Toxicity trials allow the finding of pollution effects, supplying direct grounds of the biological responses of marine beings to contaminations. The 96-h LC50 trials are conducted to mensurate the susceptibleness and survival potency of beings to particular toxic substances such as heavy metals. Hg2+ tested concentrations were 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 and10000 µg/l, Groups of six male xanthous all right sea bream ( 120 g ) were exposed for 96 H to each of the Range Finding Test for LC50, in fibreglass armored combat vehicle equipped with aeration with 100 cubic decimeter of trial medium. Harmonizing to Range Finding Test ( 50 per centum of mortality between 500 and 1000 ) another tested concentration 550, 650, 750, 850 and 950 µg/l, Groups of six male xanthous all right sea bream were exposed for 96 H to each of the LC50 96h for trial solutions. 24 H, 48 H, 72 H and 96 H LC50 were 962.75 886.48, 886.48 and 648.86 severally. The 96 H NOEC, LOEC and LC50 were 500, 550 and 648.86 µg/l severally. LC50 values indicated that quicksilver is more toxic to A. latus. LC50 obtained in the present survey comparison with matching values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish, show different LC50 of quicksilver in different species and even different clip, but what is of import, lower value of LC50 for A. latus comparison with most species and confirm sensitively of A. latus to low quicksilver doses.
Keywords: NOEC, LOEC, LC50, Mercury Chloride, Acanthopagrus latus.
Aquatic ecosystems are typically monitored for pollution of heavy metals utilizing biological checks. Aquatic beings have been reported to roll up heavy metals in their tissues several times above ambient degrees. Fishs have been used for many old ages to find the pollution position of H2O, and are therefore regarded as first-class biological markers of metals in aquatic ecosystems.
Heavy metals have long been recognized as serious pollutants of the aquatic environment. They cause serious damage in metabolic, physiological and structural systems when nowadays in high concentrations in the surroundings ( Tort, 1987 ) .
Mercury ( Hg ) is a liquid metal at ambient temperatures and force per unit areas. It forms salts in two ionic provinces mercury ( I ) and quicksilver ( II ) . Mercury ( II ) , or mercurous salts, are much more common in the environment than quicksilver ( I ) or mercuric salts. These salts, if soluble in H2O, are bioavailable and considered toxic. Mercury besides forms organometallic compounds, many of whichhave industrial and agricultural utilizations ( Boening, 2000 ) .
Mercury in fish was already recognized as a public wellness and ecological job in the 1960 ‘s. It was normally assumed that local point beginnings ( industrial wastewater, public-service corporation emanations, fungicide applications ) were the chief beginnings, and many surveies focused on Waterss with nearby point beginning taint.
Although quicksilver chloride is non the most toxic quicksilver compound in the Marine environment ( Boudou and Ribeyre, 1997 ) , it is the cardinal signifier between the gaseous metal signifier transported through atmosphere and the methylmercury signifier that bioaccumulates in being. Once it enters into the being, quicksilver can pull assorted immunotoxic effects.
Toxicity trials allow the finding of these effects, supplying direct grounds of the biological responses of marine beings to contaminations. Due to the fact that organisms from different species vary in their sensitiveness towards chemical substances, it is hard to put criterions for protection of species with respect to pollutants in the environment. Extrapolation from one species to another is, hence, hard if their comparative sensitivenesss are non known ( Van Straalen et al. , 1994 ) .
The 96-h LC50 trials are conducted to mensurate the susceptibleness and survival potency of beings to particular toxic substances such as heavy metals. Higher LC50 values are less toxic because greater concentrations are required to bring forth 50 % mortality in beings ( Eaton et al. 1995 ) . The heavy metals that are toxic to many beings at really low concentrations and are ne’er good to living existences are quicksilver, Cd and lead ( Hilmy et al. 1985 ) .
The present survey was conducted to find the acute toxicity of the heavy metal compound HgCl2 in a statistic system to the marine fish Acanthopagrus latus. This species was selected for bio-assaies because it can easy be raised under research lab conditions. It fulfills most of the demands of a theoretical account species and is available throughout the twelvemonth.
Material and Method
Ninety six xanthous all right sea bream all immature male in same size ( 120 g concluding organic structure weight norm ) were obtained from Mahshahr brook with maulerss in a Upon gaining control, ( merely healthy fish, as indicated by their activity and external visual aspect, were used in the experiments ) the fish were maintained alive on board in a fibreglass armored combat vehicle and on return to shore transferred to a 300-L aerated VAT filled with sea H2O for conveyance back to the nearby research lab. In laboratory Fish maintained in a saltwater re-circulatory system ( 300-L armored combat vehicles ) equipped with physical/biological filters and with aeration to the Mariculture Research Station of the South Persian Aquaculture Research Center, Mahshahr, Iran from October to November.
