that the enlargement of the electronics industry will be progressively dependent on new and advanced electroplating engineering [ 1 ] .The electronics industry and the demands to back up the enlargement of their implicit in substructure continue to drive betterments worldwide in the electroplating industry [ 1 ] . However, how the AC current electroplating influences the electrodeposition procedure is non to the full developed yet.

Therefore, it would be disputing and interesting to research and larn the basic theory of electrodeposition and some of the existent experiment. It would be a fillip if worked in the R & A ; D field.

1.4 Purpose of Report

This undertaking includes a comprehensive survey on DC current electrodeposition procedure ; but the focal point is given on AC current electrodeposition procedure. This undertaking is divided into two chief facets usually research and experiment.

The consequences for electrodeposition procedure will besides be discussed in this study. The methodological analysis and tools used to finish this undertaking besides will be provided in this study. All the advancement will be discussed in inside informations to supply understanding for all readers.

1.5 Thesis Organizations

This study consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 provides a brief description of the aims and purposes of this undertaking. The motive and overviews of the undertaking are besides discussed in this chapter.

In Chapter 2, theoretical background of DC current and AC current electroplating procedure, cardinal rules to implement this undertaking and theory of measuring are provided.Following in Chapter 3, an overview of the methodological analysis applies in the undertaking is provided. The hardware and package used and the stairss in wining this undertaking are described.

In Chapter 4, the informations consequences of the experiment in the signifiers of line graph, figure and tabular array are carried out. On the other manus, the farther treatment of the consequences besides will be provided.Last in Chapter 5, decision of the undertaking and some recommendations for possible future developments of the undertaking are given.


2.1 History of Electroplating

The find of electroplating is an first-class innovation. Without the brilliant scientific and research worker in few decennaries ago, electroplating techniques might non present today and electroplating techniques would non widen used in different manner of applications. A chemist Luigi V. Brugnatelli from Italy had discovered the electroplating technique in 1805 [ 7 ] .

However, those innovations were concealed by the Gallic Academy of Sciences. Hence, general industry that clip non used Brugnatelli ‘s innovation and all the plants was anon. outside of Italy.Gold electroplating was introduced and developed at twelvemonth 1800 ‘s to 1845. By the manner, two types of gold electroplating dependently with costs were discovered. For low costs, really low concentration of gilded chloride solution is used to surface thin bed of gold onto cheap objects. For cherished objects required, higher gold chloride concentration used to lodge thick bed over a surface.Scientists in Britain and Russia had independently come out a metal deposition processes that corresponded with Brugnatelli ‘s Cu electroplating of publishing imperativeness home bases in 1839 [ 2 ] .

Soon, scientists from England named John Wright discovered that gold and Ag electroplating can be invented utilizing K nitrile as solution [ 7 ] . Wright ‘s associates, George Elkington and Henry Elkington were awarded the first patents for electroplating in 1840 [ 7 ] .As cardinal rule of electrochemistry broadens, range of the applicable country utilizing electroplating procedures was increased.

The used of bright Ni, Ag and Zn for electroplating procedure were accommodated in commercial intents. With the exclusion of some proficient betterments to direct current ( District of Columbia ) power supplies, the period from 1870 to 1940 was a quiet period, characterized by gradual betterments in fabrication procedures, anodal rules and plating bath expressions [ 7 ] . In the mid-1940, the improvement of electroplating technique was discovered due to the outgrowth of electronics industrial.Based on the footing behaviours of electrochemical, development in chemical field has led to sophisticated plating bath expressions.

Therefore, better plating thickness controlled with greater plating rate and high quality plating is enabled due to new chemical development. One the other set, the electroplating of alien stuffs such as Pt, Ru and Os are now happening broader uses on electronic connections, circuit boards and contacts [ 1 ] .With more progresss used of electroplating techniques, it was benefits the industrial presents. For illustration, cars industries use Cr plating to protecting steel constituent such as boilers, tower tracks and auto bumper. The figure 2.1 and 2.2 below shows applications of electroplating.

Figure 2.1: Kettles Figure 2.2: Tower TracksFor electronics industries application, interconnect in IC and electronics devices are enhanced by electroplating techniques to make full up the trenches and contact via. From the research, the electroplating technique used in the electronic semiconducting material presents was DC current techniques.Presents, development in electroplating techniques with DC power supplies is led in the electroplating use with its accomplishment.

Meanwhile, AC electroplating techniques besides get attending due to better electroplating result is expected. However, research respects AC electroplating is still non to the full development. More research and accomplishment utilizing AC electroplating is needed to turn out the result in footings of surface raggedness, ability to make full via and uniformity plating is comparable with DC electroplating techniques.

