Health and Safety is a comparatively new scientific discipline to concerns in Trinidad & A ; Tobago and even though Torahs have been enacted, non all concerns have been bought up to required safety criterion.
One of the most of import parts of any safety programme is holding a safety direction system and developing one can be a really demanding undertaking. An SMS harmonizing to Advanced Aviation Technologies Ltd. ”[ 1 ]is said to be branched from the administration ‘s Safety Policy. The safety policy expresses the committedness of the company to accomplish the highest degree of safety. ” The Safety Policy is the foundation of an administration ‘s Safety Management System. This shows the importance of a Safety Policy and how the success depends on the effectivity of it.
This research will concentrate on an Electric Company peculiarly the Maintenance Department where workers deal with safety issues on a day-to-day footing. The company had no safety systems in topographic point in the twelvemonth 2007 and there were a batch of safety issues being reported e.g. hurts on the occupation, exposure to hazard was high, etc. However an SMS was implemented in February 2008 and this research intends to demo how a Safety Management System aided in cut downing hazards and jeopardies and made workers more cognizant of safety as a whole. The consequences will demo the benefits and importance of holding a Safety Management System nowadays.
It is of import to any administration set up some kind of safety programme where regulations are identified and understood by all. Harmonizing to Watson ( 1993 ) “ 2Safety Management System requires a continual procedure of instruction, implementing, scrutinizing, action and direction reappraisal. Such a system centres around four ( 4 ) major procedures:
Trinidad and Tobago is one of the most advanced states in the Caribbean through oil, gas, and of class the development and execution of both the OSH Act 2006 and the EMA Act 2000. The Torahs will no uncertainty animate Trinidad and Tobago to continue a civilization of wellness and safety which statute law seeks to shore up up.
It can non be stressed plenty the point of committedness to the Safety Management System by the highest degree of direction in order for this venture to be a success. The OSH Act in Trinidad and Tobago does non stipulate on a type of Safety Management System that an organisation should utilize or that it is compulsory to hold one, nevertheless it is left up to the organisation to develop and to take one that best fits its demands.
The purpose of this thesis is to look at the importance of an SMS in regard to Attributes, Benefits to organisations.
To research the features of an SMS in item.
Show how a little electric company benefited from implementing an Samarium
Research will be based on a combination of beginnings of information that shall include library, cyberspace and cyberspace research, company ‘s studies
Questionnaires will be used by employees to prove effectivity of Safety Management System
Analysis of Survey findings.
Harmonizing to the Joint Helicopter Safety Implementation Team of the International Helicopter Safety Team ( 2007 ) ” Safety Management Systems can be defined as a co-ordinated, comprehensive set of procedures designed to direct and command resources to optimally pull off safety. SMS takes unrelated procedures and construct them into one coherent construction to accomplish a higher degree of safety public presentation, doing safety direction an built-in portion of overall hazard direction. SMS is based on leading and answerability. It requires proactive jeopardy designation, hazard direction, information control, scrutinizing and preparation. It besides includes incident and accident probe and analysis. ”
3The International Helicopter Safety Symposium Montreal, Quebec, Canada,2007. Safety Management System Toolkit [ Online ] ( Updated 2007 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //docs.google.com/viewer? a=v & A ; q=cache: HJeMgYWLVNYJ: www.ihst.org/Portals/54/SMS-Toolkit.pdf+definition+of+safety+management+system & A ; hl=en & A ; pid=bl & A ; srcid=ADGEESij36w34AN7sX7nZwzoOXNUcTfGCZkntCNcpYc1br3slb6iYjWpuvC-jT12gyu-3fGyIcgBWryrhlEjywWjA1BMTLQsrtXd5Pxwb4Ut85dncQTXCCXPJdS5k5PF9QFraLqi02Lu & A ; sig=AHIEtbTG35FpEeY1qoCSFfOZzm3ke0mDLw
WHY IS SMS NEEDED?
