Discovering Approaches To Enhance Pork Meat Eating Quality Biology Essay
Meat texture and spirit ever received a great trade of attending from the consumers that seek for high quality eating experience. Other desirable porc meat standards of importance are viz. the succulence, composing of intramuscular fat, visual aspect and small bead loss ( Andersen and others 2005 ) . Therefore, it is of the hog husbandmans and porc meat retail merchants ‘ uttermost concern to retain and heighten these eating qualities before showing the meat to consumers, while sing the fiscal and proficient restraints. The implicit in factors that determined eating quality of porc meat include the genotype, strain and age of hog, feeding stuffs, pre-slaughter conditions, post-slaughter handling, storage conditions and cookery processs.
It is worthwhile to understand the familial profile of hog since the growing of thin musculus is by and large governed by the porcine emphasis syndrome cistron or best known as halothane cistron ( Channon and others 2000 ) . In fact, the heterozygote hogs for halothane are more prone to emphasize before butchering. This leads to depletion of animal starch concentration and rapid decline of pH of less than 5.5 which promotes extensive musculus proteins denaturation while the temperature of the carcase is still high ( up to 40oC ) . As a consequence, the picket, soft and exudative ( PSE ) porc meat is produced with inordinate loss of H2O and is badly purged. Another cistron that confers greater decrease in ultimate pH and H2O binding capacity ( WBC ) of porc meat is the rendement napole ( RN ) cistron ( Rosenvold and Andersen 2003 ) .
Finally, bulk of the hog husbandmans that suffered economic loss owing to the hapless porc quality produced extinguish both the halothane and RN cistrons at the initial phase of strain choice.The eating stuffs for the hog have important impact on the meat tenderness and WBC to a great extent, in footings of changing the rate of musculus growing and the sum of energy available ( energy shops of creatine phosphate and animal starch ) in musculus upon butchering ( Anderson and others 2005 ) . The several work suggested that holding high digestible saccharide degree in the hog ‘s diet anterior slaughtering is cost-efficient and would increase the animal starch concentration stored in the musculus which is able to detain the oncoming of asperity mortis.
Alternatively, a low protein diet would bring on hogs to turn more intramuscular fat within the musculus, which will fulfill the overall eating experience perceived by consumers but the spirit will be somewhat reduced ( Wood and others 2004 ) . Sadly, the recent attempt of Simitzis and the others ( 2010 ) to supplement the hog diet with oregano oil to retard the lipid oxidization in order to forestall the development of rancidity in porc meat was reported to hold no consequence on the eating quality. On the other manus, the broad use of beta agonist provender linear, such as ractopamine in swine industry, contributes to leaner porc meat and tenderness ( Xiong and others 2006 ) .
However, this attack draws ethical concerns and hence, non socially acceptable.By and large, the butchering procedure cuts off the supply of energy and O that ceased the aerophilic metamorphosis of the carcase and glycolysis takes topographic point which depletes the energy currency of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) . At this phase, the musculus stiffens as no ATP is available to disassociate the irreversible cross linkages between actin and myosin. This is the oncoming of asperity mortis which promotes damaging tough texture to meat, therefore the carcase must aged right after slaughter to advance musculus relaxation. The hog carcases are normally electrically stunned to speed up the glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis for the musculus enters the asperity province Oklahoman to better the porc meat tenderness ( Devine 2009 ) . Troeger and Benjamin ( 2003 ) see the animate being public assistance issue by restricting the lower limit changeless electric current flow of 1.3A for more than 0.
3 seconds on the carcase. However, the rapid bead of pH owing to lactic acerb accretion from glycolysis is likely to do inferior WBC and bring forth the PSE meat ( Rosenvold and Andersen 2003 ) . Conversely, C dioxide ( CO2 ) stunning is a more reasonable manner to better the meat quality in cut downing the incidence of bone breaks and blood splashes that occurred often during electrical stimulation.
Both the arresting method of electrical and CO2 are controversial because they introduce unmerciful physiological emphasis to pig. Alternatively, the pelvic suspension is reported by Rosenvold and Andersen ( 2003 ) in forestalling farther musculus shortening efficaciously. The length of sarcomere prolonged bit by bit to heighten the meat tenderness and WBC belongingss. In general, ageing procedure, ideally up to 10 yearss under appropriate conditions, is necessary for the musculus proteins to interrupt down in order to tenderize the porc meat and generates flavour upon production of peptides and aminic acids ( Ngapo and Gariepy 2008 ) . Furthermore, commanding the chilling rate of carcase via rigorous temperature-time government, particularly four hours after butchering or during the transit to mill for farther meat processing or to meatmans can avoid the hazard of cold shortening that will toughen the meat. Notably, the reappraisal paper by Rosenvold and Andersen ( 2003 ) reported that the common PSE defects in porc can be minimised through N cooling, whereas accelerated air chilling showed inclination to command drip loss.
When retailing the porc meat to the consumers, the modified ambiance packaging ( MAP ) of lesser O degree under low temperature, is an effectual method to cut down the opportunities of meat lipoids rancidity and the musculus proteins oxidization, every bit good as widening the meat shelf life ( Lund and others 2007 ) . As a consequence, the musculus proteins are less transverse links via disulphide bond and the tenderness and succulence showed important betterment. After all, MAP is so a singular development in exporting the porc meat to overseas, while retaining its freshness and bright coloring material. The meat centripetal features of succulence and tenderness perceived by consumers besides depend on the cookery process which correlated with the manner of heat transportation, meat surface temperature and the nucleus temperature ( Ngapo & A ; Gariepy 2008 ) . In fact, cooking denatures the musculus proteins and forces the H2O to migrate out from the musculus tissue to vaporize into atmosphere. This resulted porc meat to hold weak WBC which exerts considerable impact on succulence.
In comparing, the attack of shooting 5 % polyphosphate into porc meat improves the overall succulence and tenderness of porc meat enormously. The polyphosphate will raise the meat pH and increase the net negative charges, doing the musculus to swell and better WBC ( Sheard and others 1999 ) .Although the carcase is handled under rigorous government from choosing the best cistrons in hog to ethical on-farm direction prior to butchering ( such as emphasis and provender ) , post-slaughter handling and cookery process, the fluctuation of meat quality is yet unexplained. The plausible account is that the eating quality perceived by the consumers does non relied on simply one of the factors discussed supra, the interaction of more than one factors determines the overall centripetal features of meat, i.e. texture and spirit.
Many attempts to heighten porc meat quality are undertaken by the hog husbandmans, every bit long as the meat is produced at the minimum cost and would still retain the desirable standards seek by the consumers and have value for money. After all, the possible research chance for porc eating quality sweetening in the hereafter to fulfill the altering demands of consumers is to develop fresher attacks to bring forth porc meat of consistent quality and free from unwanted defects.