2.2 Electroplating Procedure

In the recent decennary, electroplating technique is undergoing development from an art to an exact scientific discipline. Following betterment of engineering, the ability to lodge really thin multilayer ( less than a millionth of a centimeter ) via electroplating represents yet a new avenue of bring forthing new stuffs [ 2 ] . Therefore, electroplating has widening types of applications in technological countries such as electronic constituent and car industry ( for illustration, it used chrome plating to protect metal constituent ) .

One of the common grounds for electroplating is economic system and convenience. However, DC current electroplating technique was common used in current engineering alternatively of AC current electroplating technique. From research in recent plants, AC current electroplating has gained high attending because of superior sedimentation belongingss may be obtained [ 4 ] . Meanwhile, many experts besides believed that null free, low emphasis and really smooth deposition can merely be achieved by the usage of AC current plating [ 5 ] .

Figure 2.3: Structure of an electroplating apparatus for plating metal “ M ” from a solutionof the metal salt “ MA ” .Electroplating is besides called “ electrodeposition ” and these footings are interchangeable [ 3 ] . Electrodeposition is the procedure of bring forthing a coating, normally metallic, on a surface by the action of electric current [ 6 ] . For farther apprehension of readers, figure 2.3 shows basic construction of an electroplating apparatus for plating metal “ M ” from a solution of the metal salt “ MA ” . A wire from positive terminus of power supply is connected to anode metal while wire from negative terminus is connected to cathode metal. Then solution of the metal salt “ MA ” is filled to plunge the metal.

The procedure of bring forthing surfacing between cathode and anode would get down to respond under applied electric current. The equation 2.1 below shows reaction of electroplating procedure happened at cathode metal.Mn+ + ne- = M ( 2.1 )On the other manus, this equation 2.2 below is shows reaction of electroplating procedure happened at anode metal.

M = Mn+ + ne- ( 2.2 )The cathode metal to be coated is connected to the negative terminus, negatively charge anions electron, ne- produced to pull cations, Mn+ deposited on cathode metal, M. At the anode home base, positively charge cations, Mn+ produced and migrated to cathode home base which attracted by anions, ne- . Therefore, cathode metal was coated by Mn+ and the decrease of metal occurred at anode metal.

2.3 Restriction

There are a few restrictions utilizing electroplating method.

First, the procedure electroplating is extremely depending on the feature of metal to obtain unvarying plating. Therefore, it is really of import to carry on a proper survey on the plating metal used. Furthermore, the surface cleansing method is applied to increase the plating rate to a satisfied degree. Second, there is the restriction of opposition and current measuring due to measurement setup. Therefore, measuring utilizing 4 point investigation method with its high truth and stable features were introduced. Last, the high sensitiveness and high graduated table microscopes such as atomic force microscopes machine ( AFM ) are indispensable to analyze the status of electroplating surface.

This is because the deposited metal is micron to nanometre-scale of surface thickness on plating metal.

2.4 Material Used in Previous Work

Harmonizing the research, assorted type of metal such as Cu, Zn, argentums, gold, Pt and so on are widely used for electroplating. Most of the concerns respects metal used are in footings of cost, handiness and its belongingss. Among those stuffs, applications of electroplating utilizing Cu were extremely get attending by current research worker in industrial.

2.5 Surface Cleaning Method

Dust, contaminations and movies on surface are the factor that causes the restriction of uniformity plating. However, method to take those drosss on surfaces is of import to avoid harm and abrasion produced.

Therefore, chemical and mechanical attack of surface cleansing method is studied to acquire uniformity surface plating.


1 Chemical Approach

Types of chemical attacks for surface cleansing are solvent degreasing, alkalic cleansing and acid cleansing. Solvent Degreasing

Solvent degreasing is utilizing appropriate organic dissolvers to take contaminations such as oil, lubricating oil and dross organic stuffs. Table 2.5.

1.1 below shows three most common degreasing dissolver used and their belongingss.Table 2.1: Properties of Common Degreasing Solvent UsedFurthermore, solvent degreasing has two degreasing systems which are liquid stage degreasing and vapour stage degreasing.


5.1.2 Alkaline Cleaning

Work pieces are immersed in armored combat vehicles of hot alkaline cleaning solutions to take soil and solid dirt [ 11 ] . There are few types of influenced can impact the alkaline cleansing agent such as type of footing metal, type and concentration of the cleansing agent, cleaner temperature and the clip of submergence.


5.1.3 Acid Cleaning

Acid cleansing can travel heavy graduated table, heat-treat graduated table, oxide, and the similar [ 11 ] . Sulphate acid and hydrochloric was the most common used acid for cleaning method. To be more effectual, pickling is connected with current during acerb cleansing procedure.


2 Mechanical Approach

There are two types of mechanical attack used such as smoothing and buffing. Polishing is to take little sums of metal by agencies of abradants [ 11 ] . It produces a surface that is free of the larger imperfectnesss left by crunching, and is a preliminary to buffing [ 11 ] . Buffing is similar to shining, but uses finer abradants to take really small metal [ 11 ] . An highly smooth surface was produce by buffing attack.