6 Harmonizing to the Joint Helicopter Safety Implementation Team of the International Helicopter Safety Team ( 2007 ) ” SMS is needed to assist ease the proactive designation of jeopardies and maximise the development of a better safety civilization, every bit good as modify attitudes and actions of forces in order to do a safer work topographic point. SMS helps organisations avoid blowing fiscal and human resources and direction ‘s clip being focused on child or irrelevant issues. SMS lets directors place jeopardies, buttocks hazard and construct a concern instance to warrant controls that will cut down hazard to acceptable degrees. SMS is a proved procedure for pull offing hazard that ties all elements of the organisation together laterally and vertically and ensures appropriate allotment of resources to safety issues. ”
By the definition a SMS was drastically needed by the electrical company, significance jeopardies needed to be identified by the workers and necessary safety actions had to be taken. By making this safety consciousness will increase, in bend this will help in developing a positive safety civilization e.g. in 2007 the care section reported 9 burnt hurts runing from child to severe, where as in 2008-2009 after the execution of an SMS the figure of studies were 4 burned hurts, this clearly shows that workers were more cognizant of jeopardies present on occupations.
4The International Helicopter Safety Symposium Montreal, Quebec, Canada,2007. Safety Management System Toolkit [ Online ] ( Updated 2007 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //docs.google.com/viewer? a=v & A ; q=cache: HJeMgYWLVNYJ: www.ihst.org/Portals/54/SMS-Toolkit.pdf+definition+of+safety+management+system & A ; hl=en & A ; pid=bl & A ; srcid=ADGEESij36w34AN7sX7nZwzoOXNUcTfGCZkntCNcpYc1br3slb6iYjWpuvC-jT12gyu-3fGyIcgBWryrhlEjywWjA1BMTLQsrtXd5Pxwb4Ut85dncQTXCCXPJdS5k5PF9QFraLqi02Lu & A ; sig=AHIEtbTG35FpEeY1qoCSFfOZzm3ke0mDLw
ATTRIBUTES OF AN SMS
5According to the Joint Helicopter Safety Implementation Team of the International Helicopter Safety Team ( 2007 ) ” Although the inside informations and degree of certification of a SMS may change, there are cardinal properties that will help in guaranting the SMS is effectual for any administration. The nucleus properties of the SMS are ” :
1 ) SMS Management Plan
2 ) Safety Promotion
3 ) Document and Data Information Management
4 ) Hazard Identification and Risk Management
5 ) Happening and Hazard Reporting
6 ) Happening Investigation and Analysis
7 ) Safety Assurance Oversight Programs
8 ) Safety Management Training Requirements
9 ) Performance Measurement and Continuous Improvement
5The International Helicopter Safety Symposium Montreal, Quebec, Canada,2007. Safety Management System Toolkit [ Online ] ( Updated 2007 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //docs.google.com/viewer? a=v & A ; q=cache: HJeMgYWLVNYJ: www.ihst.org/Portals/54/SMS-Toolkit.pdf+definition+of+safety+management+system & A ; hl=en & A ; pid=bl & A ; srcid=ADGEESij36w34AN7sX7nZwzoOXNUcTfGCZkntCNcpYc1br3slb6iYjWpuvC-jT12gyu-3fGyIcgBWryrhlEjywWjA1BMTLQsrtXd5Pxwb4Ut85dncQTXCCXPJdS5k5PF9QFraLqi02Lu & A ; sig=AHIEtbTG35FpEeY1qoCSFfOZzm3ke0mDLw
Let ‘s expression at the Attributes of an SMS in farther inside informations:
1.1 SMS Management Plan
A SMS Management Plan should clearly specify safety aims, how the organisation intends to put to death and mensurate the effectivity of the SMS, and how the SMS will back up the organisation ‘s concern program and/or aims.
The electrical company direction program stated that safety was their figure one precedence and the demand to cut down accidents and cut down the nowadayss of jeopardies e.g. accident and jeopardy decrease is imperative to the success of this programme, all accidents and jeopardies should be reported no affair how little so the state of affairss or conditions environing it can be closely investigated in order to cut down hazard in the hereafter.
Through the direction program committedness by the direction squad was shown and accidents and jeopardies reported was in fact looked at and suggestions were sought from the workers themselves, each subdivision of the company was put in charge of different duties to guarantee the program ran swimmingly, including direction. All employees were made aware of what was expected of them in this program e.g. coverage of jeopardies, making proper paper work in order for probes to take topographic point. And besides the safety Torahs or demands of the land were made available e.g. The Health & A ; Safety Act, etc.
