Discussing The British Police Force Acts Criminology Essay
The British Police Force originates from 1361 with the Justice of the Peace Act ; this act enabled three or four work forces to be appointed in each county to ‘arrest, take and castigate ‘ wrongdoers ( Emsley 1996 ) . The industrial revolution brought about a immense migration of people from the state to populate in the metropoliss.
With this came want ensuing in the formation of the first paid constabulary force, besides known as ‘The Runners ‘ . In 1829, Sir Robert Peel passed The Metropolitan Police Bill which changed patroling a great trade.In the history of Britain, it is documented that the constabulary force was one time a widely respected establishment, but in my personal experience, although limited, I have encountered a batch of people who dislike the constabulary force.
Although most of these attitudes boil down to personal experience and sentiment, it has ever fascinated me that some people have such a hate for the constabulary, whereas others do non. I chose to establish my surveies on seeking to detect the grounds for our deficiency of assurance and satisfaction in the establishment of jurisprudence enforcement and to seek to detect whether there is any nexus between the degree of satisfaction and certain factors which may impact this i.e.
ethnicity, age, sex etc. It is a badgering development that there appears to be a turning disaffection between the populace and the constabulary.From the 1960s onwards, an extended majority of research has concentrated on the populace ‘s attitudes towards constabulary.
These surveies make usage of a wide choice of point of views, from specific ratings of constabulary public presentation, i.e. a individual ‘s experience of the constabulary in peculiar incidents, whilst other surveies examine this on a larger graduated table, i.e. the populace ‘s satisfaction with the constabulary in general.Harmonizing to the crown office, assaults on constabulary officers have jumped by more than 600 in a twelvemonth ; there were about 7,000 onslaughts on constabulary in 2008/09.
The loss of public assurance is a terrible job, without the backup of society the constabulary ca n’t patrol and without public trust it would be more and more hard and expensive to continue the jurisprudence.It is a badgering development that there appears to be a turning disaffection between the populace and the constabulary, and my research will hopefully cast some visible radiation on the grounds for this.This determination was reinforced by a remark made by Hammersley and Atkinson ( 1995 ) , ‘developing a theory is non so much an event as a procedure. As new informations emerge, bing hypotheses may turn out inadequate, the ethnographer ‘s sense of what needs to be looked at and reported on may alter, and accounts of what is traveling on may be supplanted by 1s which seem to suit better.
The literature reappraisal consists of a survey/analysis of the stuffs you have read. Its intent is to demo that you have read widely about your chosen subject, acknowledges other scholarly work and informs and contextualises your ain work. Bear in head the demand to measure and compare the beginnings to which you refer. A catalogue of mentions has far less value than a critical assessment of different writers.There is a immense difference between how the constabulary want to patrol, how the public want to be policed and how we are really policed. The populace are non concerned with what per centums offense has gone up or down each twelvemonth, what they are interested in is being safe in the cognition that when they go to kip at dark, their house is n’t traveling to acquire broken into ; or when they wake up in the forenoon, their auto will still be parked outside and their household can walk down the street and be safe.The British populace, unlike Americans, lack the agencies and power to acquire the policing they desire because it is the Home Office and the Secretary of State who have the existent power. The populace, their local council or their Military policemans have no influence over the process and running of their local constabulary force.
But as Sergeant ( 2008: 3 ) says ‘with entire control comes entire duty ‘ , and the Home Office do non desire to be seen as weakness, this in bend creates the demand to put deadlines and marks made by people who lack the expert experience and cognition to do these deadlines and marks realistic. More clip is spent on making and keeping these marks than making what the constabulary are really at that place to make, protect the public. Of class marks can besides be good, in that they can do a individual re-evaluate how they do what they do, but unrealistic marks can besides ensue in serious offenses being ignored and the focal point being put on minor offenses merely to run into marks. It is dubious that the fulfillment of authorities marks will ensue in better policing ; it is more likely that it will stop in the criminalization and disaffection of the populace. Sergeant ( 2008 ) suggests that puting marks misses the point of what the public really want ; they do n’t desire to cognize how many offenses are detected and cleared up, unlike the Home Office, they want the offenses to non be go oning in the first topographic point. Loveday & A ; Reid ( 2003 ) requested members of the populace to prioritise the undertakings they thought the constabulary should pass more clip and attempt on ; offense bar, pes patrols and community policing were the top 3. Foot patrol is one of the most of import and original activities that define patroling ; as foremost stated by Sir Robert Peel, laminitis of the Metropolitan Police, who produced the Nine Principles of Patroling in 1829.