6 Measurement Method

Measurement method of electroplating is normally in footings of current, opposition to associate with studied of the surface morphology. Therefore, the electroplating procedure on surface can be proven from the measuring consequences and surface probe procedure. In order to mensurate low electric resistance of thin house, 4 point investigation method is introduced. For survey the surface morphology, atomic force microscopy, AFM is introduced. More inside informations theory of 4 point investigation and AFM is introduced severally as below.

2.6.1 Theory of 4 Point Probe Method

The intent of four point investigations used is to mensurate the sheet opposition of thin movie or majority opposition. Basically, there are two methods of opposition measuring which is 2 point investigation and 4 point investigation method. The difference between them is an extra 2 investigation is used in 4 point method for measured the electromotive force potency of the surface.

However, it besides has failing to utilizing 2 point method step the opposition. The failings were the unwanted opposition such as contact opposition, Rc produced between investigation and sample surface while distributing opposition, Rsp is produced during current flow into sample surface by the manner opposition surface Rs is the lone opposition to be concerned. Therefore, the entire opposition obtained would be increased refer to equation 2.3.Rtotal = Voltage, ( V ) /Current, ( I ) = 2Rc + 2Rsp + Rs ( 2.3 )With the used of extra 2 investigation to mensurate electromotive force of sample surface in 4 point investigation method, those unwanted opposition Rsp and Rc can be eliminated. Figure 2.

4 below shows schematic of 4 point investigation.Figure 2.4: Schematic of 4 Point Probe4 investigations are connected to movie in a row with “ s ” spacing. A high electric resistance current beginning is placed between two outer investigations.

On the other manus, voltmeter is placed between 2 interior investigations. The measuring of 4 point investigation is started with injected current through two outer investigations ; electromotive force is step between two interior investigations to find the sample opposition and the utilizing equation 2.4,V2 = I?I/2Iˆs ( 2.4 )Where “ I? ” is the electric resistance of a stuff, “ I ” is the current in the investigation, and “ s ” is the distance between the electromotive force measuring and the current investigation.Using figure 2.2, the equation 2.5 used to mensurate electromotive force at investigation 2, V2 is,V2 = I?I/2Iˆ { ( 1/s1 ) – ( 1/ ( s2+s3 ) ) } ( 2.5 )For the equation electromotive force at investigation 3, V3 is,V3 = I?I/2Iˆ { ( 1/ ( s1+ s2 ) ) – ( 1/s3 ) } ( 2.

6 )Therefore, the entire electromotive force by subtract electromotive force at V2 with V3 is,V = I?I/2Iˆ { ( 1/s1 ) + ( 1/s3 ) – ( 1/ s2+s3 ) ) – ( 1/ ( s1+s2 ) ) } ( 2.7 )Rearranging to acquire the electric resistance,I? = 2Iˆ ( V/I ) / { ( 1/s1 ) + ( 1/s3 ) – ( 1/ ( s2+s3 ) ) – ( 1/ ( s1+s2 ) ) } ( 2.8 )However, if all investigation spacing, s is every bit, equation 2.

8 is reduced to,I?= 2Iˆs ( V/I ) ( 2.9 )Hence, with the fixed current and measuring of electromotive force, the opposition of material surface is obtained harmonizing the Ohm ‘s jurisprudence. This is resistance equation based Ohm ‘s jurisprudence,R= ( V/I ) ( 2.10 )Where “ R ” is opposition ( ohms, I© ) , “ V ” is electromotive force ( Vs, V ) and “ I ” is current ( amperes, A ) .

Besides that, the constellation of current beginning and voltmeter will be changed dependently with opposition of sample to be measured. For high opposition sample, current demand to cut down to avoid inordinate big electromotive force at the contacts. On the other manus, the measuring is different for low opposition sample. Current is required to increase and the voltmeter is set to a lower graduated table.Other than that, there besides have restrictions of measuring capableness needed to be concerned. At first, the investigations must be able to do ohmic contact with the stuff [ 12 ] . Second, merely 100 ‘s of Angstroms up to 1 micrometer thickness of thin movies can be measured.

Next, current through the investigation is best restricted to 10 mas because of warming effects and inordinate current denseness at the investigation tips [ 12 ] . Lastly, an dirty sample or a sample that has surface doping will take to inaccurate figures due to an impeded ohmic contact or current escape [ 12 ] .


6.2 Theory of Atomic Force Microscopy ( AFM )

The Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM is being applied to surveies of phenomena such as scratch, adhesion, cleansing, corrosion, etching, clash, lubrication, plating, and smoothing. The intent of utilizing Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM is due to its ability to mensurate surface atoms that are highly little. Besides that, atomic force microscope besides able to supply topographic information from surface measured with 3 dimensional, 3D.

