Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary ?? – E966) ???? ?? ???????? ,

?? – E966) ???? ?? ???????? ,

 

         ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????
??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????
??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? .

???????:

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???? ?? ???? ??? :

??????
??????:

– ???????? ??????? (?????????? – ?????????? –
?????????? – ????????? – ?????????)

??????
??? ??????:

1- ?? ????? ?????? (Naturally occurring sugar substitutes)

– ?????????

2- ?????? ?????
???????  (Synthetic sugar substitutes) 

?????? ?????? ????? ???? , ??? ???? ?????
?????? ??????.

???? ????? ????????? ???????
????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? :

       ????????? – ???????? – ?????????? –
????????? ?????????? – ????????? – ???????? – ??????????

???????? ???????? :

       2- ????????
???????(??????) :

 

*??????????
(Sorbitol
– E420)

???? ?? ???????? , ?????? 50% ?? ????? ??????? , ???? ??
?????? ???????? ?????? , ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????.

????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ????
???? ????? (???????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??fructolysis
)

*?????????
(
Mannitol – E421)

???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? (???? 50% ??????? , 50% ????????)
?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? 60% ?? ????? ???????

?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????

*??????????
(
Maltitol – E965)

???? ?? ???????? , ?????? ???? 75 : 90% ?? ??????
???????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? , ?? ???? ????
??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????

*??????????
(
Lactitol – E966)

???? ?? ???????? , ?????? 40% ?? ????? ??????? , ?????? ??
????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? , ?????? ??
???????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? , ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???????.

?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??
??????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (???????? ????????????
???????????) ?????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????
?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (diahrrea) ????
??????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????.

*?????????( Xylitol – E967)

?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????
???????? , ??? ?????? , ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????
?? ???? ?????? ???????

???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????

?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????

????????
??? ???????? non-nutritive sweetener  :

??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??
??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????.

???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????
??????? ???????.

?????: ????????
????????:

-????????? (Stevia)

    ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????. Stevia
rebaudiana

???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? .

   ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??
???? ?????? ????? ???????? .

   ?????? 200 – 300 ??? ???
????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 12 ??? /??? ??
??? ????? .

      

???????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? steviol ,??? ???
???? ?? ??feces , ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? steviol
glucoronide
????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????.

??????
: ???????? ??????? ??????? :

*?????????(Aspartame – E951) 

????? ???1965  ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????
??????? ?????? ? ??????  ???????????
????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? , ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????
?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??  Aspartyl phenyl alanine methyl ester  ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ??????
?????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ???? ?? ???????
??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? , ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? .

          ?? ????? ?? ??????
??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??  %50 ?????? ?????? ?%
40??? ???????? %10 ??????? ,
?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? , ????? ????? ??
????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? .

 ???
???? ?????? (Soffritti et al.,2005) ??? ???????
?????????? ???????? ???? ?????? , ?????? ????? Sprague
dawley fetal rats
????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? , ?????? ???? ?????????
?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? , ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? .

??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????
???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????,??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????
??? 20  ???/
??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? , ????? ???? ??????? ?????
?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????

??? 2007 ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????
???????? ??????????? ??? 14 ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? 2 , ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ??
??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????,
????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????
??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????

???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? :

???????? Aspartil
– ?????? Equal
– ??????????Neutrasweet  

?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ????
??????? ???????? ??????? 180 :200  ??? ??? ????? ??????? .

?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? .

??? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????
??????? ????????? FDA
??? 1981

        ?????
????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? (PKU) ????????
??? ??????? ?????? .

        ????
????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA ????????? ?????? ???????
?????? 50 ??? /??? ?? ??? ????? ?
?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? 40 ???/ ??? ??
??? ????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? (JECFA) ????????
??? WHO & FAO

  *??? ?????????? (Cyclamic acid – E952 )

          ???? ??? ??? ???
???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???? ?????? ???? 30 ??? ??
????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????

???? ??? ??? ????? ???? (Sugar twin – Sucaryl) , ?????? ?? ????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? 1970 ?????
??????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????
??????? .

           *????????
(Saccharin –
E954)

 

       
????? ??? 1879 ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????????
? ?????? ????? 550 ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???
?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? 1977 ? ????
????????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??
???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???
??????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ????????
????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ??
??????? .