These nine rules stated that the purposes of the Metropolitan Police, as stated by Sergeant ( 2008: 80 ) were:To forestall offense and upset, as an option to their repression by military force and badness of legal penalty.In other words, it is their function to suppress bad behavior taking to offense and upset, or else harsher ways of covering with this, i.e.
military force, will come into topographic point. A current illustration of this being the war in Afghanistan, where military force has been used as a consequence of the poorly trained and corrupt policing that was in consequence before, Wolf ( 2006 ) wrote that ‘A well-trained constabulary force, that is non really corrupt, is important for making a stable Afghanistan ‘ .To recognize ever that the power of the constabulary to carry through their maps and responsibilities is dependent on public blessing of their being, actions and behavior and on their ability to procure and keep public regard.Therefore, even since 1829 it has been the constabulary forces mission to maintain the regard and blessing of the populace they are patroling.To recognize ever that to procure and keep the regard and blessing of the populace means besides the securing of the willing co-operation of the populace in the undertaking of procuring observation of Torahs.That is to state, merely when there is blessing from the populace, there is co-operation from them besides.To recognize ever that the extent to which the co-operation of the populace can be secured diminishes proportionally the necessity of the usage of physical force and irresistible impulse for accomplishing constabulary aims.
To set it merely, their responsibility is to recognize the opposite relationship between public blessing and the usage of physical force and irresistible impulse.To seek and continue public favor, non by gratifying to public sentiment ; but by invariably showing perfectly impartial service to jurisprudence, in complete independency of policy, and without respect to the justness or unfairness of the substance of single Torahs, by ready offering of single service and friendly relationship to all members of the populace without respect to their wealth or societal standing, by ready exercising of courtesy and friendly good temper ; and by ready offering of single forfeit in protecting and continuing life.Again, merely put, it is their duty to be perfectly impartial.To utilize physical force merely when the exercising of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be deficient to obtain public co-operation to an extent necessary to procure observation of jurisprudence or to reconstruct order, and to utilize merely the minimal grade of physical force which is necessary on any peculiar juncture for accomplishing a constabulary aim.In other words, to gain that physical force is the last resort and that every power of persuasion and mediation should be exhausted beforehand.To keep at all times a relationship with the populace that gives world to the historic tradition that the constabulary are the public and that the populace are the constabulary, the constabulary being lone members of the populace who are paid to give full-time attending to responsibilities which are incumbent on every citizen in the involvements of community public assistance and being.
To achieve an indivisibility between the populace and the constabulary so that their ends are the sameTo recognize ever the demand for rigorous attachment to police-executive maps, and to forbear from even looking to assume the powers of the bench of revenging persons or the province, and of magisterially judging guilt and penalizing the guilty.Put another manner, the constabulary are at that place to constabularies, non to revenge or take retribution, but to be independent of the bench.To recognize ever that the trial of constabulary efficiency is the absence of offense and upset, and non the seeable grounds of constabularies action in covering with them.And eventually, their function is to recognize that the trial of constabulary efficiency is the absence of offense and upset instead than the seeable grounds of police action. Unfortunately in today ‘s authorities, the seeable grounds of police action is the action that is most rewarded.An article published by The Times Online in 2008 quoted Harriet Sergeant, ‘In order to hit politically, they [ the constabulary ] believe the authorities has sacrificed their unity, the unity of the force and their relationship with the community ‘ , hence traveling against everything Sir Robert Peel was working for.