From the figure 2.5 below, it shows how AFM works. First, the AFM all right stylus is mounted on terminal of cantilever spring and move in Z way to near the sample. Meanwhile, sensor which acts as light degree detector to observe the warp of the cantilever. Then, force detector and feedback control is required to mensurate the force and maintain the “ fixed ” distance between tips and sample during scanning surface.Figure 2.5: Basic Principle of AFMOther than that, AFM has 3 types runing manner of surface mensurating techniques as figure 2.6 below shows.

Figure 2.6: Operating Mode of AFMFirst runing manner was introduced is contact manner. During scanning the surface, the stylus is followed the topography of the surface. At the same clip, an highly low force ( ~10-9 N, interatomic force scope ) of the investigation is kept changeless [ 14 ] . However the failing of contact manner is the inordinate trailing forces applied by the investigation to the sample might do harm. Following, the non-contact manner is introduced to work out the contact manner ‘s failing. Stylus is move in the air during scanning the sample surface.

Attractive Van der Waals forces moving between the tip and the sample are detected, and topographic images are constructed by scanning the tip above the surface. Last, tapping manner is introduced. AFM tip-cantilever lights-outs the sample surface while rastering and merely touch the sample at the underside of each oscillation [ 14 ] . The advantages of tapping manner is can be performed on both wet and dry sample surfaces, prevents the tip from lodging to the surface and causing harm during scanning.

Chapter 3: Methodology

This chapter discusses about the methodological analysis used and the experiment apparatus to carry through this undertaking.

This undertaking is chiefly about research and experiment that divide into two parts. For portion I, DC current electroplating experiment will be conducted and portion II will carry on AC current electroplating experiment. Each portion is making same measuring such as electrical belongingss and analyze surface morphology. To win in realized this experiment ; there exist 5 phases, which are:

3.1 Research

In order to implement a good experiment, research was the first measure. Information about implementing the experiment was studied through mention books, diaries and cyberspace beginnings.

Information that was studied includes pros and cons of different stuff used, current and opposition measuring during electroplating and the machine used to make probe on surface morphology of electroplating. On the other manus, difference between DC current electroplating and AC electroplating apparatus were studied excessively. This information was of import because they were the chief standards to carry through this experiment.

3.2 Setting and Studied Materials, Software and Apparatus Usage to Implement

Electroplating Experiment

After sufficient research was done, stuffs and setup used to implement electroplating experiment were chosen and gathered. The stuffs used are copper metal, Cu sulfate solution and sulfuric acerb solution.

Besides that, the setup used are DC power supply, map generator, Keithley 2000 multiammeter, keithley 6485 picoammeter and PH 5/6 metre. In order to link setup and stuffs, package named LabView is used. By the manner, those stuffs ‘ features are really of import because chemical stuff is unsafe and harmful. Therefore, safeguard method during manage it can be implemented. Other than that, farther studied on those setups ‘ features used are of import excessively. Therefore, false connexion that will do the harm or malfunction on setup can be prevented.

3.2.1 Setting, Characteristic and Usage of Materials

The scene, characteristic and use of stuffs were introduced severally as below: Copper

Copper metal was chosen as electroplating metal due to its low opposition, low cost and good conduction belongingss. The thickness of Cu metal used is 0.

05mm and considered as thin movie.


1.2 Solution Copper Sulphate, CuSo4 A· 5H2O

Besides that, electrolyte solution used is copper sulfate, CuSO4A· 5H2O. Harmonizing the theory of electroplating, Cu ion in electrolyte solution produced by action of current will be coated on cathode metal during procedure. On the other manus, Cu ion coated on surface can supply good conduction belongingss and it besides easier to bring forth Cu ion by applied lower current. Acid Cleaning, Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4Acid cleansing is the cleansing method used to take dross on metal surface and heighten its plating rate.

The common used of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 with 98 % of concentration in acerb cleansing were chosen. First, 98 % of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 is poured into 400ml of distill H2O. Then Cu is immersed for 10 proceedingss to make the cleansing. Due to the acidic feature of sulfuric acid is hazard and able to do terrible Burnss, oculus defender and glove needed to have on during grip it.

3.2.2 Setting, Characteristic and Usage of Software

The scene, characteristic and use of package were introduced severally as below: LabVIEW Software

LabVIEW is a in writing user interface, GUI package to do an interface between measurement device and plating sample for electroplating procedure.

Therefore, simulated consequences during measuring can be obtained at the same clip.

3.2.3 Setting, Characteristics and Usage of Apparatus

The scene, characteristic and use of setup were introduced severally as below: DC Power Supply

At portion I, DC power supply in exposure 3.

