Different freedom of marriage without limitation to
Different from Western, Asia has its ownvalue toward the context of homosexuality. To understand, author suggests notmerely stressing on Universality of Human Right, but also socio-culturalbackground within Asian circumstance. Culture in Asian society consists ofobligation and family responsibilities element. Human Right Universal is writtenunder American influence and western concept, yet applied globally, includingAsia.
Universal Declaration of Human Right emerges on many basic rights forindividual, for instance: freedom of marriage without limitation to race,nationality, religion, etc. Despite the influence of American, US Supreme Courthas just legalized gay marriage as marriage in 2015, while the Declaration wasadopted since 1948. Form 1980s, the impact of western modelbring positive and negative in Asian homosexual communities.
Noticeably, theinfluence patterns of White model not merely directly from Western, but viaeducation abroad of Asian students. Looking back at Asian tradition before thearrival of western, embracing culture of tolerance toward same-sex practice, assuch transgender seems to appear in media freely. ?Due to shortage of accessible documentsabout sexual minorities evoke to difficulty of research and to archive databasefor analysis, most of the researchers in such context are found in Australia,US and Japan (Laurent, 2005, p.
170). In thearticle research mentioned heavily on Asian value over homosexuality behavior. Asianvalue tied Asian LGBTQ in social norm, where they are encouraged to marry andhave children. The family obligation and culture took over homosexuality behavior;they may hide their identity for whole life to keep family’s satisfaction. Forinstance: Asian gays, who get married with women and have children as normalstraights, would not embrace themselves as gays. This act may be considered as”play”, not sexual identity. Surprisingly, the word gay will be defineddifferently in Asian perspective among Kathoey (Thai)/Katoi(Khmer)/Gatoey(Laos).
The idea of gay-ism and lesbianismperceived as the western model and Pride Parade is the example of western ideainfluence (Brewer, 1999). Somecounties in Asia like Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and ThePhilippines seems to be tolerance and no legal discrimination (Laurent, 2005, p. 171). In Thailand, the word gay meant differentlyfrom Kathoey.
Thailand appears to be silent on sexual minorities, butChinese-Thai and Islamic-Thai have been pressure by cultural burden (Laurent, 2005, p. 188). Notdifferent from other Asian countries, there is no clear cut between gender andsex in Thai society although there were some protest and 6 bars were crackdownduring the election of “Thai Rak Thai” in 2001 (Laurent, 2005, p. 188). Traditionally, women remain virgin untilmarriage; transgender would be need for bachelor sexual partners. Under repressive government, Laos accept “gatoey”or third gender, yet sex between 2 men was perceived as “peasant manners”pointed by French colonialists.
As such it impacts Lao upper and middleclasses’ thinking. In 1992, gay arrested had been recorded and the real situationof homosexuality in Laos remains silent. Interestingly, homosexuality in Cambodiasociety viewed as Karma.
To some extend Karma refers to what individual did inthe past experience. In Theravada Buddhist, women are not allowed to touch themonk (except Monks’ mother), the opposite act of this would result in bad sinas that women will born to be “Katoi” in next life as Cambodians belief. AsCambodian girl, she has taught to view idea of Katoi is bad indeed since she isyoung, such this gays and lesbians may feel guilty to come out as who they are,as social-culture background they would hide their homosexuality and live thelife that community and family prefer to. The transgender in Vietnam, mainly in HoChi Minh, during French colonialist was found in prostitutes factory, singersand entertainers. Remarkably, female prostitute strongly prohibited while neglectmale prostitution.
Marriage and have children are admired in Vietnam insociety. A report of gay marriage in 1997 in Ho Chi Minh City althoughauthority oppose about legal matter and homosexuality has been illegal. Thediscover of lesbians and gays bars and clubs make eye-opening to the outsiders.
The concept of invisible and visible towardhomosexuality within Asian countries remains open for discusses. Based on mostcase in Asia, people keep discreet, yet does not mean they agree withhomosexuality. Tran-sexual is preferable and human reproduction and familyobligation are heavily burden to sexual minority groups.