A instance in point is that caput officers receive annually fillips based on how their work forces execute and how good they reach their marks, non depending on how safe their community is or how well-thought-of they are by the populace they serve. Within the constabulary force, the officers are judged and praised for the figure of apprehensions they carry out, whereas the public justice the constabulary by the absence of offense in their community, which causes a critical difference between how we want to be policed and how we are really policed.It is clear that the populace has lost assurance in the constabulary, as reported in The Economist in 2008, ‘only 25 per centum of the populace had any confident in the authorities ‘s ability to check down on offense and force ‘ in 2006, besides consequences from the 06/07 British Crime Survey showed that 50 per centum of participants thought what the constabulary did in their country could be described as good or first-class.
But what about the other 50 per centum? Ironically it is the people who have had no contact with constabularies who are more likely to see them as making a good occupation, whereas, as Herbert et Al ( 2007 ) provinces, people who have come into contact with them, both as an wrongdoer or as a victim, are a batch less likely to believe that their local constabularies are making an first-class occupation. It could be seen as apprehensible if this were merely true of wrongdoers, seeing as they may hold a score against the constabulary for collaring them, but it is flooring that this sentiment is held with victims excessively.Another factor showing the populace ‘s turning contempt for the constabulary is the rise in ailments against them in recent old ages, during 1997/98 22,100 ailments were made against the constabulary in England and Wales ( Lewis 1999: 19 ) whereas during 2006/07 this figure increased greatly to 29,637 ailments made ( Sergeant 2008: 10 ) , demoing an addition of 7,000 ailments per annum in merely 9 old ages.
Traditionally, the highest per centum of ailments are made by immature males claiming to hold been assaulted by an officer, as the Independent Police Complaints Commission reported, during 2006/07 35 % of ailments made were by male under 17 twelvemonth olds, but the same twelvemonth saw a new tendency occurring, 45 % of ailments were made by ‘law abiding, in-between category, middle aged and retired people ‘ for the behavior they had experienced when coming into contact with the constabulary, ‘incivility, impoliteness or intolerance ‘ were merely a few illustrations of the populace ‘s ailments. Nick Hardwick, IPCC president, held that ‘for the observant citizen their contact with the constabulary, whether existent or perceived, can hold a profound impact on their assurance in the constabulary service as a whole ‘ ( The Telegraph Online 14/12/07 ) .The constabulary are responsible for all probe follow up and the readying for a offense to travel to tribunal ; non merely do they reply exigency calls, they take statements from informants, they collect DNA samples, they watch CCTV footage, they get called to tribunal to give grounds, they secure a offense scene, they patrol the roads of give tickets to automobilists and they accompany captives in detention ( Sergeant, 2008: 13 ) , so it is easy to see why response officers do non ever have clip for everyone. Unfortunately, response officers merely respond to offense once it has taken topographic point, whereas the public do non desire the offense to go on to get down with, but finally when something goes incorrect it is a response auto that people want. Therein lies the job, there are non adequate constabulary being employed to cover the sum of calls they receive. In September 2006, there were 141,873 full clip constabulary officers in England and Wales ( Home Office 2007 ) , which is an all clip high, but compared to other states, this is still highly low. Herbert et Al ( 2007 ) stated that in 2003 there were 264 constabulary officers in England and Wales per 100,000 of the population, compared to the European norm of 357 and New York with 457. When besides sing the sum of clip taken up by paperwork, it is singular that there is any clip to police at all.
A big portion of the job is besides the conflicting marks given to the call Centres and the Crown Prosecution Service. The call centres mark is to cover with 90 per centum of their calls within 15 seconds, which means that a batch of the clip a call is logged that is n’t an exigency or even a offense in order to carry through their marks. As a effect of this unfiltered calls are sent to officers and can quite frequently be a waste of clip.A response officer is ever the first individual on the scene of an incident, and therefore they are the people who representative the condemnable justness system as a whole, the consequence of this is that when other parts of the system fail, it is the constabulary that are blamed for these defects. In 2006, there were 5,428,000 offenses reported to the constabulary, as exposed by the Daily Mail Online ( 29/11/07 ) . Of that sum, 1,475,000 were solved by the constabulary.