All samples were acclimated for one hebdomads in a 15 aerated fibreglass armored combat vehicle incorporating 46 ppt seawater maintained at 25 C under a changeless 12:12 Liter: D photoperiod. Acclimatized Fish were fed daily with a unrecorded provender ( fresh runt ) and day-to-day we check H2O quality and H2O parametric quantities. Dead fish were instantly removed with particular fictile forceps to avoid possible impairment of the H2O quality.
LC50 is the ambient aqueous chemical activity causes 50 % mortality in an open population. These computations are based on two of import premises. The first premise is that the exposure clip associated with the specified LC50 is sufficient to let about complete chemical equilibration between the fish and the H2O. The 2nd premise is that the specified LC50 is the minimal LC50 that kills the fish during the associated exposure interval. Fortunately, most dependable LC50 ‘ satisfy these two premises ( Neely, 1984 ) .
Hg2+ tested concentrations were 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 and10000 µg/l, Groups of six male xanthous all right sea bream ( 120 g ) were exposed for 96 H to each of the Range Finding Test for LC50, in fibreglass armored combat vehicle equipped with aeration with 100 cubic decimeter of trial medium. The control group was exposed to filtrate sea H2O in similar conditions.
The bio-assay was performed in a temperature ( 25 ± 1 _C ) and under a natural photoperiod ( 12hL: 12hD ) controlled room. Test medium was non renewed during the check and no nutrient was provided to the animate beings. Valuess of pH, Temperature, and salt were measured at clip 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 H.
At the terminal of the bio-assay ( Boyd and Tucker 1992 ) , Range values were determined and harmonizing to that ( 50 per centum of mortality between 500 and 1000 ) another tested concentration 550, 650, 750, 850 and 950 µg/l, Groups of six male xanthous all right sea bream ( 100 g ) were exposed for 96 H to each of the LC50 96h for trial solutions in same status with Range Finding Test. At the terminal of the bio-assay, LC50 96h values were determined ( de Aguiar et al. , 2004 ) .
LC value and standard mistake SE of LC were calculated following the probit process method as described by Wardlaw 1985. The LC10,30,50,70,90 values are derived utilizing simple permutation probit of 10,30,50,70 and 90 severally for probit of mortality in the arrested development equations of probit of mortality vs. quicksilver. The 95 % assurance bounds for LC50 are estimated by utilizing the expression LC50 ( 95 % CL ) = LC50 ± 1.96 [ SE ( LC50 ) ] . The SE of LC50 is calculated from the expression: Where: b=the incline of the mercury/probit response ( arrested development ) line ; p=the figure of quicksilver used, n = the figure of animate beings in each group, w = the mean weight of the observations ( Hotos and Vlahos. 1998 ) ( table 1 ) .
Table1. The 95 % assurance bounds for LC50 of yellowfin sea bream
Concentration ( µg/l ) 24h 48h 72h 96h
B 0.012 0.002 0.002 0.009
P 5 5 5 5
n 6 6 6 6
W 120 120 120 120
SE 1.38 8.33 8.33 1.85
95 % CL 3.5868 16.3268 16.3268 3.626
Acute toxicity trials were carried out in order to cipher the 96h-LC50 for quicksilver in xanthous five sea bream, based on OECD Guidelines ( 1998 ) . Mortality was recorded after 24,48,72 and 96h, and LC50 values and its assurance bounds ( 95 % ) were calculated by the Litchfield and Wilcox on Method ( 1949 ) .The trial was carried out in triplicate. Percentages of fish mortality were calculated for each quicksilver concentration at 24, 48, 72 and 96 H of exposure.
There was 100 % mortality at 10000 µg/l concentration within the first 4h after dosing, and 100 % mortality at 5000 µg/l within the 14h whereas 100 % mortality for 2000 µg/l was 42h and for 1000 µg/l was 54h.
The mortality of Thunnus albacares sea bream for quicksilver chloride doses 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10000 µg/l were examined during the exposure times at 24, 48, 72 and 96 H for Range Finding Test ( table 2 ) . Fish exposed during the period 24-96h had significantly increased figure of dead Thunnus albacares sea bream with increasing concentration. There were important differences in figure of dead fish between the continuance 24-96 in each.
Table2. Cumulative mortality of Thunnus albacares sea bream ( n=6, each concentration ) at Range Finding Test
Concentration ( µg/l ) No. of dead Thunnus albacares sea bream
24h 48h 72h 96h
Control – – – –
20 – – – –
50 – – – –
100 – – – –
200 – – – –
500 – – – –
1000 1 3 6 6
2000 2 6 6 6
5000 6 6 6 6
10000 6 6 6 6
After happening this fact that chief scope is between 500-1000 ( because of no mortality at 500 µg/l and 100 % mortality at 1000 µg/l ) , the mortality of Thunnus albacares sea bream for quicksilver chloride doses 550, 650, 750, 850 and 950 µg/l were examined during the exposure times at 24, 48, 72 and 96 H for LC50 Test ( table 3 ) .
