Crime rates vary by region. For many years, southern states have had higher crime rates in almost all crime categories especially violent crimes; so called a “southern subculture of violence”. Although the “lead” has changed so many times in recent years between the South and the West that the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report has indicated that the South has once again lead the nation in violent crime. Miami, Florida, has by far a high rate of violence. When it comes down to violent crimes in Miami, “Murder” tends to be the urban crime of choice among the many other FBI’s UCR Index Crime Offenses.
More than half of the homicides here in Miami are committed in cities with a population of 100,000 or more. Not surprisingly, murders in Miami’s urban areas such as “Liberty City” are commonly drug-related killings and gang-related murders than in less populated. According to the previous research the murder victims and offenders in Miami, Florida, tend to be men. The males represent 75 % of homicide victims and nearly 90% of them are the offenders. In terms of crime rates per 100,000, the males are 3 times more likely to be killed, and 8 times more likely to commit the homicide than females are.
Besides, according to the data, one-third of those murder victims in Miami and half the offenders are under the age of 25-years of age. For both victims and offenders, the crime rate per 100,000 peaks in the 18-24-year old age group. Blacks are 6 times more likely to be victimized and 8 times more likely than whites to commit the murder. Sad to say but African Americans are disproportionately represented as both homicide victims and offenders. Violent crime has always been an issue of concern for both the government and the public.
Reports of attacks occur daily in the Media and in official crime statistics. Media portrayals of crime are an important topic given their potential for influencing public and political opinion. For example, if people believe crime to be more prevalent than it really is, they may take unnecessary precautions to avoid victimization (e. g. , install expensive security systems) or fail to engage in activities that might actually reduce crime (e. g. , develop social connections with neighbors). Likewise, politicians may feel increased pressure to support legislation that “gets tough on crime”.
According to the studies of Ramiro Martinez Jr, past quantitative research on drug markets and violent crime in the United States has been conducted mainly at the city level. The authors use neighborhood-level data from the city of Miami to test hypotheses regarding the effect of drug activity and traditional indicators of social disorganization on rates of violent crimes. The results show that drug activity has robust effects on violent crime that are independent of other disorganization indicators.
The authors also find that drug activity is concentrated in neighborhoods with low rates of immigration, less linguistic isolation and ethnic heterogeneity, and where nondrug accidental deaths are prevalent. The authors find no independent effect of neighborhood racial composition on drug activity or violent crime. The results suggest that future neighborhood-level research on social disorganization and violent crime should devote explicit attention to the disorganizing and violence-producing effects of illicit drug activity.
According to the research made by J A Inciardi, R Horowitz and A E Pottieger the sample was 41. 4 percent white, 42. 2 percent black, and 16. 4 percent Hispanic; and the mean age of all youth was 15 years. Interviews were conducted between 1985 and 1987, with field contacts in 1991. Serious juvenile delinquency was defined as major and/or chronic criminal behavior. The major focus of the study was on the link between criminal behavior and drug involvement. All interviewed youth had extensive histories of multiple drug use, with identifiable patterns of onset and progression.
Crack cocaine availability and use were particularly widespread, contributing to early and violent criminal activities. Little variation existed between drug use and crime involvement with respect to age, gender, and race/ethnicity; the relationship between serious criminality and extensive drug use, however, was undeniable. It appeared that increased juvenile drug use was a contributing factor in the transmission of HIV infection and that educational programs on HIV risks represented only a small part of a total solution.
Policy implications of the findings are discussed in terms of county-based intervention strategies, the “get tough” strategy, the “scared straight” strategy, shock incarceration, the humanitarian/nurturing strategy, and compulsory treatment. Another research was made by James A. Inciardi and Anne E. Pottieger. Researchers at the University of Delaware have been conducting field studies of drug use and crime in Miami, Florida, since 1977. Early studies tested mechanisms for accessing street populations of heroin users and assessing the nature and extent of their drug use and criminality.
Subsequent studies targeted a variety of crime-involved heroin and cocaine users, including women as well as men, serious delinquents, adolescent and adult crack users, and cocaine users in treatment as well as on the street. Major findings include the low risk of arrest for income-generating crimes committed by heroin users, and the prevalence of HIV-risk behaviors among both serious delinquents and women crack users. Analyses consistently show the critical importance of sample characteristics in research on drug use, including age, cohort, and street-versus-treatment status.
In recent years a lot of research was made on prevention of violent crimes in Florida. The availability of guns was discussed along with citizens’ awareness and preparation for possible victimization (neighborhood watch programs). According to the research of Sherry Plaster Carter and Stanley L. Carter beginning in 1990, interventions included increased police patrols to reduce prostitution and the creation of a new zoning district to encourage area redevelopment based on CPTED principles.
Compared with the rest of Sarasota, from 1990 to 1998 the North Trail Corridor experienced decreases in calls for police service (P < . 005), crimes against persons and property (P = not significant), and prostitution (P < . 05). These results suggest that community design may be a useful tool for decreasing crime and improving community health. Also, such preventive measures as neighborhood watch and screening of the potential gun buyers may help, along with personal awareness.