Cooking Storage And Reheating Practice Biology Essay

This undertaking consist of questionnaires on rice, to set up the cookery, storage, and reheating pattern from Caribbean Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around a little portion of the Birmingham country. The aim was to find whether the direction and staff of each constitution understood the cookery pattern of rice. There is an utmost hazard of nutrient toxic condition if rice is been cooled down at room temperature at long period, and it is non stored under the right temperature status. Reheating rice under those conditions will bring forth the Bacillus Cereus toxin.

Birmingham has a big multicultural society of Caribbean Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around a little portion of the Birmingham country.Rice is arguably the most of import grocery associated with Bacillus Cereuss nutrient toxic condition ( Adams and Moss, 2000 ) and ( Baat, 1999 ) . Because of its peculiar cultivation conditions in rice Paddies where B. Cereus comprises non, vert, similar10 % of the dirt microflora ( Varnam & A ; Evans, 1991 ) , natural rice is by and large contaminated to changing grades with B. Cereus ( Sarrias et al.

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, 2002 J.A. Sarrias, M. Valero and M.C. Salmeron, Enumeration, isolation and word picture of old termBacillus cereusnext term strains from Spanish natural old termrice, following term Food Microbiology 19 ( 2002 ) , pp. 589-595. Abstract | hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

sciencedirect.com.ezproxyd.bham.ac.uk/scidirimg/icon_pdf.

gifPDF ( 160 K ) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 18 ) Sarrias, Valero, & A ; Salmeron, 2002 ) .The mode in which rice is prepared for human ingestion can advance the endurance and branch of B. Cereus. The manners of undertaking B. cereus-mediated nutrient poisoning include ; ingestion of pre-cooked and falsely stored rice from oriental-style takeout eating houses, undercooking or storage at wrong temperatures of sous-vide or REPFED ( refrigerated nutrient of drawn-out lastingness ) repasts, domestic storage of cooked rice or “ leftovers ” of rice-containing repasts at wrong temperatures ( [ Baat, 1999 ] and ( Small et al. , 2002 C.L. Little, J.

Barnes and R.T. Mitchell, Microbiological quality of take-away cooked old termricenext term and lily-livered sandwiches: Effectiveness of nutrient hygiene preparation of the direction, Catching Disease and Public Health 5 ( 4 ) ( 2002 ) , pp. 289-298.

Position Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 13 ) ( Small et al. , 2002 ) .Many eruptions of B. Cereus nutrient toxic condition have been associated with the readying of rice in majority in progress of ulterior functioning or storage at room temperature for drawn-out clip periods ( Adams and Moss, 2000 ) , ( Anonymous, 2003 ) and ( Mossel et al.,1991 ) .Heating of these nutrients by the consumer by and large kills any vegetive B. Cereus cells present but non endospore.

If such repasts are left to stand at room temperature post-heating for a drawn-out period ( & gt ; 4A H for rice dishes ) or if “ leftovers ” are stored at room temperature for ingestion the undermentioned twenty-four hours, any endospore present may be activated by warming of the nutrient, leting sprouting and branch to potentially unsafe degrees ( Small et al. , 2002 ) .Uncooked rice contains B. Cereus endospores, which may shoot if rice is kept at room temperature following cookery ( Mossel et al. , 1991 ) .

Heating of these nutrients by the consumer by and large kills any vegetive B. Cereus cells present but non endospores. If such repasts are left to stand at room temperature post-heating for a drawn-out period ( & gt ; 4A H for rice dishes ) or if “ leftovers ” are stored at room temperature for ingestion the undermentioned twenty-four hours, any endospores present may be activated by warming of the nutrient, leting sprouting and branch to potentially unsafe degrees ( Small et al. , 2002 ) .

2.1.

Taxonomy

Chapter Three

Materials and methods

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. QUESTIONNAIRES

A study questionnaire on the cookery patterns with rice was taken into Caribbean, Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around parts of the Birmingham country. There are many cultural restaurants/takeaways in Birmingham, and the most popularity of these are Chinese, Indian and the least is popular is Caribbean. Questionnaires on ( Appendix 1 ) .Questionnaire were handed to 25 Chinese, 30 Indian and 15 Caribbean restaurants/takeaways within Birmingham, to study at that place cooking, storage, and reheating pattern with rice.