Table3. Cumulative mortality of Thunnus albacares sea bream ( n=6, each concentration ) at LC50 trial
Concentration ( µg/l ) No. of dead Thunnus albacares sea bream
24h 48h 72h 96h
Control – – – –
550 – – 1 1
650 – 1 2 3
750 1 3 5 5
850 1 3 6 6
950 1 3 6 6
Median deadly concentrations of 10 % , 30 % , 50 % , 70 % and 90 % trial are in table 4. Physicochemical parametric quantities of trial H2O are in table 5.
Table4. Lethal concentrations ( LC1-99 ) of mercurous chloride depending on clip ( 24-96h ) for A. latus
Concentration ( µg/l ) ( 95 % of assurance bounds )
Point 24h 48h 72h 96h
LC30 919.4132 705.6551 705.6551 594.8041
LC40 941.8181 799.1379 799.1379 622.7525
LC50 962.7520 886.4827 886.4827 648.8659
LC60 983.6859 973.8275 973.8275 674.9793
LC70 1026.0909 1007.3103 1007.3103 702.9278
Table5. Physicochemical parametric quantities of trial H2O
Temperature ( & A ; deg ; C ) 25 ± 1
pH 7.8 ± 0.1
Mortality per centum of Range Finding Test and LC50 experiment are in figures 1 and 2 severally, nevertheless sigmoid probit analyses and arrested development lines of probit are in figures 3 and 4 severally.
Fig. 1. The column mercury-response ( mortality ) for A. Latus in the Range Finding Test experiment
Fig. 2. The sigmoid mercury-response ( mortality ) curve for A. Latus in the LC50 experiment
Fig. 3. The sigmoid probit analyses curve for A. Latus in the LC50 experiment
Fig. 4. Probit of mortality versus quicksilver arrested development lines for A. latus in the LC50 experiment. Besides depicted are the arrested development equations and R2 values. Probit values used are derived from Fig 3.
Toxicity Testing Statistical End points are in tow portion: 1- Hypothesis Testing: is there a statistically important difference between the average response in the interventions and average response in control or mention sample? LOEC: Lowest Ascertained Effect Concentration ; NOEC: No Observed Effect Concentration. 2- Point Estimates: what poisonous concentration will do a specific consequence on the trial population? LC50: the average Lethal Concentration. Our consequence for Toxicity Testing Statistical Endpoints is in Fig 5.
Fig 5. Toxicity proving statistical end points in Thunnus albacares sea bream
Toxic effects of quicksilver and its compounds depend on the chemical signifier of quicksilver. Organic signifiers of quicksilver are by and large more toxic to aquatic beings than are inorganic signifiers. HgCl2 can be converted into extremely toxic methyl quicksilver by methylation through chemical or biological procedures.
Factors act uponing quicksilver degrees can be divided into exogenic ( features of the H2O organic structure ) and endogenous ( characteristic of the persons or species ) . Exogenous factors include pH, S and organic affair ( e.g. , dissolved organic C ) . Endogenous factors include species, home ground and nutrient penchants, metabolic rate, age, growing rate, size, mass, and diet.
Harmonizing to the Gooley et Al ( 2006 ) , quicksilver is one of the concern metals in aquaculture and has 10-40 µg/l of LC50 with merely 1µg/l for safe degrees, whereas LC50 value for other heavy metals is higher than quicksilver ( cadmium 80-420, cooper 20-100, zinc1000-10000, lead 1000-40000 µg/l ) . Chowdhury et Al ( 2006 ) show the 96h LC50 for the juvenile trout as11 µg/l ( 95 % CI = 9.2 – 11.9 µg/l ) .
The 96-h LC50 value for catfish exposed to Hg2+ under inactive trial was determined to be 570 µg/l ( Elia et al. , 2000 ) . The 96-h LC50 value of quicksilver chloride for Leuciscus cephalus was found as 205 µg/l and 96-h LC50 for trout 814 µg/l ( Verep et al. 2007 ) . On the estuarial fish Pomatoschistus microps, LC50 of Cu and quicksilver at 96 Hs were 568 ?g/l and 62 ?g/l, severally ( Vieira et al. 2009 ) .
The concentrations of hint metals that resulted in mortality of H.rubra were investigated by exposing juveniles to acute concentrations of Cu, Zn, Hg and Cd for 96hr. Hg resulted in more sudden mortality rate after 24hr exposure compared to Cu yet produced a 96hr LC50 of 173?g Hg/L ( Gorski. 2007 ) .