1 shows act as beginning to execute DC electroplating experiment. The scope of electromotive force provided by DC power supply is broad. However, 50mV is fixed as changeless electromotive force for the experiment.Photograph 3.1: DC Power Supply


2 Function Generator

For portion II, AC current electroplating experiment is performed. Therefore, DC power supply beginning in experiment Part I is replaced by utilizing map generator and 50mV electromotive force is still fixed for experiment. Besides that, two frequence parametric quantities were set which is 50Hz and 125Hz parametric quantity. Reason for puting frequence is to avoid noises produced during electroplating procedure and affected consequences. Photo 3.2 below shows function generator used in experiment.Photograph 3.2: Function GeneratorBefore perform AC electroplating experiment, amplitude of map generator is set utilizing CRO.

Function generator amplitude was set to 2V from extremum to top out. Photo 3.3 CRO shows the wave form that was set to 2V.Photograph 3.3: Oscilloscope


2.3.3 Keithley 2000 Multiammeter

In order to mensurate the opposition of Cu metal during electroplating procedure, Keithley 2000 multiammeter measuring device shows as figure 3.1 is chosen. Red circle shows on figure 3.1 is indicated four holes point where opposition is measured by 4 point investigation method. This device can make measurement with fast, truth and extremely stable status.

Figure 3.1: Keithley 2000 Multiammeter Keithley 6485 Picoammeter

Besides making measuring on opposition, current measuring besides performed utilizing keithley 6485 picoammeter as figure 3.2 showed. This measuring device has few features such as low electromotive force load, high truth current measuring up to nano-scale amperes and map of high velocity car scope.Figure 3.

2: Keithley 6485 Picoammeter pH 5/6 & A ; Ion 5/6 Meter

pH 5/6 & A ; Ion 5/6 metre measuring as figure 3.

3 shows is used to mensurate pH degree of the electrolyte before electroplating and after electroplating procedure done. Measurement of electrolyte pH degree is of import to guarantee concentration of solution unchanged. Hence, alterations of concentration during electroplating that would do inconsistently consequence obtained are avoided. This measurement device is economical and easy to utilize. The pH 5 indicates map of steps pH and temperature ( oC ) while the pH 6 is map of steps pH, millivolt and temperature [ 13 ] . Ion 5/6 allows ion concentration measuring of assorted ions ( glandular fever and divalence ) and mV [ 13 ] . Besides Ion/mV manners, Ion 6 has pH and temperature ( oC ) measuring manners [ 13 ] .Figure 3.

3: pH 5/6 & A ; Ion 5/6 Meter device

3.3 Materials Preparation

Materials readying is the undermentioned measure after the setup apparatus ready.

3.3.1 Copper Preparation and Acid Cleaning

First, little Cu metal is cut into zig-zag form is shows as exposure 3.4. This zigzag form metal is act as cathode metal for the experiment.

Main intent of cutting the metal zigzag is to command its opposition harmonizing the theory of conductive opposition. Theory of conductive opposition is proven by equation 3.1 below shows.( 3.1 )Where “ I? ” is a changeless electric resistance dependently with the stuff used. For Cu, its electric resistance is 1.678*10-8 ohm-centimetre ( I©-cm ) [ 15 ] . Besides that, “ cubic decimeter ” is length of Cu metal while “ A ” is the cross-sectional country of Cu metal.

From here, it indicated Cu opposition is increase if the length is longer.Photograph 3.4: Zigzag Shape MetalNext, a rectangular form of Cu is cut and Acts of the Apostless as anode metal. Then, cathode Cu metal and the anode Cu metal cut were immersed into 34ml of 98 % H2SO4 acidic in 250ml H2O for 10 minute.

The metal were taken out and washed by distill H2O after 10 minute.

3.3.2 CuSO4 Solution Preparation

For solution readying measure, 80g of CuSO4A· 5H2O pulverization is measured so poured into beaker contains 400ml of distilled H2O. The pulverization is dissolved in distilled H2O and splash with rod easy. On the order manus, warmer is set to 60 oC and it used to do certain pulverization signifier is to the full dissolved in distilled H2O. The exposure 3.5 below shows heater used during solution readying.

Photograph 3.5: Heater with Beaker contains Solution

3.3.3 Precaution during Material Preparation

During managing with stuff, there are some measure is needed to safeguard.Wear oculus defenderWear the baseball mittNo direct managing contact with stuffUse tweeze to managing stuff

3.4 Experiment Procedures

Refer to the setup, features and uses have been studied at old measure.

The connexion between setup and stuffs apparatus is showed as figure 3.4 below. Sample showed in the figure 3.4 are the stuffs used such as Cu metal and Cu sulfate solution. After the setup scene, solution readying, material readying and acid cleansing is performed, DC current electroplating experiment in Part I is implemented as figure 3.4 setup apparatus shows below.

First, LabVIEW package to do interface between measuring setup with sample is set. Second, electromotive force power supply is set to 50mV. Following, wire used for opposition measuring setup keithley 2000 multiammeter and current measuring setup keithley 6485 picoammeter is plugged in.

Figure 3.4: Connection of Apparatus with Materials SetupThen, more elaborate connexion of setup with stuffs is showed as exposure 3.6. After the setup and stuffs is prepared, cathode Cu metal and anode Cu metal is put in beaker.