1.2 Safety Promotion
Safety must be recognized as a “ nucleus value. ” Procedures, patterns, preparation and the allotment of resources must clearly show direction ‘s committedness to safety.
Safety in the electric company was included in all activity where the employees were expected to assist develop a new safety civilization by take parting in safety while transporting out their day-to-day work activities. Management made certain everyone was informed on safety policies doing it readily available to employees when needed and stressed the importance of good wellness and health in the work topographic point. It even included a safety work hebdomad where sections were rewarded for accidents reported in a timely mode and fillips for sections with the most hazard designations studies in a month every month. This encouraged employees to look out for jeopardies and hazards present which may hold led to an accident doing them more cognizant of safety in their occupation activities.
1.3 Documents and Data Information Management
Organizations should hold processs to place and pull off the information
necessary to guarantee conformity with SMS policies, processs and ends.
The electric company started to organize their paperss and informations which became readily available when needed by employees and direction to do informed determinations. Records and organisational informations about operations were used to set paperss. It was used by direction and safety squad to traverse mention to happen jeopardies or dangers associated with occupations. Record maintaining was used to demo tendencies in sections e.g. accidents/ hurts connected to occupations and was done diagrammatically demoing tendencies
1.4 Hazard Identification and Risk Management
The SMS needs to include a procedure to place jeopardies and develop procedures to place and pull off hazards. Employees learned to place a unsafe status, assessed the menace to safety and so did something to rectify it. The challenge for direction was to demo the employees that non all hazards were to be deemed unsafe so their projection was of import, they had to look at the state of affairs and recognize all the ways it can neglect. In the beginning of altering the safety civilization of the company meetings were held and scenarios were played out for the employees to come up with some kind of safety mechanism in order to avoid an accident in the hereafter. A hazard matrix was used and thought the employees to delegate values to hazards from high to moo based on the badness of the hazard and likelyhood of occurance. Assignment of duty to people in different sections were done to assist cut down hazard.
1.5 Occurrence and Hazard Reporting
It feeds into the hazard direction procedure. Recording of jeopardies and occurances in the company, when records were made it was put together to look for any common elements in the company e.g. near misses/ hurt on a specific occupation or equipment. Management recognized it was critical to set up a merely civilization in the company, they had to derive employees trust to describe accidents, incidents, etc. hence when an accident was reported direction decided to exclude the employee names in meetings held to discourse safety affair when associating to the peculiar capable country in safety. It was taken as a group engagement to come up with solutions to the job. Blame was non put on any single and the fear factor of fring one ‘s occupation was gone. Management looked at the “ what ” and “ why ” and non the “ who ” .
1.6 Occurrence Investigation and Analysis
Happening is frequently easier to analyze than hazard because there is a sequence of events, grounds. The company worked backwards to find accident sequence and the happenings were closely inspected to determent the factors that lead to an event. The employees were thought to analyze their findings and add them to enter to forestall similar events in the hereafter.
1.7 Safety Assurance Oversight Programs
At the beginning of implementing the SMS direction had to do certain that actions being taken were non doing unwanted effects, so programmes were put in topographic point to detect all employee patterns to guarantee merely desirable effects i.e. safe effects. This was done by mensurating all what was being done in different procedures and the procedure that had undesired outcomes- was looked at and the inquiry was asked aˆ¦why? . In other words the company observed its operations and used the information they collected to measure the public presentation of the programmes. It was so determined if it was acquiring better or worse.
1.8 Safety Management Training Requirements
Before the safety programme was implemented direction observed that without proper preparation that employees will make tasks how they feel it should be done e.g. if hazard coverage is done otherwise by everyone it make it hard to analyze informations to come up with possible solutions to the jeopardy. So employees were trained in making tasks how direction wanted them to be done so employees did what direction wanted them to make and non what they wanted to make. In other words show and tell employees how to efficaciously take part in the system. For employees with duty e.g. pull offing hazard or information set up authorization and responsibilities.
