‘Conflict’ direct consequence of these conflicts passed
‘Conflict’ is a term, into which people usually put negativemeaning and define as ineligible. When we talk about our ordinary life, we usedto think about conflicts as of variance of opinions which leads to collision ordisagreement, in extreme cases – to fights, battles and struggles (CollinsEnglish Dictionary, 2012). Unfortunately, a number of arm-forced conflicts allover the world in recent years is drastically increasing. According to the databy UN and our lecture notes, counting and analyzing the complicated situationsof armed conflicts, political crises related to civil war and terror, which arewidely spread out, one could learn the Earth’s geography. It is true to saythat war and violence has no borders and has affected almost all continents. Nowadaysnational governments, international organizations, NGOs, academic institutionsand other related organizations are considering and working on vivid matters,concerning ceasefire and demobilization, elimination of violence againstchildren and women, stopping international human trafficking, creating worthyliving conditions for refugees, delivery of humanitarian aid for internallydisplaced people, and many other crucial issues.
Recent paper by Gates, S., et. al. (2016) providescomprehensive statistics on discussing topic. Thus, the Uppsala Conflict DataProgram has identified 259 distinct armed conflicts since foundation of the UNin 1945. The number of people killed as a direct consequence of these conflictspassed 100,000 for the first time in more than 25 years.
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However, in the 21stcentury, conflicts have increased sharply since 2010. In 2015 the number ofongoing conflicts increased to 50 compared to 41 in 2014. Battle deaths are nowlargely concentrated in the Middle East (Syria and Iraq).
Another reason forpeople’s death is hunger and infectious diseases. By the end of 2014 the numberof refugees and internally displaced persons reached to 59.5 million people (Marc,A.
, 2016).Moreover, according to the 2017 Global Peace Index,performed by the Institute for Economics and Peace, among the least peacefulcountries there were listed: Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. Continuous militaryoperations result in thousands of urban centers and historical settlements tobe completely destroyed, monuments of ancient architecture to lie in ruins (e.g.the Arch of Triumph in Palmyra, Syria). And as before, the European Unionremains the world’s most safe and peaceful region.Today powerful efforts in war prevention, peacekeeping,social stabilization and overcoming consequences of armed political crises are globallyimplemented by the UN Security Council and its Peacekeeping forces. During theforum, Ms.
Rumiko Seya introduced the Japan Center for Conflict Prevention(JCCP), as one of examples of international organizations, successfully actingfor peace building and conflict prevention. An NGO is specialized in peacebuilding, capacity building and gender mainstreaming, currently operating inKenya, Somalia, South Sudan and Turkey. As far as we talk about the importance of peace andsecurity for our life today, we have to mention another great threat to allhumanity that causes a serious anxiety of all national governments and the UN,which is extremism and international terrorism.
Almost every day we see thetitles of newspapers and TV shows informing of regular horrific incidents andattacks in Syria, South Sudan, Iraq, Nigeria, or Ukraine. But what causes thesecollisions around the world? In order to find solutions, first we shouldunderstand why do conflicts and terrorism happen? Then we will be able to drawsome kind of a mechanism for stabilization of current situation and providingfurther sustainable development.Empirical evidence suggest that there is no a universal’recipe’ for how to reduce the risk of relapsing into conflict or how tonavigate the difficult path from conflict to peace, and how to fight for andkeep peace around the world. It is worth mentioning, that all these kind of activitiesrequire lot of funds, human and administrative resources from governments andrelated organizations to deliver their mandate to prevent, manage and resolveconflicts.
However, as we observe from international practice most commonlyused mechanismof conflict management and further search for progress includes the following mainsteps (stages) to be undertaken.First, opening a secure corridor for delivery of humanitariancargo, ceasefire and ending violence, further disarmament and demobilization ofcombatants. The human inalienable right for inviolability of life and freedomshould be under protection of international law principles. No one has a rightto determine someone else’s destiny.