693,250 ( 47 % ) were so charged or summonsed to tribunal. It is after this that the constabulary engagement is minimum ; it is the Crown Prosecution Service ( CPS ) who so decides whether a instance is deserving taking in forepart of a justice. Of the 693,250 instances brought to the Crown Prosecution Service, 287,450 were so dropped or ‘No Further Action ‘ taken, go forthing 406,000 instances taken to tribunal, of which 74,000 were sent to prison. Sing the immense sum of offenses reported, this is such a little measure that it is easy to see why people have no religion in the condemnable justness system.
As a effect of jobs such as prison overcrowding, more offenses are punished with lesser punishments, for case they are given mulcts, community service, fixed punishments etc. The Daily Mail article reported that of the 1,475,000 offenses that the constabulary solved in 2006, 350,000 merely received a cautiousness, included in this figure were 7,700 burglars, 57,000 violent aggressors, 28 % of sex wrongdoers which included 24 rapers, all received a cautiousness.Former shadow place secretary, David Davis commented that ‘victims of offense privation to see existent justness. This involves wrongdoers being prosecuted, punished and rehabilitated. They do non desire to see a smack on the carpus or a all right that half of them do non pay ‘ .The procedure in which an wrongdoer is taken to tribunal relies on the relationship between the constabulary and the Crown Prosecution Service.
The constabulary have the duty of look intoing the instances, questioning any informants there may be, and garnering forensic grounds to show to the Crown Prosecution Service who will so make up one’s mind if there is adequate grounds to convey the instance to tribunal. Unfortunately, as with the constabulary, the Crown Prosecution Service besides operate under the force per unit area of authorities marks, nevertheless the marks set out for the Police are in direct struggle with those of the CPS. While the constabularies are judged by the sum of people they arrest, the CPS is judged by the proportion and sum of successful strong beliefs they gain. On the face of it this mark sounds sensible but necessarily in order to run into their marks, Crown Prosecution Service attorneies pick and choose the instances which they are confident they will win. This means that the CPS call on the constabulary to supply multitudes of grounds, which takes clip and attempt that could be used out on the streets. The CPS is non accountable for the sum of clip they require from the constabulary, yet after the clip taken to garner all the grounds, the CPS can still drop the instance, and it is so the constabulary officers who have to state the victims that the instance has been NFA ‘d ( No farther Action ) and non the CPS.
As Sergeant ( 2008 ) justly states, ‘Unfortunately it is the condemnable justness system as a whole by which the constabulary are excessively frequently judged ‘ .
Quotation marks for questionnaire usage
Bryman ( 2004 ) believed that ‘only cognition gained through experience and the senses is acceptable ‘ in other words, a theory or hypothesis must be subjected to proving before it can be considered a fact. With this in head, I decided that strictly library based survey would non make my research inquiry justness. I chose to utilize questionnaires to happen out what people truly thought about the constabulary force in and around their country, this method appealed to me the most because of its independence, since I would non be interacting with the people I was oppugning in any manner.There are many advantages of utilizing questionnaires in empirical research, the chief being that this method produces a big sum of quantitative informations for analysis, and given the period of clip available for this research I felt that this method would supply me with the most sum of information to work from. Questionnaires are besides inexpensive to administrate seeing as the lone cost incurred would be publishing and possibly travel. Self completion questionnaires besides cut down the hazard of prejudice and influence as they provide greater namelessness for the respondent. The cardinal feature of societal studies, i.
e. questionnaires, is that the same information can be collected from each individual in the chosen sample, and it is easier to derive a larger sample size so with face-to-face interviews and other techniques. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of studies as they do non necessitate as much attempt from the inquirer as verbal or telephone studies, and depending on the format chosen, they normally have standardized replies that make it simple to roll up informations and easier to analyse. Although, of class, this can besides hold an inauspicious consequence as standardised replies may thwart participants, for illustration, a group of inquiries I chose used set replies of ‘strongly agree, agree, disagree ‘ and ‘strongly disagree ‘ , I chose non to add ‘neither agree nor disagree ‘ because I did non desire to stop up with 30 open replies, as this would non assist me at all.
Although this so runs the hazard of being seen as act uponing the individuals answer, I alternatively chose to believe of it as assisting the participant be more decisive! There were a few disadvantages to see when taking my method, questionnaires tend to be short and the inquiries have to be simple to minimise the opportunities of misconstruing. The response rates can besides be low depending on the sample chosen.When taking my sample I considered a few different methods ; my initial ideas were to travel into a shopping Centre in a extremely populated town and inquire the general populace to finish my questionnaire, this gives the advantage of holding no prejudice towards the participants.
