Development Of Livestock Farming In Cholistan Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay
Agribusiness Geography is the subdivision of geographics which concerns with the survey of preparation and testing of hypothesis, reading of geographic distribution and location of assorted feature of agribusiness activities on the surface of the Earth.
Almost all states of the universe have embarked on agribusiness production, with acclivity on set uping the nature of conditions environing that production in specific countries or of the conditions favourable to establishing the same in countries non presently devoted to that intent.Agribusiness is the anchor of the economic system of Pakistan. About 75-80 % of the population depends on agribusiness, which contributes 30 % to the Gross Domestic Product. The entire land country of Pakistan, including Azad Kashmir, is 88 M hour angle. The chief land uses in the state are agribusiness, farm animal production, and forestry. About 5 M hour angle of the cultivated country ( 24 % of entire country ) is rain Federals while 16 M hour angle is irrigated.
It is estimated that around 60 % ( 45.2 M hour angle ) of the entire country is rangelands ( Mohammad, 1989 ) . Most of these rangelands receive less than 200 millimeter rainfall, and are located on rocky dirts, comeuppances, and unsmooth topography. Therefore, productiveness is really low and it is non possible to use them for sustained agriculture intents. However, these rangelands partially support 93.5 M farm animal during the summer ( Mohammad, 1989 ) .Integrated agrarian systems are practiced and deficit of provender is a major restricting factor in farm animal production. Livestock is a major beginning of income in irrigated, waterless, semiarid, and rain-fed countries of Pakistan.
Most of the rangelands of Pakistan are in waterless and semi-arid zones characterized by low precipitation and extremes of temperature and low humidness. Furthermore, drouth besides occurs in these countries ( Umrani et al. , 1996 ) , and exacerbates the effects of overgrazing which consequences in complete and lasting loss of some species of flora.
The major traditional farm animal croping systems practiced in Pakistan are mobile graze, Semi-Nomadic graze, and croping in the desert rangelands ( Mohammad, 1989 ) .In the waterless parts of Pakistan, complexness, variableness, and uncertainness characterize the graze systems. Therefore, direction patterns are non simple. In desert rangelands, pastoral people respond rapidly to available chances and challenges. Behnke ( 1994 ) reported that waterless land pastoral communities normally pattern an timeserving signifier of resource use. Livestock croping patterns in the Thal, Cholistan, Kohistan, and Tharparker desert countries are similar.
The desert pastoral communities have ecologically adjusted themselves to use fringy countries, which would otherwise non hold been utilized. Other surveies besides suggest that the mobile system is an first-class manner of change overing scarce flora into carnal protein ( FAO, 1987 ; Oxby, 1994 ) .Cholistan desert, an extension of Great Indian Desert, is located in southern Punjab, Pakistan, between latitude 27o 42 ‘ and 29o 45 ‘ north and 69o 52 ‘ and 73o 05 ‘ E.
The length of the desert is about 480 kilometers and breadth varies from 32 kilometers to 192 kilometer with an country of 2.6 million hectares. Based on the topography, parent stuff, dirt and flora the whole Cholistan desert can be divided into two geomorphic parts. The northern part or Lesser Cholistan boundary lines canal irrigated countries to the bed of abandoned river Hakra in the desert and screens about 7770 square kilometre and southern part or Greater Cholistan which borders with India in south, covers an country of about 18130 square kilometre. Habitations are little and highly scattered.
The Climate of Cholistan desert is characterized by low and sporadic rainfall. The average one-year rainfall varies from less than 100 millimeter in the West to 200 millimeter in the E. Rain normally falls during monsoon ( July through September ) and in winter and spring ( January through March ) . Monsoon rains occur largely in heavy showers. Cholistan is one of the hottest parts in Pakistan. Temperatures are high in summer and mild by twenty-four hours in winter but cold at dark with occasional hoar.
The average summer temperature ( May, June ) is 34oC with highs making above 50oC. Fruitlessness is the most dramatic characteristic of Cholistan with moisture and dry old ages happening in bunchs. The one-year rainfall may happen during every bit few as 11 yearss, although the spacial fluctuation among the rainfall zones may be greater from twelvemonth to twelvemonth for full country. The dry land of Cholistan was one time green and comfortable where cultivation was practiced. The country was deserted through desertification procedures after the drying of river and the country was left as croping lands. The human population residing in the country is dwelling of many different folks with different specific features, languages etc.