( Appendix 1 ) .Most restaurants/takeaways director completed the questionnaire

. CHINESES RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Detailss of Chinese cookery pattern with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premisess

American easy cook pre-fluffed 2Basmati 2American long grain 8Other 3

How many times you wash your rice. No. of Premisess

Once -Twice 4Three 6Four 5More than four 0

Make you soak your rice before cooking? No. of Premisess

Less than 10 proceedingss 210 proceedingss – 30 proceedingss 130 proceedingss – 1 hr -More than 1 hr -Do non soak 12

How make you cook your rice No.

of Premisess

Boiled 12Steamed 3Fried -Braised –

Measure of rice cooked No. of Premisess

& lt ; 20 parts 520 – 40 parts 540 – 60 parts 2& gt ; 60 parts 3

Make you chill down your rice after cooking No. of Premisess

Yes 11No 4

How long does your rice takes to chill No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 4Within 90 proceedingss 890 – 2 hours 32 hours – 3 hours -More than 3 hours –

Make you utilize newly cooked rice daily No.

of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

How make chill down your rice after cooking and hive away it No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 4Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until cool, so refrigerate? 9Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until used? 1Put it into fictile container and so into the icebox? 1Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, -and so put into icebox?Puting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold -H2O and ice unto cool so into the icebox?

At what temperature do you hive away your rice in the icebox? No. of Premisess

Below 1oC? -Between 2oC – 5 oC? 11Between 7oC – 10 oC? -Above 10oC? -Do non cognize? –

How many yearss do you hive away your cold rice for? No.

of Premisess

1 twenty-four hours? 122 yearss? -3 yearss? -Do non hive away? 3 –

Make you maintain your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premisess

Below 1hour? -Between 2hours – 4 hours? 2Between 4 hours – 6 hours? -More than 6 hours? -Do non cognize? 1No? 12

How make you reheat your rice? No. of Premisess

Microwave? 7Steamering? 4Dip it in boiling hot H2O? -Other –

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No. of Premisess

Between 30 oC – 40oC? -& gt ; 75 oC? 10Between 65 oC – 70 oC -Between 45oC – 50 oC? -& lt ; 63oC? -Do n’t cognize? 1

How many of your staffs manage rice? No. of Premisess

Between 1 – 5 12Between 6 – 10 3Do n’t cognize?

How many nutrient animal trainers have nutrient hygiene preparation? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 154 – 10 -Do n’t cognize? –

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene class? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

Were your staffs trained in house? No.

of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

How many staffs have nutrient hygiene certifications? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 154 – 10Do n’t cognize?

Make you maintain records of all staffs developing? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

Make you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

3.

3. INDIAN RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Detailss of Indian cookery pattern with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premisess

American easy cook pre-fluffed 1Basmati 14American long grain 4Other baba rice 1

How many times you wash your rice? No. of Premisess

Once 2Twice 9Three 7Four 1More than four 1

Make you soak your rice before cooking. No. of Premisess

Less than 10 proceedingss 310 proceedingss – 30 proceedingss 830 proceedingss – 1 hr 4More than 1 hr 1Do non soak 4

How make you cook your rice? No.

of Premisess

Boiled 20Steamed -Fried -Braised –

Measure of rice cooked No. of Premisess

& lt ; 20 parts 1220 – 40 parts 540 – 60 parts 3& gt ; 60 parts –

Make you chill down your rice after cooking No. of Premisess

Yes 19No 1

How long does your rice takes to chill No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 1Within 90 proceedingss 1090 – 2 hours 82 hours – 3 hoursMore than 3 hours 1

Make you utilize newly cooked rice daily? No. of Premisess

Yes 20No –

How make chill down your rice after cooking and hive away it No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 1Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until cool, so refrigerate? 11Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until used? 1Put it into fictile container and so into the icebox? 2Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, 5and so put into icebox?Puting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold -H2O and ice unto cool so into the icebox?