EPA surveies ( 1997 ) on many aquatic species show huge scope of LC50 for quicksilver chloride, which for seawater fish was 36 ?g/l ( juvenile topographic point ) to 1678 ?g/l ( flounder ) , that was higher than saltwater invertebrate 3.5 ?g/l ( mysid runt ) to 400 ?g/l ( soft clam ) . This consequence emphases that Thunnus albacares sea bream is sensitive to mercury chloride and have low LC50 value.
Harmonizing to FAO/UNEP ( 1991 ) , the 96-h LC50 values of quicksilver chloride are for cat fish 350 ?g/l, rainbow trout 220 ?g/l, striped bass 90 ?g/l and creek trout 75 ?g/l.
the 96-h LC50 values of quicksilver chloride 37 ?g/l for goof Phoxinus phoxinus, 160 ?g/l for Lepomis macrochirus sunfish, 903 ?g/l for rainbow trout, 200 ?g/l for rainbow trout and lower in invertebrate, 2 ?g/l for spiny lobster, 5 ?g/l for cladocera, 10 ?g/l for Gammarus, 5 ?g/l for bluish mussel, 15 ?g/l for shrimp, and 3 ?g/l for limpet ( Eisler, 1987 ) .
For quicksilver, 96 H LC50 values of 75 ?g/l for the mudcat ( Sarothrodon mossambicus ) , 33 ?g/l for the rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri ) , 110 ?g/l for the banded killifish ( Fundulus filmy ) and 90 ?g/l for the stripy bass ( Roccus saxatilis ) were found ( Rehwoldt et al. , 1972 ; Hale, 1977 ; Das et al. , 1980 ) .
The susceptibleness of fish to a peculiar heavy metal is a really of import factor for LC50 values. The fish that is extremely susceptible to the toxicity of one metal may be less or non-susceptible to the toxicity of another metal at the same concentration of that metal in the surroundings. Similarly, the metal which is extremely toxic to one being at low concentration may be less or non-toxic to other being at the same or even higher concentration, so the LC50 values reported in the present survey for HgCl2 were lower than the values reported by Agarwal ( 1991 ) for the Channa punctatus ( Bloch ) at 48, 72, and 96 h. He reported LC50 values of 2.512, 2.291, and 2.113 mg/L, severally, at 48, 72, and 96 h. nevertheless, the present values, are higher than those of Khangarot ( 1981 ) : 0.432 and 0.314
mg/L, severally, at 72 and 96h in Channa marulius.
Rathore and Khangarot ( 2002 ) reported that the acute toxicity of HgCl2 additions with addition in temperature. Cairns et Al. ( 1981 ) reported similar tendencies for other metals. Khangarot and Ray ( 1987 ) besides observed that the toxicity of Cu suddenly decreased with an addition in pH of the Cu-containing medium. Acute toxicity surveies are the really first measure in finding the H2O quality demands of fish. These surveies evidently reveal the poison concentrations ( LC50 ) that cause fish mortality even at short exposure. Therefore, surveies showing the sensitiveness of genotoxic effects of heavy metals in aquatic beings, peculiarly in fish are needed. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present survey that fish are extremely sensitive to HgCl2 and their mortality rate is dose dependant.
Comparison of values reported earlier with those obtained in the present survey may non be meaningful because assorted factors may act upon bioassay techniques like differences in fish ( e.g. , species, weight, size ) and other environmental factors ( temperature, fluctuations in pH of the H2O, entire hardness of H2O, dissolved O ) . Sprague ( 1969 ) observed variableness in acute toxicity even in a individual species and individual poison depending on the size, age, and status of the trial species along with experimental factors. Gupta et Al. ( 1981 ) reported that the differences in acute toxicity may be due to alterations in H2O quality and trial species.
Chronic toxicity values are much lower than acute values and highlight the inauspicious effects of comparatively low concentrations of quicksilver in H2O ( i.e. , & A ; lt ; 1 ?g/L ) .
In aquatic toxicology, if LC50 concentration is smaller than 1000 ?g/l, the chemical is extremely toxic, and if between 1000-10000 ?g/l, so it is considered to be reasonably toxic ( Louis et al. 1996 ) , therefore we report mercury chloride to be extremely toxic to yellowfin sea bream and my cause many harm in this Fish.
The fish exposed to metal can counterbalance for the stressors. If it can non successfully counterbalance for stressor effects, an altered physiological phase may be reached in which the being continues to map and, in utmost instances, the acclimatization response may be exhausted with a subsequent consequence on fittingness ( Mayer et al. 1992 ) . In the present survey,
LC50 values indicated that quicksilver is more toxic to A. latus. LC50 obtained in the present survey ( 650 ?g/l ) comparison with matching values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish, show different LC50 of quicksilver in different species and even different clip, but what is of import, lower value of LC50 for A. latus comparison with most species and confirm sensitively of A. latus to low quicksilver doses.