These folks came from different parts of India, Sind, Baluchistan in old times ( Mughel, 1979 ) .The chief resources of H2O in the Cholistan are: surface and land H2O. The surface H2O is received from rainfall and is collected in the Tobas ( pools ) while land H2O is obtained through dug Wellss. Tobas ( little pools ) are excavated in the level countries to roll up rainwater for imbibing of human and farm animal near their residing huts or in the small town. Tobas are excavated by each folk in his ain graze country occupied by their ascendants from centuries.
There is besides a joint topographic point for life of many folks in the signifier of small town. Where joint Tobas are excavated by joint attempts. The Tobas are dug by spades and Earth is thrown off toward merely one side whereas three sides are unbroken unfastened to come in rainwater from these waies. The rainwater collected in these Tobas remains maximal up to four months where Tobas are little. Toba H2O is used by the folk himself and other foreigners from the folk are non allowed to take H2O for imbibing or other utilizations. However, where toba is made by joint attempts at that place the whole community can utilize H2O of toba.
The unfastened Wellss have been constructed by bricks where land H2O is potable by gustatory sensation. The quality of land H2O for building of well is judged by gustatory sensation and non by proper scientific analysis. The diameter of Wellss varies between one metre to four metre.
Depth of Wellss is between four metre to forty metre. The H2O from Wellss is drawn by large leather pails attached with rope made by hairs of caprine animals or leather strips and pulled by camel. The large pail full with H2O is catched by two to three work forces. The well is besides belongings of the folk who constructed it. The H2O of well is used when rainwater in the toba prohibitionists.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMCroping of farm animal is the most common and the biggest profession among the desert communities. Major portion of their income comes from sale of farm animal and their merchandises.
Economic upheaval of these communities, hence, mostly depends on farm animal production, which in bend depends on sum of eatage available for the farm animal round the twelvemonth. Ruthless development of natural resources i.e. overgrazing due to overstocking coupled with rapid deforestation has enhanced the rate of desertification and accordingly production of nutrient, eatage, fuelwood and lumber has drastically reduced in most of the comeuppances. This has non merely affected the environment of the whole part but has besides worsened the socio-economic conditions of the desert communities. It is, hence, imperative that natural resources of the desert i.e.
land, flora, H2O and livestock resources of these countries should non merely be conserved but besides improved to elate the socio-economic conditions of the desert inhabitants. Drinking H2O is the restricting factor in some zones ( e.g. the Greater Cholistan desert ) whereas overgrazing and undernutrition are the major job in the Lesser Cholistan ( Ajmal et al. 1996, Auj 2001 ) .This survey is soon analyzing the development of farm animal agriculture in Cholistan and extent to which farm animal provender, have increased, or possibly decreased, in handiness over clip in response to a turning demand for them.LITERATURE REVIEWFor the reappraisal of literature of the proposed subject research articles, books and others related stuff has been discussed.
Related literature reappraisal is as following:Livestock production systems all over the universe can be divided into four classs: transhumant, agro-pastoralist, intensive harvests and farm animal, and peri-urban intensive systems. In add-on, there are a few not-so-obvious farm animal systems. ‘Pure ‘ nomads or transhumant does non hold a fixed colony but move between established districts and grazing lands. They are more common in Africa ‘s waterless and semi-arid parts than anyplace else. In Asia they can be found in India ‘s Rajasthan state, in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and in the states of the Arabian Gulf.
In most states, their population is comparatively little in figure, but they are good integrated into the local economic system. For illustration, they make up merely 2.2 % of the population of Iran but supply a major part of meat, wool and dairy merchandises to the state ( International Conference on Nomadism and Development 1992 ) .Grigg, ( 1996 ) in his book “ The Agriculture systems of the universe: An Evolutionary attack ” comments “ Although pastoral nomads of farm animal farming are of small importance on a universe graduated table, they still play an of import function in some states. Therefore, for illustration, three-fourthss of the population of Somalia are mobile. In Iran and Afghanistan, 15-20 per cent of the population was nomadic in 1950 ‘s ” .Nomadic Herders rely entirely upon natural flora for their farm animal ‘s fresh fish and instead sow grazing land nor shop fresh fish. As they live in countries whose fruitlessness, and in Central Asia, cold, preclude all-year graze.