In case if efforts to reach a diplomaticresolution have not been successful, forces from outside could be applied.Anyhow to start a political dialog, opposite sides should realize that theyneed to come to a ‘table of negotiations’ and be ready for a compromise. It is quiteimportant to provide the transparency of the process through providing theaccess to the fragile and conflict affected areas for international communityand mass media (Ban, K., 2014).There is a one interesting fact.
As the Russian News AgencyTASS reports (2017), in accordance with the decree of President Bashar Assad byJuly 2016, the Law on Amnesty was adopted in Syria. The decree promised anamnesty for all armed persons, as well as for those ex-combatants who previouslyescaped judicial punishment, if they surrender and lay down arms. The decreenoted that all consonants who are ready to comply with these conditions wouldnot be persecuted, on the contrary, they all could return to peaceful life or couldbe accepted into the Syrian Army. Surprisingly, the decree made a sufficientprogress.Second, validation for the rule of law through closecollaboration with police, as well as improvement of medical care andpsychosocial support. Creation of employment and livelihood opportunities, especiallyfor women and youth. The latter goal could be achieved through implementationof infrastructural projects, including road construction and agricultureprojects, development of microfinancing and involving the population intoentrepreneurship. For this purpose, it would be useful to organize specialtrainings, seminars, and workshops on business start-up tips.
Another essentialcomponent on this stage is an improvement of educational system andinstitutional capacity building. An appropriate example of creation of self-employment opportunitiescomes up from initiatives by Kaaba Micro Finance Institution (K-MFI), set up inSomalia in 2009 to provide access to credit for low-income earners and the self-employed,especially women. Currently K-MFI is covering more than 6,000 beneficiaries,who receive ‘cheap’ and long-term micro loans. So far, among target group are micro-and small entrepreneurs, small traders and market vendors, low salariedworkers, small-scale farmers, and dairy, poultry and fisheries businesses (UNDP,2012).
Third, promotion of harmonization of the situation and furtherstrengthening of constructive relationship within war-affected community. Oneshould not forget about the role of intermediaries and consultants in theconflict adjustment process. How faithful, professional, and forward-lookingthere are, determines how fast a cessation of hostilities could be reached.Sides of the conflict and intermediaries should realize that they are fullyresponsible for peace building before future generations. Movement from weak fragilityto sustainable reconciliation and peaceful co-existence in the long-term.
Implementationof wide range reforms aimed to provide economic growth and enhancement of the judiciary.As the European Commission’s Progress Report (2013)notes, during 2004-2010 in Macedonia (the Western Balkans) a number of courtsystem reforms were introduced, including “significant changes to theConstitution, the Law on Courts and the Judicial Council, the establishment ofthe Academy for Judges and Prosecutors, the introduction of stricterprofessional requirements, the establishment of an Administrative Court andHigh Administrative Court, the shift towards enforcement of court judgments byprofessional bailiffs, the establishment of an automated case management systemand e-justice, as well as the complete overhaul of the criminal procedurelegislation and reform of the police”.Since the world has made a huge step towards the 21stcentury and globalization, rivaling forces collide each other and things aroundus are changing rapidly.
In such conditions modern nations are treating the ‘peaceand security’ as the most essential value and guarantee of prosperity andstable future, which could not be sold or bought at any market. In this regard,in accordance with the UN General Assembly resolution (2007) it has become agood tradition, annually worldwide to celebrate the International Day ofNon-Violence on October 2nd, established on birthday of MahatmaGandhi. Thus to conclude, the famous phrase by a pioneer of the philosophy andstrategy of non-violence best summarizes all the thoughts and opinions above, “Non-violence is the greatest force at thedisposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destructiondevised by the ingenuity of man” (Gandhi,M., 2011). From this pointof view, the GRIPS Forum on November 6th, 2017 was very challengingin terms of bringing policymakers, diplomats, consultants, researchers and studentstogether to address and discuss the most pressing issues relevant for achievingpeace around the world.