Durkheim still social institutions, social activities and

Durkheim applied hissocial facts approach to The Division of Labour. In Suicide, Durkheim graspshis concepts and strengthens his argument for a sociology grounded in hismethodological approach and concepts. (Casteel, 2013).  The Division of Labour (1893), Durkheim’s work addresses the “moralconsequences of the specialization of activities and functions whichindustrialism brings about” (Lee and Newby, 1985: 215). Durkheim develops howthe division of labor is beneficial for society as it increases the skills ofpeople.

Also, it increases social solidarity and establishes moral and socialorder.  Durkheim’s socialfacts theory is relevant in contemporary society in many ways. These includethe fact that there are still laws enforced in every single country, there arestatuses in society, for example, a doctor has a higher status than anunemployed person, or the Queen has a higher status than the members of thepublic.

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There are still social class statuses and a hierarchy, between higherwage jobs and lower wage jobs. As well as this, subcultures still exist today. Theseinclude Goths, Hippies, Bikers and fans of hip hop. These groups all share thesame norms, values and interests.  Similarly, religion is widespread across theGlobe. There are still social institutions, social activities and substratum ofsociety. Marriage is also an institution that Durkheim used to explain his theoryof social facts. People still get married and value the meaning of marriage.

 There are some criticismsof Durkheim’s social fact theory. It could be argued that not all societies areconstructed the same, individuals shape society. As well as this, socialphenomena are not equivalent of the natural phenomena and positivism nevermoves beyond observation to explanation (Donavon, 2015). There have been developmentsin society, for example, Hochschild (1979) came up with the theory of sociologyof emotion.

This theory is concerned with morality, the collective conscious andprocessing emotion as a collective response. Moreover, another criticism couldbe that social Facts are not Creative Syntheses. It is difficult to understandDurkheim’s contention that social facts representations are syntheses or wholesmade up by individual representations.

Individual minds are homogeneous and, nomatter how they may combine or be related among themselves, no true synthesisappears possible. (Spearman, 1937). Lastly, Karl Marx rejects the idea thatsociety evolves organically. Marx would suggest that fixed positions are basedon the economic system and not on social facts.



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