They are forced to travel their herds in hunt of new grazing lands and imbibing H2O. In the comeuppances, proper rainfall is sporadic in clip and topographic point, and motion is less ordered, but by no agencies aimless. In both types of migration tribal groups keep to order district, and merely in old ages of drouth do they come in the croping countries of their neighbours.Livestock play a critical function in national economic system of Pakistan. At present, they are lending about 49.1 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the GDP ( Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2003 2004 ) .
Sulfee ( 1987 ) in his thesis “ land H2O surveies of Cholsitan desert ” studied the land H2O of Cholistan and suggested that in Cholistan, major aquifer is sand bounded with thick clay beds. The chief factors impacting infiltration rate in the country are surface grading, dirt compression and salts. Soil compression is due to over graze, air current eroding and salts, which makes a crust that seals the dirt surface to curtail the downward motion of H2O. There is no clay or other imperviable stuff at the top of the land H2O. Therefore, land H2O degrees are free to lift or fall.
Ground H2O is found at deepness of 20 to 30 metre below the land surface. The probe has revealed that the alluvial sediment, encountered with in the explored deepness is chiefly composed of sand, all right to really all right silt with low-level sedimentations of clay beds.The farm animal is the chief wealth of Cholistani Herders, and the chief production system is Transhumant in which farm animal is migrated to deluge plains/ irrigated countries during fresh fish scarceness period, nevertheless, really few cowss and about 50 per centum of caprine animals and 95 per centum of camels normally stay for good in the desert throughout the twelvemonth except for unusual drouth ( FAO 1993 ) .Ajmal ( 1998 ) in his article “ Sustainable Development Of Desert Communities Through Natural Resources – Problems And Recommendations For Cholistan Desert, Pakistan ” revealed that the flora is the most of import for the farm animal of Cholsitan because it constitutes the chief beginning of fresh fish for animate beings. Most of the Cholistan is covered by sand dunes. Fortunately, a broad scope of alimentary and drought tolerant species of grasses, bushs and trees exist in this district. Phyto-geographically, the flora of Cholistan belongs to the Nubo-Sindhian state of Sudanian part ( Baig et.al 1980 ) and is typical of waterless parts.
Amna ( 1987 ) in her thesis “ Nomads of Cholistan ” wrote “ we can state that the motion of desert nomads is forced motions. Transhumance of nomads in dry lands is controlled by important set of pull and push factors. The pull factors are H2O and eatage, where as push factors are drouths, disease and jeopardies ” .The entire human population of Cholistan desert is about 0.18 million ( CDA, 2005 ) . The economic system of the part is preponderantly pastoral.
Peoples have practiced a mobile life manner for centuries. The nomads ain big herds of camels, cowss, sheep and caprine animals. The unfastened and uninterrupted graze system is prevailing in Cholistan desert. The pastoralists graze their farm animal in their self-defined districts around their H2O points locally known as ‘tobas ‘ for most portion of the twelvemonth. They are compelled to take their farm animal out of the desert scope country in the drought period, which is normally pre-monsoon summer period i.
e. April to July each twelvemonth. During this portion of the twelvemonth the ‘Tobas ‘ dry up, H2O of Wellss go saline to the extent that farm animal garbages to accept it any more, grasses vanish and fodder becomes scarce go forthing no option except to migrate.Harmonizing to Poschel ( 2002 ) Nomadism in Cholistan is lasting from prehistoric times. The archeologists have classified the 54 sites of the Hakra Wares as cantonments. Camps are sites represented by a lighter spread of clayware without a physique up an archeological ridden.