I decided against this because if I was to utilize this method this would restrict the respondents to those there at that given clip, which may non stand for the positions of other members of society in such an country and therefore I would non be able to generalise from my sample unless I was to reiterate this method at different times of twenty-four hours and several times per hebdomad, which of class would be really clip consuming.The following method of trying to be considered was to take advantage of the University of Northampton intranet and electronically direct questionnaires to pupils on the internal electronic mail, which would be a batch less clip consuming and would work out the job of holding to travel out and happen participants. However, there were 2 issues with this method ; foremost, this would contract the capableness to generalise from the responses, as the positions of 40 pupils may good be mostly dissimilar to those of a whole community. The 2nd issue to turn to was the response rates tend to be low and it would be hard to place the features of those who did non answer and the consequence they may hold had on the findings.Finally, I decided on a sampling method known as web or sweet sand verbena sampling. This is used when there is no list to obtain a sample of the population from.
Respondents are found through referral, such as through friends and household. This technique has its virtues because the personal recommendations are made by people who know the experimenter and the participants and hence there is a degree of trust gained through this, it besides leads to a much higher response rate as there is a personal involvement in finishing and returning the questionnaire. The chief job associated with this system is that there is a opportunity of the participants holding had similar experiences with the constabulary and hence this may bias the information gathered. The manner to work out this possible job is to hold several get downing off points for the snowballing to arise from and accordingly more than one web of subscribers is acquired.
I chose to get down my snowballing in 4 different topographic points ; work, university, household and friends, each participant received the same questionnaire, accompanied by the same covering missive, explicating why I was transporting out the survey, the inside informations of my class, warrants that they will be kept anon. , my contact inside informations and instructions for finishing the questionnaire. I work portion clip at the Lister Hospital in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, as a medical secretary and my occupation involves a batch of interaction with a broad scope of people, including physicians, directors, patients and other admin workers. I chose to get down off here because of the wide assortment of people to which I could show with questionnaires. Every individual I asked besides took a questionnaire off to inquire a friend or familiarity outside of the infirmary to finish. This amounted to 20 completed questionnaires being returned to me. Following, I asked 5 household members to finish the questionnaire, as before each went on to mention person else outside of the household. I repeated this method for 10 friends and 5 category couples at university.
In entire, my sample size amounted to 60 questionnaires being returned, completed.My research was non without jobs, since originally I was be aftering on undergoing participant observation, as at the start of my survey I had a close connexion with a member of the Metropolitan Police. Participant observation is defined by Hammersley and Atkinson ( 1995 ) as a method that entails the ethnographer affecting oneself, openly or sneakily, in the populace ‘s normal twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours lives for a big period of clip, detecting what goes on, listening to what is said, fundamentally doing a note of anything that could give a solution to the issues that are the focal point of the research. Spindler and Spindler ( 1992: 32 ) stipulated that ‘knowing what indigens know is non adequate ‘ , a research worker may be able to detect and convey things about persons and groups which they themselves can non see, every bit good as things that neither the research worker nor participants can see at the beginning of the survey. The research worker can besides equilibrate between regard for the participants account and agnosticism and an foreigner ‘s position.Spindler and Splinder ( 1992: 124 ) held that ‘only the human perceiver can be watchful to divergencies and nuances that may turn out more of import than the informations produced by any preset classs of observation or any instrument ‘ , intending that merely a individual who observes with no prejudice as to what they want out of the consequences will acquire better findings, since an instrument will merely mensurate what it is supposed to mensurate, and hence will non see any other of import nuances that are important to the survey.
It is this peculiar ground that I was disappointed to non hold the opportunity to transport out my experimental research. I had been given the chance to attach to a constabulary officer on patrol for an eventide, to detect and see how the public react towards them. This research would hold been highly utile, and really interesting to transport out, but unluckily the connexion was broken and disappointingly I was unable to implement this portion of my survey.