1.9 Performance Measurement
Performance is measured by direction of the company looking at the SMS and inquiring “ is it doing the work topographic point any safer or worse? ” “ Are company ‘s ends being reached? ” “ Are accidents and hurts being cut down? ” Management steps public presentation in instance alterations need to be made in order to do the work environment safer for all and to carry through what direction wants.
There are different types of international criterions when it comes to SMS. The most common criterions will be briefly looked at to see what each require from administrations.
OHSAS 18001: Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series ( OHSAS ) .
Developed by the British Standards Institute.
Harmonizing to OHSAS 18001 ” 13Voluntary criterion for developing an occupational wellness and safety direction system ( HSMS ) .
Enables an organisation to more proactively command wellness and safety hazards and better public presentation.
Developed in response to demands for a recognizable OHS direction system that compliments the ISO 14001environmental direction system ” .
There is presently no comparable ISO related HSMS criterion available.
What Are The Requirements?
The 18001 criterion features the undermentioned cardinal elements:
OH & A ; S Policy Statement
Execution and Operation
Checking and Corrective Action
13Ron Scholtz-REA, CHMM Manager-Environmental/Safety Analog Devices, Inc
14BS8800:2004 gives counsel on:
a ) The design and execution OH & A ; S direction systems ;
B ) The rating of effectual OH & A ; S direction with a position to continual
degree Celsius ) The relationship to and integrating of an OH & A ; S direction system with other direction systems criterions.
15OC 203/12 British Standard 8800: 2004 Occupational Health and Safety
OH & A ; S policy
Planing and implementing
Measuring public presentation
Reviewing public presentation
IMPLEMENTING AN SMS
Integrating a consistent SMS can be done in incremental stairss. This allows the
organisation to go acquainted with the demands and consequences before
continuing to the following measure. The undermentioned checklist is a usher in formalizing that the properties of a SMS are implemented.
A? Policies, aims and demands of the SMS are published
A? Organizational construction and cardinal persons and duties are defined
A? Elementss of the SMS are defined
A? Expectations and aims of the SMS are conveyed to employees
A? A method to place and keep conformity with safety and regulative
14file: //J: devoperationalOcs % 20TYP ( pdf ) 200-299oc203_12.htm
15Health and Safety Executive Operational Circular OC 203/12 Review Date 24/09/2014 Open Government Status Fully Open Version No & amp ; Date 2: 24/09/2004 Author Unit/Section HID OPU Target Audience: All HSE Professional Staff ( Bands 0-4 and unallocated )
A? Senior direction ‘s committedness to the SMS published
A? Senior direction visibly demonstrates their committedness to SMS
A? Outputs of the SMS is communicated to all employees
A? Initial and perennial preparation is provided to all forces
A? Competence demands are defined for those persons in cardinal places
A? Training demands are documented and sporadically reviewed
A? Lessons learned are shared to advance betterment of the safety plan
A? Employee safety feedback system is established
A? A “ Just Culture ” procedure is in topographic point
Document and Data Information Management
A? Safety policies, aims and SMS demands publicized
A? Safety ordinances that govern the organisation identified
A? Pertinent safety and regulative information provided to all employees
A? Documentation depicting the systems for each SMS constituent consolidated
A? Change control system in topographic point for applicable paperss
A? Forces are educated on alterations in paperss
A? Obsolete paperss are quickly removed
A? Periodic reappraisal of paperss
Hazard Identification and Risk Management
A? Procedures exist to proactively place possible jeopardies
A? Potential jeopardies are considered when doing alterations within the organisation
A? Risk Management Plans are prioritized and approved by appropriate degree of
A? Identified jeopardies are tracked for closing
Happening and Hazard Reporting
A? Employees receive feedback on reported jeopardies
A? Safety informations analyzed
A? Corrective actions monitored for effectivity
A? Hazards are monitored to place tendencies
A? A non punitory disciplinary policy in topographic point for coverage jeopardies
A? Commissariats for anon. submittals of jeopardies
Occurrence Investigation and Analysis
A? Investigations conducted to find root cause
A? Person ( s ) carry oning the probe technically qualified
A? Investigations place what can be done to forestall future happenings
A? Both the immediate causal factors and the contributory factors identified
A? Investigations include looking at organisational factors
A? Acts of “ skip ” and “ committee ” identified
A? Investigation studies provided to director that has answerability and authorization
Safety Assurance Oversight Programs
A? Evaluations of operational procedures conducted at regular intervals