These colonies were located on the old alluvial sediment of Cholistan every bit good as in stabilised flaxen countries. These sites seem to be stand foring the seasonal monsoon residences of pastoralist who came into cholistan to keep their animate beings. The presence of so many cantonments testifies to the importance of pastorlaism in the clip of the Hakra wares.There is tremendous variableness in herd direction schemes, societal organisation and grade of mobility. Harmonizing to Spooner ( 1973 ) , there are no characteristics of cultural or societal organisation common to all nomads or even that occur entirely among nomads.Farooq ( 2001 ) in his thesis “ Socio-economic Dimensions and Ecological devastation in Cholsitan ” discussed the over development of resources due to livestock agriculture as “ Whatever the kin motions or societal construction their present direction system appears to do small calculated proviso for preservation of the wellness grazing lands by resting or other methods. The effects have been:A decrease in the copiousness of toothsome species, particularly grasses.
Overall terrible loss of flora screen in countries milieus habitations and tobas with in radius of 1 Km.Poor conditions in cowss, for those pastoralists who do non have irrigated or other land,Reduced habitat chances for wild life ”Pastoralism is an effectual agencies of working fringy environments, such as waterless grasslands of the Torrid Zones or the tundra taiga ecosystems of the North. In these environments, the sum of energy fixed by workss via photosynthesis is low ( Begon et al. , 1990 ) , and the dominant workss are by and large hapless nutrient beginnings for worlds. The pastoral subsistence economic system provides an version to such conditions since it promotes the transition of low quality works resources into portable, high quality nutrients. However, the overall low degree of energy handiness necessitates low population denseness and high mobility among pastoral populations.
Barfield ( 1993 ) in his authoritative volume on pastoral nomads divided Old World pastoral societies into five distinguishable zones, each with its ain alone manner of animate being farming, ecology, and societal organisation.Younas ( 1997 ) in his article “ Feed resources of farm animal in the Punjab, Pakistan ” explored that graze of farm animal is the most common and the biggest profession among the desert communities. Major portion of their income comes from sale of farm animal and their merchandises. Economic upheaval of these communities, hence, mostly depends on farm animal production, which in bend depends on sum of eatage available for the farm animal round the twelvemonth. Ruthless development of natural resources i.e. overgrazing due to overstocking coupled with rapid deforestation has enhanced the rate of desertification and accordingly production of nutrient, eatage, fuel wood and lumber has drastically reduced in most of the comeuppances.While analyzing the DASANETCH folk in Ethiopian lands, Claudia J.
Carr ( 1977 ) explains the motion of folks as “ Wet and dry seasons correspond with broad fluctuations in herbage and browse, available H2O, and certain disease beings. The importance of little, unreasonable rains every bit good as the little and big showery seasons can be easy appreciated when one considered both the gap up of croping land otherwise unaccessible because of deficiency of H2O, and the fresh growing or grass and browse more by and large. Even a little rain during the dry season may bring forth fresh grass and some standing H2O in a vicinity, and a really big bunch of small towns and cantonments may hence get at that place about nightlong.
”Harmonizing to Amber ( 1998 ) , in recent times, pastoralism has been practiced chiefly in grasslands and other in semi-arid home grounds that are non particularly suited for cultivation without some significantly technological input such as irrigation. Most pastoralists are mobile, traveling cantonment often to happen H2O and new grazing land for their herds. But other pastoralists have slightly more sedentary lives – they may travel from one colony to another in different seasons, or they may direct some people out to go with the herds in different seasons. Pastoral communities are normally little, dwelling of a group of related households. Persons or households may have their ain animate beings but determination about when and where to travel the herds are community determinations.
The transhumant system comprises the largest figure of immigrating farm animal and is characterized by mass motion, including people ( Arshad et al. , 1999 ) .Farooq ( 2005 ) in his article “ Agro-pastoral system in Cholistan ” discussed in item the motion of farm animal husbandmans. Harmonizing to him, “ Patterns of motion are location specific and dictated by a traditional system of land term of office. In July/August, motion is from irrigated and riverine countries to traditionally owned “ tobas ” in lesser or greater Cholistan.
The distances covered by the nomads vary from 10 to more than 100 Kilometers. ” Several tobas belonging to the same kin may be located with in one-kilometer radius.Yee ( 1987 ) suggested in his thesis “ Planning for Livestock agriculture in Hong Kong ” that the farm animal agriculture does busy a significance place in nutrient market despite its little portion in GDP. So the endurance of the farm animal should no longer be neglected.