*MAIN CHAPTERS SETTING OUT FINDINGS/ARGUMENTS
The structuring procedure involved in finding how best to show your work requires a batch of be aftering. You need to make up one’s mind the intent of each subdivision of your work, how of import it is and how much infinite it warrants. You will besides hold to do of import determinations about how to associate chapters and how to title them so as to give reader suited ‘signposts ‘ presenting the new subjects and thoughts.
You truly necessitate make up one’s mind on your chief chapter subdivisions before you start composing the text, but be prepared to modify them as the authorship progresses.The ordination of the contents within each chapter is a continuance of the procedure of structuring the thesis as a whole. In both instances, you are looking for ways of interrupting your information down into subjects which flow in a logical manner to build a flowing, progressive narration.Empirical thesiss:If making an empirical thesis, you will evidently hold to give a chapter to describing your consequences. After repeating the job, you should measure how the consequences fit in with bing cognition. If your undertaking set out to prove certain hypotheses, this subdivision should show whether they were or were non supported by the grounds.
Any lacks in the research design, or restrictions of the survey, should be clearly indicated at this point.
This short but critical subdivision completes the yarn started with the Introduction. You may good stop up composing the Introduction last in order to keep consistence with your Decisions! Before you write this subdivision, read through the whole work and do a note of the cardinal points. Do non present new informations into the Conclusion.
If it of import adequate to be included, it should already be elsewhere. Readers who want a speedy thought of what your research is approximately will look at the Abstract, perchance the Introduction and surely at the Conclusions. So maintain all these subdivisions short and enlightening. Be self-critical and do non claim more for your work than it justifies.
APPENDICES ( if required )
Appendixs ( remarkable: Appendix ) are where you put material which is merely accessory to the chief text. They may suitably be used for tabular arraies, studies or other information minor expense to the chief thesis. They may besides be used as a depository for paperss such as the signifiers used in a peculiar legal context. The stuff used in appendices should be clearly labelled and referenced.Make COVER LETTERQuestionnaireAre you:Male FemaleHow old are you?15-25 26-35 36-45 46+What is your cultural beginning?WhiteBlackAssortedAsiaticChineseDecline to stipulateOther ( delight specify )What is your business?Where make you populate?Have you of all time come in to reach with the Police?Yes No ( travel to oppugn 9 )If yes, were you the:VictimWrongdoerOther ( delight specify )Would you depict this contact as:Positive ( travel to 8a. ) Negative ( travel to 8b.
)8a. If positive, delight give grounds:8b. If negative, delight give grounds:How late can you retrieve seeing a police officer on the round in your country?Do n’t cognizeWithin the last hebdomadWithin the last monthWithin the last twelvemonthNeverHow confident are you that the constabulary would catch an wrongdoer for each of these offenses:Burglary Very confidentConfidentNot confidentNo opportunityCar larceny Very confidentConfidentNot confidentNo opportunityStreet mugging Very confidentConfidentNot confidentNo opportunitySexual activity offense Very confidentConfidentNot confidentNo opportunityAssault Very confidentConfidentNot confidentNo opportunityIf you are non confident, which of the undermentioned best describes the ground why you are non confident about the constabulary catching an wrongdoer?Do n’t cognizePolices have excessively few resourcesToo few constabulariesPolice pass excessively much clip on paperworkPolice non interestedPolice incompetentNone of theseState your ainWhich one or two of these do you believe would make most to do you experience safer on the streets in your country?More constabularies on the streetsMore CCTV camerasTicketing the parentsBetter street illumingOn the topographic point mulctsMore taggingNone of theseDo n’t cognizeState your ainHow much to make you hold to the undermentioned statements:It is reassuring to cognize that constabulary are about.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differIn your town, constabulary officers have a positive influence.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differWhen the constabulary get involved in state of affairss, it makes affairs worse.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differPolice officers are frequently chesty.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differI feel comfy in the presence of constabulary officers.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differThe occupation of a constabulary officer is really of import to our society.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differThe constabulary are ever gracious when covering with the general populace.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differThe Police discriminate against immature people.Strongly AgreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly differThank you for your clip,Sarah Bassett.