Positive terminus is connected to anode Cu metal while negative terminus is connected to cathode Cu metal. As showed, four point investigations from keithley 2000 multiammeter are connected to cathode Cu metal. Then, opposition of cathode Cu metal is start measured after poured 40g CuSO4A· 5H2O concentration of solution in beaker. Power supply is turn on for 40 proceedingss continuously.

This measure is repeated for 10g CuSO4A· 5H2O concentration of solution. The measured information is collected.Photograph 3.6: Connection of Apparatus with MaterialsHowever, the experiment processs for AC current electroplating experiment in Part II is repeated as described above during apparatus in experiment Part I. Besides that, the lone one alteration which is the DC power supply during DC current electroplating is replaced with map generator to provide AC current during AC current electroplating experiment.

The scene for map generator is set as described earlier. After performed the AC and DC current electroplating experiment, all opposition measuring informations is gathered and graph is plotted.

3.5 Studied Surface Morphology Procedures

After electroplating experiment done, the cathode metal is taken out to make come up morphology studied by AFM. The AFM used is showed as exposure 3.7 below.Photograph 3.

7: Structure of AFM MachineFirst, solid frame pump is turned on in order to back up the full AFM microscope. Meanwhile, it besides can avoid quiver during scanned. Then, package named nanosuft easy scan2 is clicked to run the AFM microscope. Following, cathode metal sample is cut into little pieces and placed on the glass. Following, the sample is placed on the phase and transcriber is adjusted to do the AFM caput approached the surface sample.

Now, “ attack ” is clicked and the transcriber would be adjusted until surface sample started reading as showed in exposure 3.8. At imaging country, to acquire better declaration of image, image size “ 10Aµm ” , time/line 1 s, points/line “ 256 ” values is set severally. The scanning surface procedure will halt when scanning procedure ended. Consequences of scanning image are saved in bitmap format.

The same stairss are repeated for following samples.Photograph 3.8: Nanosurf Easy Scan2 Operating Software

Chapter 4: Consequence AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 DC Current Electroplating Results and DiscussionsRefer to appendix A and B, the opposition difference, Rdifferent and surface raggedness, Rq figure 4.

1 as below shows is plotted. From the figure 4.1, the comparings between the opposition difference, Rdifferent and surface raggedness, Rq with different types of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml concentration is observed. Besides, it besides showed a tendency that surface raggedness, Rq is increased when opposition different, Rdifferent increased. However, how opposition different, Rdifferent related between oppositions before electroplating, R before and opposition after electroplating, R after would be explained more elaborate.*nm = x10-9m*mm = x10-3mFigure 4.

1: Comparisons between Resistance Different, Rdifferent and SurfaceRoughness, Rq with Different Types of ConcentrationThe method calculated the difference between oppositions is showed at equation 4.1, where oppositions before electroplating, R before subtract opposition after electroplating, R after. The value of opposition before and opposition after electroplating is referred to appendix A.

R different = R before – Roentgen after ( 4.1 )The opposition different is higher when higher oppositions after electroplating, R after shows diminishing marks and much lower value than oppositions before electroplating, R before is of import to turn out the coating on Cu surface was obtained during deposition procedure. Lower the oppositions obtained after electroplating, R after, higher the surface country.

It is supported by theory of conductive opposition harmonizing equation 4.2.( 4.

2 )Where “ I? ” is a changeless electric resistance dependently with the stuff used. For Cu, its electric resistance is 1.678*10-8 ohm-centimetre ( I©-cm ) [ 15 ] . Besides that, “ cubic decimeter ” is length of Cu metal while “ A ” is the cross-sectional country of Cu metal.

So, the tendency from figure 4.1 is higher opposition different is showed at higher concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml and theoretically the surface country besides increased than low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml.However, increasing country of plating surface is theoretical proven with refer to calculate 4.1. For more item, surfacing on Cu surface can be observed utilizing AFM. Figure 4.2 and 4.

3 below shows the observation obtained from 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O /400ml surface sample while figure 4.4 and 4.5 below shows the observation obtained from 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml surface sample.Sq=21.3nmFigure 4.2: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.3: Rapid climb In 3D Image From10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.

2 with2.11Aµm ten 2.11Aµm Width AreaSq=24.2nmFigure 4.

4: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.5: Rapid climb In 3D Image From10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.4with 2.13Aµm tens 2.

13Aµm Width Area.In order to detect more elaborate coating surface, ruddy square on 2D image scanned surface with 10Aµm tens 10Aµm width country as figure 4.2 shows is rapid climb in with 2.11Aµm tens 2.

11Aµm width country utilizing 3D image format as figure 4.3 shows. Figure 4.4 and figure 4.5 showed as above do the rapid climb in observation excessively.

Compare 2D image figure 4.2 with and 4.4, the Cu plating on surface as sample from high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml, figure 4.