At what temperature do you hive away your rice in the icebox? No.

of Premisess

Below 1oC? -Between 2oC – 5 oC? 19Between 7oC – 10 oC? -Above 10oC? -Do non hive away? –

How many yearss do you hive away your cold rice for? No. of Premisess

1 twenty-four hours? 152 yearss? 43 yearss? 1

Make you maintain your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premisess

Below 1hour? 4Between 2hours – 4 hours? 4Between 4 hours – 6 hours? -More than 6 hours? -Do non cognize? -No? 12

How make you reheat your rice? No. of Premisess

Microwave? 18Steamering? 1Dip it in boiling hot H2O? -Other –

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No.

of Premisess

Between 30 oC – 40oC? 2& gt ; 75 oC? 12Between 65 oC – 70 oC 3Between 45oC – 50 oC? -& lt ; 63oC? 1Do n’t cognize? 1

How many of your staffs manage rice? No. of Premisess

Between 1 – 5 18Between 6 – 10 2Do n’t cognize? –

How many nutrient animal trainers have nutrient hygiene preparation? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 134 – 10 7Do n’t cognize? –

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene class? No. of Premisess

Yes 18No 2

Were your staffs trained in house? No. of Premisess

Yes 7No 13

How many staffs have nutrient hygiene certifications? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 134 – 10 7Do n’t cognize? –

Make you maintain records of all staff preparation? No.

of Premisess

Yes 18No 2

Make you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premisess

Yes 9No 11

3.4. CARIBBEAN RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Detailss of Caribbean cooking pattern with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premisess

American easy cook pre-fluffed 1Basmati 12American long grain 1Other 1

How many times you wash your rice? No. of Premisess

Once 1Twice 2Three 5Four -More than four 7

Make you soak your rice before cooking? No. of Premisess

Less than 10 proceedingss 110 proceedingss – 30 proceedingss -30 proceedingss – 1 hr -More than 1 hr -Do non soak 14

How make you cook your rice? No. of Premisess

Boiled 8Steamed 7Fried -Braised –

Measure of rice cooked No.

of Premisess

& lt ; 20 parts 320 – 40 parts 940 – 60 parts 1& gt ; 60 parts 2

Make you chill down your rice after cooking No. of Premisess

Yes 11No 4

How long does your rice takes to chill No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 4Within 90 proceedingss 790 – 2 hours 32 hours – 3 hours -More than 3 hours 1

Make you utilize newly cooked rice daily? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

How make chill down your rice after cooking and hive away it No. of Premisess

Do non chill down 4Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until cool, so refrigerate? 4Leave it at room ( ambient ) temperature until used? 2Put it into fictile container and so into the icebox? 3Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, 1and so put into icebox?Puting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold 1H2O and ice unto cool so into the icebox?

At what temperature do you hive away your rice in the icebox? No.

of Premisess

Below 1oC? -Between 2oC – 5 oC? 11Between 7oC – 10 oC? -Above 10oC? -Do non hive away? 4

How many yearss do you hive away your cold rice for? No. of Premisess

1 twenty-four hours? 62 yearss? 53 yearss? -Do non hive away? 4

Make you maintain your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premisess

Below 1hour? -Between 2hours – 4 hours? 2Between 4 hours – 6 hours? 3More than 6 hours? -Do non cognize? -No? 10

How make you reheat your rice? No. of Premisess

Microwave? 14Steamering? -Dipped in boiling hot H2O? 1Other –

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No. of Premisess

Between 30 oC – 40oC?& gt ; 75 oC? 11Between 65 oC – 70 oC 3Between 45oC – 50 oC?& lt ; 63oC?Do n’t cognize? 1

How many of your staffs manage rice? No. Premisess

Between 1 – 5 12Between 6 – 10 3Do n’t cognize? –

How many nutrient animal trainers have nutrient hygiene preparation? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 154 – 10 -Do n’t cognize? –

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene class? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

Were your staffs trained in house? No.

of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

How many staffs have nutrient hygiene certifications? No. of Premisess

1 – 5 154 – 10Do n’t cognize?

Make you maintain records of all staffs developing? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

Make you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premisess

Yes 14No 1

Chapter Four

Consequences

Consequence

Amount Overall consequences surveyed

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

The sum of times rice was washed before cooking

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Make you soak your rice before cookery?

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

How long was rice soaked before cookery?

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways.

How make you cook your rice

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Measure of rice cooked

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Make you chill down your rice after cooking

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

How long does it takes to chill down after cooking

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Make you utilize fresh rice daily?

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & A ; Chinese restaurants/takeaways

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