A? Checklists are utilised to carry on safety ratings
A? Contractor activities included in safety inadvertence plans
A? Procedures evaluated by a nonaˆ?stakeholder
A? Results and disciplinary actions documented
A? Positive observations documented
A? Findingss categorized
A? Results and disciplinary actions shared with all employees
A? Available engineering used
Safety Management Training Requirements
A? Safety orientation for all new employees
A? Competence demands documented
A? Training demands documented
A? Regularly scheduled safety meetings
A? Key forces continuously educated on safety direction best patterns
Management of Changes
A? Operational processs analyzed
A? Changes in location, equipment or operating conditions analyzed
A? Maintenance and operator manuals are posted with current alterations
A? Forces are made cognizant of and understand any alterations
A? Level of direction with authorization to O.K. alterations identified
Emergency Preparedness and Response
A? Plan is readily available at work Stationss
A? Plan is relevant and utile
A? Emergency response program sporadically tested
A? Be updated when contact inside informations change
A? Personnel briefed on the program and their duties
A? Training in exigency response processs provided
A? Duties defined for immediate response forces
A? Duties defined for secondary response forces
A? Duties defined for site security and accident probe
A? Procedures for following of blood-related presentment
A? Procedure for claims and insurance
A? Procedures for aircraft recovery
A? Safety public presentation monitoring used as feedback to better the system
A? Address single countries
A? Are SMART ( Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results Oriented, Timely )
A? Linked to the organisation ‘s concern public presentation steps
The International Helicopter Safety Symposium 2007 Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Benefits of wellness and safety direction systems
Harmonizing to Business Link ( 2010 ) the benefits are “ Taking a systematic attack to direction makes pull offing your concern both easier and more effectual. You work out the best manner to manage each key activity and do certain that everyone uses the same attack every clip.
A consistent attack like this reduces the figure of errors and the cost of rectifying jobs. It besides reduces the degree of hazard and ensures that you comply with statute law. This can positively act upon your concern:
Improved wellness and safety public presentation by your concern will cut down the costs associated with accidents and incidents.
Improved consciousness of regulative demands reduces the opportunity that you will perpetrate any offenses. The Health & A ; Safety Executive will by and large modulate your concern with a lighter touch if it is good managed.
If employees see that you are actively looking after their wellness and safety, dealingss and morale willA improve.
The public see that you are taking a responsible attitude towards your employees. This improves your image and helps bring forth positive PR for your business.A
Bettering the efficiency of your concern reduces your costs.
You can show to your insurance companies that you are commanding hazard efficaciously. This may assist take down your insurance premiums.
Banks and investors will be more willing to finance your concern if you can demo that it is good managed.
Business spouses have more assurance in your concern. Larger companies and authorities bureaus may merely purchase from concerns that can demo effectual direction systems ” .
Assurance in your direction systems will be highest if you can show that you comply with recognized direction criterions.
Business Link.,2010.Benefits of Health & A ; Safety Management System [ Online ] ( Updated 2010 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail? type=RESOURCES & A ; itemId=1074403734
The undermentioned certifications were used to garner information from a little group of employees in an administration. This subdivision will besides include analysis of natural informations that has been collected utilizing appraisals. The process of informations aggregation and information analysis will subsequently be discussed. First though is a SWOT analysis of the methodological analysis.
SWOT Analysis of the Methodology
Handiness of resource stuffs
Lack of good will from employers
Personal inquiring of workers
Inability to garner nonsubjective informations
Geting replies through computations
Workers privacy issues
Appropriate research tools
Discontinuance of the affected employees
Geting less serious instances
Questionnaire paperss were sent to a little based energy company of 35 employees ( which had no SMS in topographic point at the clip in 2007 but in 2008 the OHSAS 18001 was implemented ) in the beginning of February, and collected two hebdomads subsequently. It focused on Maintenance Departments and Electrical Departments. The information gathered from the questionnaire respondents was interpreted and tabulated. The tabular array below shows the information collected.