4 showed bigger “ point ” around the surface but it showed non-uniformity on surface is observed at figure 4.5 ( 3D rapid climb in image ) . Meanwhile, sample from low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O/ 400ml, as figure 4.2 showed little “ point ” around the surface but the uniformity is observed at figure 4.3 ( 3D rapid climb in image ) .Refer to calculate 4.1, the opposition different, Rdifferent for 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O/ 400ml is higher than 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O/400ml concentration. Meanwhile, it besides showed the surface raggedness, Rq is somewhat higher at high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml than low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml.

It indicated that Cu plating surface country by utilizing high concentration solution, 40g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml is increased compared with Cu plating utilizing low concentration solution, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O/400ml after electroplating.From the 3D rapid climb in width country at figure 4.3 and 4.5, it showed surface raggedness and thickness of 40g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml, figure 4.5 is higher than 10g of CuSO4A·5H2O/400ml, figure 4.3 concentrations. Meanwhile, figure 4.

5 besides showed the tallness of deposition higher with non-uniform surface. Therefore, higher surface raggedness does non bespeak that surface is smoother. If the tallness of the surface is non unvarying, it will do the higher surface raggedness excessively.This is the surface raggedness, Sq equation given,Sq = Average Deviation of Profile Y ( ten ) from the average line= ( 4.3 )Figure 4.6: Parameter of Surface RoughnessAt higher concentration, 40g CuSO4A· 5H2O/400ml electroplating, polarisation consequence is occurs. Polarization means the rate of Cu metal ion Cu2+ A­ reaction from solution is slower than rate of surfacing reaction at metal. Therefore, the higher surface raggedness and thickness surface with non-uniformity is obtained.

The non-uniformity is due to the rate of Cu metal ion Cu2+ A­ reaction from solution is high at the same clip and led the high deposition procedure rate occurred. For low concentration, 10g CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml solution, the electroplating reaction is followed the theory of polarisation consequence excessively. The deposition rate for 10g CuSO4A· 5H2O/400ml, low concentration solution is slow compared with the 40g CuSO4A· 5H2O/400ml, high concentration solution used. Hence the uniformity with low surface raggedness and low surface thickness is obtained.4.2 AC Current Electroplating Results and DiscussionsFor the AC current electroplating techniques, 2 sets of experiments are done.

The same constructs between them are concentration types, fixed electromotive force supply while the sine moving ridge frequence is changing variable in 50Hz and 125Hz during each experiment severally. Mention to consequences appendix C, D and E, comparing of opposition different and surface raggedness with different frequences used is plotted as figure 4.7 below.Figure 4.7: Comparison of Resistance Different and Surface Roughness with Different Frequencies used severallyThe figure 4.7 above showed 2 set of experiment besides used 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml concentration and 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml concentration where the 50Hz and 125Hz of sine moving ridge frequence is applied on each set experiment severally.

Besides that, foremost set experiment consequence utilizing 50Hz showed a same tendency as DC current electroplating experiment at figure 4.1 where surface raggedness, Rq is increased when opposition different, Rdifferent increased. On the other manus, the tendency for 2nd set experiment consequence utilizing 125Hz showed reversed tendency comparison with first set experiment and DC current electroplating experiment.Same theoretical refer to equation 4.

1 and 4.2 is applied during AC current electroplating experiment where higher the opposition different, lower the opposition after electroplating, Rafter would demo higher surface country. Therefore, the surface country is increased more during first set experiment with 50Hz frequence than 2nd set experiment with 125Hz frequence.However, this theory is merely mentioning to theoretical equation 4.

1 and 4.2 while surface morphology is observed to turn out it.This is the surface sample from first set experiment for 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml utilizing 50Hz sine moving ridge. The figure 4.8 below showed the 2D image scanned with 10Aµm tens 10Aµm width country on surface sample. Besides, more clear status of plating surface from figure 4.9 is showed by rapid climb in 3D image scanned from place indicated at ruddy square with 2.

15Aµm tens 2.15Aµm width country.Sq=9.9nmFigure 4.

8: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.9: Rapid climb In 3D Image from10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.8with 2.15Aµm tens 2.

15Aµm Width Area.Sq=8.3nmFigure 4.10: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.11: Rapid climb In 3D Image from10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.10with 2.

15Aµm tens 2.15Aµm Width Area.For the figure 4.10, it is the second image surface sample scanned from 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O /400ml utilizing 50Hz Sine Wave with 10Aµm tens 10Aµm width country. The figure 4.11 showed a rapid climb in 3D image scanned from place indicated at ruddy square with 2.15Aµm tens 2.15Aµm width country.

From the 2D image scanned at figure 4.8 and 4.10, both besides showed large “ point ” around the surface but the “ point ” is more evidently seen from figure 4.8. Mention to calculate 4.7, the opposition difference, Rdifferent and surface raggedness, Rq is higher for high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml utilizing 50Hz sine moving ridge compared with low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml. So, the image here is proven the tendency at figure 4.7.