It is suggested to concentrate on the issues of fiscal aid degrees, be aftering control and publicity of agriculture.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe aims of proposed survey are as follows:To look into the distribution and location of farm animal agriculture in Cholistan.To measure the development procedure of farm animal in Cholistan.To analyze the socio- economic apparatus and spacial features of pastoralists.To research the chief hurdlings in farm animal genteelness in proposed survey country.To happen and turn up the rainwater reaping sites for the publicity of farm animal agriculture in Cholistan.To analyze the causes of over-exploitation of natural resources with mention to livestock agriculture in Cholistan.To look into the possibility of new support undertakings that could supply incomes in drouth prone countries of Cholistan.
SignificanceGeography has a long tradition of trying to understand how different procedures and phenomena interact in parts and vicinities, including an apprehension of how these interactions give topographic points their typical character. The present survey hopes to be of import by following ways:This survey will supply an effectual engagement at the local, national and regional degrees of non- governmental organisations and local populations, peculiarly resource users, including husbandmans and pastoralists and their representative organisations, in policy planning, decision-making, and execution and reappraisal of national action programmes.As the survey country is wholly ignored by bookmans, so this survey will be fruitful for farm animal development and direction harmonizing to H2O and grazing lands resources.This research will helpful for future contrivers and community development coders.This survey will supply a structural set of informations for future planning and direction of resources.This survey will be helpful in Establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of nutrient security systems, including storage and selling installations, peculiarly in rural countries.This survey will be utile to look into the jobs faced by farm animal and cattle breeders in cholistan desert.This survey will uncover and look into the milk and meat potency in the desert.
PlanThe present survey will be completed in one twelvemonth as follows:During the first twelvemonth related literature of the survey will be surveies and analyzed. The literature may associate to the survey country, about the transhumance form of motion, distribution of nomads and H2O resources will be sited exhaustively.During the 2nd twelvemonth, informations will be obtained form assorted primary and secondary beginnings holding ability of statistical intervention and demands of the survey. A sample study of some selected lasting and semi-permanent topographic points of the Cholistan desert will be conducted through dependable research instruments and extremely structured information will be obtained organize a big sample of respondents with the aid of interviews, questionnaires and personal observations.
Computer techniques and quantitative techniques will be used for the processing and intervention of informations and to build tabular arraies and figures.During the first half of 3rd twelvemonth, informations will be treated with the aid of different statistical techniques and expression. Maps and diagrams will besides be drawn to detect the distribution of farm animal resources. In the 2nd half of 3rd twelvemonth, analysis, readings and decisions will be made and given the form of a valuable thesis.1.7 METHODOLOGYThis survey will be conducted in a geographical model. All physical, societal, economic and environmental conditions will be brought under observation.
Primary informations will be collected through certain questionnaire to roll up the basic and primary information about farm animal and dairy sites in Cholistan. All livestock militias of Cholistan will be classified harmonizing to strains and will be located on different maps by the aid of modern GIS techniques e.g. different mapping techniques like Map Info ver.
8.1, Arc View GIS 9.1, Arc GIS 9.
1. As concentrating legion statistical variables different statistical techniques will be used with the aid of computing machine package like SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences ) to accomplish the aims of the survey.Reliance will besides be placed on the secondary informations published by assorted governmental, semi-governmental and other organisations with single research studies and articles. The followers will be the chief beginnings of informations for the present survey:Primary Data Collected by Field SurveyPopulation Census ReportsPunjab Development Statistics ( assorted volumes )Economic Survey of Pakistan ( different volumes and statistical addendums )Pakistan Statistical Yearbooks ( assorted volumes )Reports and informations collected by Cholistan Development AuthorityReports and research paper of Desert Study Centre, Islamia University BahawalpurResearch paper and informations published by Pakistan Council of Research in Water ResourcesDiaries and research studies published by Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Govt.
of Pakistan,Diaries, research studies and informations sheets published by United Nations.GIS techniques will besides be used to demo spacial tendencies and forms of farm animal distribution and dairy development sites in Cholistan desert.