?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????  ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????
??? ????? ??????? Sweet n low  , ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ???????
??????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????
????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ???????
??????? ??????? JECFA))
???????? ??? WHO & FAO ??????? ??????? ?????? ????
??????? ???????? SCF
????????? ?????? ??????? ? 5
???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .

   *?????????(Sucralose – E955)  

      

  ???
???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? 3 ??????
????????? ?3
???? ???? ? ????? ??????? ??Splenda  

????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ??? 1998 ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ???
??? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? .

????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?
??? ???? ?????? 600 ??? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????
???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? , ??? ???? ?????
?? ?? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????
????? ??? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???
????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? .

??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? JECFA)) ????????
??? WHO & FAO
??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? SCF ?????????
?????? ??????? ? 15 ???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .

 

 

   *???????? ?????????? (Acesulfame K –E950)

?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????  sweet one& Sunett ? ???? ??
?????? ?? ???????????? , ???? ???? ?????? 130 ??? ???????
?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????
?????? ???????? , ? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? , ?????? ?????
??????? ???????.

??? ???? ?????? (Bian et al.,2017) ??? ????? Ace-K ???
???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? 16S
rRNA & (GC-MS) ???? ??
??????? Ace-K
??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? CD-1 mice ??? 4 ?????? ??
???????? . ???? ????? ????? ,???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ,????? ???????
????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ,?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????
????? ????? ????? ,?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ,??? ?????
??ACE-k  ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????
??????

????? ????? ??????? ?? :

        -1 Ace-K ??? ???
????? ?? ?????? ??? .

        -2 Ace-K ??? ??????
?????? ??????? .

        -3 Ace-K ?? ??????
????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? .

        -4 Ace-K ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? lipopoly saccharide

        -5 Ace-K ??? ????
???? ??????? ??????? .

??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????
?? ??????? ??? ???? .

??? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA ??? 1998

???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???
?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA

?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?
??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????
??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? .

???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? JECFA)) ???????? ??? WHO
& FAO  ????????? ?????? ??????? ? 9 ???/ ??? ??
??? ????? ?? ???? ????? 15??? /??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????
??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? SCF  ????? ??????? ?????  9
???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .

    *????????( Neotame )

          ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?
?????? ?????? ??? 7000 ??? 13000 ???
?????????? , 30 ??? 60 ??? ???
????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????
???????? .

???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???:

Aspartame
& 3,3 dimethyl butyl aldehyde

???? ???????? , ???????? , ?????? .

???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? esterases  ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? – ??? ????
?????? ????????????? ?????? – ????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? .

???? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? , ??????? ??????
?? ????? ???? 72 ???? .

???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? , ???????? ?????? , ????
??? ????????? ?????? ???????? , ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???
???

?????? , ?? ??? , ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????
??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? , ??????? ????? ????? .

?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? , ????? ?? ????? ???????? , ?????? ,
?????? ??????? , ?????? , ??????? , ????????? , ??????? , ??????? ??????? ,
??????

  ?????????? (Advantame)

     
      ??? ???????? ???????? ???
???? ???????? ????????? , ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????
???????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??
???????? ????? ?????

?????? ???? ?? ??????? 20000 ???
???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? 200 ??? ???
??????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????

???? ??FDA ?????????
??? 2014

      

 

 

??????? ??? ??? :

?? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???
????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? :

?????
???????? ???????? :

?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? (???? ???
???? ????? ??? ??????? ????????) .

?????
??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????
????? ????? .

        ????
???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? .

        ??
???? ??? ???? ??????? .

        ??????
??????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? .

????? ???????? ????????:

????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????????
???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? .

       ??? ????? ???????? ???????
????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? , ????? , ?????? ??????? .

       ????? ????? ????? ???
????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? .

       ????? ????? ????? ??
???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? .

??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??? ??????? , ???? ????? , ?????? ?????? , ?????? ??? ??????? ,??????
????? ???????? ?? ????.

???? ??? ???? ??????( Findikli,Zeynep
et al., 2014)
??? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? , ????????? , ???????? ???????????

??? ??? ??DNA  . ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ??
???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? .

?????
??? ??????? ??? :

????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? .

       ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? .

x

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