As 3D rapid climb in image showed at figure 4.9, it showed higher surface country which mean higher thickness with unvarying surface for high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml. Meanwhile, 3D image figure 4.11 for low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml is showed lower surface thickness with somewhat non-uniform on surface.On the other manus, the 2D surface image for sample 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml utilizing 125Hz sine moving ridge is scanned and showed as figure 4.12. The rapid climb in 3D image from ruddy square indicated at figure 4.12 is showed as figure 4.13 below.Sq=3.8nmFigure 4.12: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.13: Rapid climb In 3D Image from10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.12with 2.15Aµm tens 2.15Aµm Width AreaSq=5.0nmFigure 4.14: 2D Images Scanned with Figure 4.15: Rapid climb In 3D Image from10Aµm ten 10Aµm Width Area Red Square Indicated at Figure 4.14with 2.15Aµm tens 2.15Aµm Width AreaThe same scanned image as old measure repeated for sample 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml utilizing 125Hz is showed at figure 4.14 which is 2D image and figure 4.15 which 3D rapid climb in image from figure 4.14.From the 2D image figure 4.12 and 4.14, it show both little and large “ point ” around the surface but non much measure showed as 2D image figure 4.8 and 4.10 from first set experiment. Mention to calculate 4.7, it showed reverse tendency compared to foremost put experiment and DC current electroplating experiment ( Refer to calculate 4.1 ) . With mentioning to equation 4.1 and 4.2, it showed the low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml sample plating country is higher than high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml sample.With the 3D rapid climb in image figure 4.13 and 4.15, the surface raggedness showed at low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml image figure 4.15, is higher than high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml image figure 4.13. Meanwhile, both “ point ” surfaces are less compare to whizz in image from first experiment ( 3D figure 4.9 and 4.11 ) . This reverse tendency happened because the higher frequence ( 125Hz ) used. When high frequence, 125Hz applied in low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml solution, it increased the opposition inside solution while due to the low concentration is utilizing, the current still can go through through and electroplating is processed. On the other manus, high concentration 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml solution contained high opposition and opposition is increased higher under high frequence, 125 Hz applied. Therefore, the current flow through is decrease and electroplating procedure is slower rate comparison with low concentration, 10g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml.For AC current electroplating, it showed an evidently alterations at opposition different at low sine moving ridge frequence, 50Hz comparison to high sine moving ridge frequence, 125Hz. From the first experiment with 50Hz frequence image figure 4.8-4.11, it showed unvarying tendency and the larger surface comparison with 2nd experiment with 125Hz frequence image figure 4.12-4.15. During low frequence, 50Hz AC current electroplating, high current can go through through and the polarisation consequence is occurred more often. Meanwhile, AC current electroplating can execute dual deposition on surface and hence the uniformity of surface and larger surface can be obtained.From consequences of the DC and AC current electroplating experiment, it showed the better deposition on surface is performed at AC current electroplating with low frequence, 50Hz and high concentration, 40g of CuSO4A· 5H2O / 400ml used. Besides that, uniformity plating surface and smoother surface can be obtained due to the dual deposition reaction performed during low frequence, 50Hz AC current electroplating applied. Therefore, it besides increased the country of surface electroplating. Compare the surface raggedness of DC current electroplating 3D figure 4.3 and 4.5 with low frequence, 50Hz AC current electroplating 3D figure 4.13 and 4.15, higher surface raggedness consequences from DC current electroplating. However, the surface raggedness higher does n’t intend the surface country is larger because it may lend by non-uniform tendency and different high tallness on the surface as what have been mentioned antecedently.


5.1: DecisionFrom the comparing between DC electroplating and AC electroplating result, it concluded that AC electroplating showed better deposition than DC electroplating technique from the opposition differences and image observed at same concentration. In add-on, the thickness of the plating increased utilizing AC electroplating and causes country increased. Meanwhile, the result besides concluded that the surface raggedness of AC plating sample is uniformity than DC plating sample. Last, frequence of AC electroplating is of import to command the deposition rate and uniformity of surface.However, there was a restriction during studied the composing of surface morphology. Consequences of Cu plating surface might include the dust besides the metal ion salt. So, it was difficult to corroborate that metal surfacing on surface is the metal ion salt.Last, the undertaking was successful as it was achieved the aims of the undertakings.5.2 Future RecommendationEnergy Dispersive X ray SpectroscopyThe restriction of studied the composing of surface can be improve by utilizing energy diffusing X-rap spectrometry, EDX. The advantages use of EDX is it able to qualify the elemental composing of the analyzed volume. Meanwhile, energy diffusing x-ray spectrometry is besides able to analyse the stages every bit little as 1I?m or less.


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