# of Accidents
# of Accidents
Electrical Burns, Shock
The variables that were used to estimate the types of hurts in the company were: age, gender, figure of accidents, hurts. Workers were required to state of the effects they suffered while working in their sections.
2. 31-49 old ages
3. 50-63 old ages
Number of Accidents Recorded-2009
Diagram demoing per centum of hurts that occurred in the Mechanical Department.
It is seen in 2008 the rate of hurts were high in the countries of cuts, scrapings and busted toes, cuts to employees occurred less than these two.
Diagram demoing per centum of hurts that occurred in the Electrical Department.
The diagram shows the rate of hurts in 2008 were high in the countries of Electrical Burnss and daze.
These consequences will now be compared with hurt studies of 2009 where an SMS was implemented.
# of Accidents
2.85 % Fig 3.3
Diagram demoing figure of hurts after SMS was implemented: Maintenance Department.
This diagram now shows the rate of hurt when the Safety Management System was implemented. One can see that hurts were drastically reduced, cuts and scrapings dropped enormously from 8.57 % I figure 3.1 to 2.85 % in figure 3.3 The SMS made the employees more cognizant of jeopardies and preventive steps. Busted toes were besides reduced and cuts came down to nil, doing no hurt in this section the highest in a twelvemonth clip.
# of Accidents
Electrical Burns, Shock
5.71 % Fig 3.4
Diagram demoing the figure of hurts after SMS was implemented: Electrical Department
In the electrical section electrical Burnss and dazes were reduced as seen from fig 3.2 and fig 3.4 Electrical Burnss dropped from 11.42 % to 2.87 % and Electrical daze dropped from 8.57 % to 5.71 % No hurt was the highest it has been in a twelvemonth.
Sing the decrease of hurts on the occupation made direction even more dedicated to the execution and continual betterment of the Safety Management System.
RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
Safety Management Systems is one of the most of import systems one can happen in an administration and it should be encouraged by direction for the development and continual betterment of one. The cost of such a system may be high but the terminal benefits are invaluable, the decrease of jeopardies, hazards and altering work civilizations are a few benefits that can non be measured financially. The Torahs have already been put in topographic point in many states, Trinidad and Tobago being one of them. However, the Torahs have non translated to standard that an organisation should set about for development of such a criterion. It is left up to direction to make up one’s mind the criterion in which it so chooses to ship upon. Such as in the instance mentioned above OHSAS 18001 was chosen by direction because it suited the demands of such an organisation.
There are a few recommendations in this subdivision to promote the development and execution of such a system. These steps should be taken by authorities and the employer and the employee themselves. Hazards and hazards are a portion of mundane work life in many industries, and it is of import for employees to cognize the hazards of their occupation. It is wise to hold hebdomadal meetings to discourse the occupations that are being undertaken and be reminded of the hazards involved. Training and remedial preparation for new and good seasoned employees at an administrations, direction must emphasize the demand for these reminders and show committedness to such a system.
Another recommendation is that the authorities should do SMS mandatary in industries, with a recommendation of what international criterion would orient for different concerns. It should besides put up a authorities organic structure to help industries in such a venture where even direction will be taught the value of implementing such a system. Besides assistance should be available to industries on how to travel about developing, implementing such a system and deriving international acknowledgment by enrollment with different organic structures e.g. ISO, BSI, OSHA.
These are some of the Assessment Forms used by the company in their Safety Management System.
1. Name of respondent aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦
2. Age of respondent
19-30years [ ] 31-49 old ages [ ] 50-69 old ages [ ]
Male [ ] Female [ ]
5. What types of jeopardies are you exposed to?
Shock [ ] Cuts & A ; Scrapes [ ] Gashes [ ] Burns [ ]
Squeeze fingers [ ] Busted Toes [ ]
6. Make you utilize protective appliances?
Yes [ ] No [ ]
7. Did you have any history of any medical jobs prior to fall ining the industry?
Specify — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –
8. How long have you been on the occupation?
Less than 5 old ages [ ] Between 10 and 20 old ages [ ] Over 20 old ages [ ]
9. Make you describe all hurts?
Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes [ ]
11. How frequently does injury happen? ?
Several times a twenty-four hours [ ] Once in a twenty-four hours [ ] Once a hebdomad [ ]
Other ( Specify ) aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .