Crimes a lot of definitions for cyber

Crimes refer to any violation of law or the commission of anact forbidden by law. Crime and criminality have been associated with man sincelong time ago.

There are different strategies of different countries to contendwith crime. It depends on their extent and nature. It can be concluded that anation with high index of crime cases cannot grow or develop well.. It cancontribute to negative impact in terms of social and economic development.Cyber crime is anew type of crime originating from the misuse of Science and Technology overyears. There are a lot of definitions for cyber crime. Cyber crime, also knownas, computer crime refers to anycrime that involves a computer and a network.

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. Computer is considered as a tool in cyber crime when theindividual is the main target of cyber crime. But computer is considered astarget when the crime is directed to the computer. In addition, cyber crimealso includes traditional crimes that been conducted with the access ofInternet.

For example, telemarketing Internet fraud, Identity theft, and Creditcard account thefts. In simple words, cybercrime can be defined as any violentaction that been conducted by using computer or other devices with the accessof internet. These types of crimes originate mainly from the Social Media Platforms. A SocialMedia Platforms is a Web-based technology that enables the development,deployment and management of social media solutions and services.

Itprovides the ability to create social media websites and services withcomplete social media network functionality.There are three major categories of cyber crimeswhich are: crimes against the person, property and the government.1.      Thefirst category of cyber crimes is CyberCrime against Person. Cyber crime against person includes harassment viaemail or cyber-stalking. Cyber Stalking means following the moves of anindividual’s activity over internet. It can be done with the help of manyprotocols available such as e- mail, chat rooms, and user net groups while,harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or others.

This crime usuallyhappens to women and teenagers. There was an incident which took place inAhmedabad, Gujarat. A girl was added using a Facebook Account as a friend.

Shewas lured to a private place through cyber chat by a man with his friends, andthey attempted to rape her. Luckily she was rescued by a passersby who heardher screaming.2.      Secondcategory of cyber crimes is that of CyberCrimes against all forms of Property. The other example is, cyber criminalcan take the contents of individual bank account. One widespread method ofgetting people’s bank account details is the money transfer email scam. Peoplereceive emails requesting help with transferring funds from another country.Hacking into company websites is property trespass, and stealing information isproperty theft.

Internet time theft is also one of the cyber crimes againstproperty. It is done by an authorized person in the usage of the internet hourswhich is actually paid by another person. 3.      Thethird category is Cyber Crimes againstGovernments. It constitutes another level of crime. Cyber terrorism is themost serious type of crime in this category. Hacking into a government website,particularly the military sites, is one manifestation of cyber terrorism. Theexample of cyber crime against government is web jacking.

Web Jacking attackis a phishing technique that can be used in social engineering engagements. Byweb jacking, hackers gain access and control over the website of another, andthey even change the content of website for fulfilling political objective orfor money.Cyber crimes are everywhere, can happen to anyone, in anytime. Other types of cyber crime are identity theft, storing illegalinformation, computer viruses, and fraud. ·        Identity Theft:Identity theft and Identity Fraud are terms used to refer to alltypes of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person’spersonal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically foreconomic gain. Unlike the fingerprints, which are unique to a person and cannotbe given to someone else for their use, the personal data ­ especially theSocial Security number, bank account or credit card number, telephone callingcard number, and other valuable identifying data ­ can be used, if they fallinto the wrong hands, for personal profit at the person’s expense. In theUnited States and Canada, for example, many people have reported that unauthorizedpersons have taken funds out of their bank or financial accounts, or, in theworst cases, taken over their identities altogether, running up vast debts andcommitting crimes while using the victims’ names.

In many cases, a victim’slosses may include not only out-of-pocket financial losses, but substantialadditional financial costs associated with trying to restore his reputation inthe community and correcting erroneous information for which the criminal isresponsible. There are two main types ofidentity theft named Account Takeover andTrue Name Theft. Account Takeover identity theft refers to the typeof situation where an imposter uses the stolen personal information to gainaccess to the person’s existing accounts. True name Identity Theft meansthat the thief uses personal information to open new accounts. The thief mightopen a new credit card account, establish cellular phone service, or open a newchecking account in order to obtain blank checks.

There are many ways by which thiscrime is committed. In public places, for example, criminals may engage in”shoulder surfing” i.e. watching someone from a nearby location asthey punch in  telephone calling cardnumber or credit card number­ or listening the conversation if someone givestheir credit-card number over the telephone to a hotel or rental car company.In recent years, Social Media hasbecome an appealing place for criminals to obtain identifying data, such aspasswords or even banking information. In their haste to explore the excitingfeatures of the Internet, many people respond to “spam” orunsolicited E-mails,­ that promise them some benefit but requests identifyingdata, without realizing that in many cases, the requester has no intention ofkeeping his promise. In some cases, criminals reportedly have used computertechnology to obtain large amounts of personal data.

With enough identifyinginformation about an individual, a criminal can take over that individual’sidentity to conduct a wide range of crimes. For example, false applications forloans and credit cards, fraudulent withdrawals from bank accounts, fraudulentuse of telephone calling cards, or obtaining other goods or privileges whichthe criminal might be denied if he were to use his real name. If the criminaltakes steps to ensure that bills for the falsely obtained credit cards, or bankstatements showing the unauthorized withdrawals, are sent to an address otherthan the victim’s, the victim may not become aware of what is happening untilthe criminal has already inflicted substantial damage on the victim’s assets,credit, and reputation.·        Storing Illegal Information:Storing illegal information is amajor cyber crime. Criminals often use the Internet to obtain and transferillegal images. These are images and in some cases text, which are inadvertentlyexposed to on a website that contains any of the following:o  Child abuse images (also known as ‘childpornography’).o  Criminally obscene content which means imagesfeaturing acts of extreme and violent sexual activity.·        Computer Virus:A Computer Virus is a smallsoftware program that spreads from one computer to another computer and thatinterferes with computer operation.

 It may corrupt or delete data on acomputer, use an e-mail program to spread the virus to other computers, or evendelete everything on the hard disk.  They are most easily spread byattachments in e-mail messages or by instant messaging messages. Avirus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itselfinto other executable code or documents. Computer viruses get their name fromtheir resemblance to biological viruses, which spread by inserting themselvesinto living cells. A file that is infected by a virus is called a host. Virusescan be merely annoying, or they can cause severe damage to your computer.

Theymay be used to get personal information or to spoil the important documents orfiles which are saved in the computer.They can be disguised asattachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files. They alsospread by using downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in piratedsoftware or in other files or programs that you may download. ·        Frauds:Fraud is a deliberatemisrepresentation which causes another person to suffer damaged. Several typesof criminal fraud include false advertising, advance-fee fraud, bankruptcyfraud, etc. The best way to prevent fraud in both personal andorganizational finances is to develop processes that protect sensitiveinformation, enforce accountability, and consistently review financial records.

The correct term for fraud is PHISHING. It can be defined as thefraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companiesin order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such aspasswords and credit card numbers, online. OTHER TYPES OF PHISHING:                                                             i.     Spear phishing: Phishing attemptsdirected at specific individuals or companies have been termed spearphishing.                                                            ii.      Clonephishing: A type of phishing attack whereby a legitimate, and previouslydelivered, email containing an attachment or link has had its content andrecipient address / addresses taken and used to create an almost identical orcloned email.                                                          iii.     Social media websites are popular places forbuilding new relationships and contacts.

However, social media websites arealso becoming a place for cyber criminals to indulge in various cyber crimes.In fact, the share of offences related to social media websites among cybercrimes registered in India is showing an upward trend. Most of these cases areof posting defamatory or obscene matter or images on various social mediawebsites. Many crimes related to social networking sites involving personating,defamation and anti-national activities have been reported recently.

The bureaurecords suggest that most cyber offences are for illegal gain, eve-teasing andharassment.We have no dedicated social media laws inIndia although guidelines for social media contents monitoring inIndia may be prescribed. Although we have a cyber law in India in the form of InformationTechnology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000) yet, we have no dedicated socialnetworking laws in India. The cyber law for social media inIndia needs to be strengthened further keeping in mind a balance betweencivil liberties and law enforcement requirements. Human rights protection incyberspace in India is also required to be considered by Indiangovernment.

Presently, protecting civil liberties protection in Indiancyberspace is not a priority for India and this is a serious problem.Similarly, social media users must have basic levelawareness about cyber laws and cyber crimes. Many of these cyber crimes can beprevented if public awareness about the same is spread in India.


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