Communication key to this channel is that
Communication is at the heartof everything that you do as a teacher, whether with learners, colleagues orother professionals and is a skill that will develop throughout your career (Machin et al, 2016).Communicationis a complicated medium involving a source and an individual receiver or groupof receivers. Communication can be seen as the transaction of information and thisin turn can be seen as verbal or non-verbal additionally it can be visualcommunication, for example reading, the teacher may have produced electronicmedia or printed handouts containing key information, the teachers bodylanguage should match that of the verbal as it can convey non-verbalinformation. For the transaction of information to be successful it also relieson the receiver to have the necessary skills and motivation to absorb theinformation being received. This conveyance of information is also interpretedas the channel, key to this channel is that it acts as a two way channelallowing the sender or source to send information to the receiver and thus thereceiver providing feedback via the channel to the sender therefore provokingan active interaction.
A number of communication models have beensuggested that are aligned with transmission centred theory, to gain an insightwe can consider three varying and progressive models of communication namely:The Linear model of communication, the interactional model of communication andthe continuum of interpersonal communication.Themost basic of communication models is The Linear model of communicationconceptualised by Shannon and Weaver (1949), the model is comprised of severalcomponents namely: the sender, the message and the receiver this communicationtakes place in the channel. Within this model the channel can suffer with interferenceknown as noise, briefly noted as physical (external noise), physiological,psychological (internal noise) and semantic noise. Although when the Lineamodel was first conceived it was held in high regard, it has since seen to beflawed in that the assumption that there is a start and finish with the senderprojecting the message to the receiver thus the presumption of the messagebeing one way and the receiver being passive. Considering this criticism thenotion of feedback was introduced bringing with it two directionalcommunication, this conception was that of the interactional model ofcommunication from Wilbur Shramm (1954).
Shramm believed that communication wastwo directional, sender to receiver and back again, this communication can beseen as conversation providing interaction between teacher and learner, as analternative to Shannon and Weavers’ linear approach to communication thiscircular model suggests an active ongoing communication, Shramms model primarilycharacterises feedback within this two way approach and can be defined asresponses to people, their messages or both, feedback may also be construed asinternal and external with Internal feedback being deemed to be when assessingone’s own communication and likewise external feedback can be that which isreceived from other people or learners.Startingto understand that communication is a complex undertaking we can consider, thecontinuum of interpersonal communication model this is notable by two people,for example teacher and learner who simultaneously send and receive messages. GeraldMiller and Mark Steinberg (1975) considered that not all human communication isinterpersonal, whilst West (2006) considers interpersonal communication as anoccurrence that takes place with or without intention.Threeof the major underpinning principles of communication are seen to be that”Interpersonal communication is unavoidable” “Interpersonal communication isirreversible” “Interpersonal communication is rule governed.” West (2006).Insimple terms interpersonal communication is unavoidable, “you cannot notcommunicate” Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson (1967). Therefore as hard as we trywe cannot prevent someone from making meaning from our behaviour it isunavoidable West (2006).
Interpersonal communication is irreversible West(2016) offers that once communication has been made it cannot be retracted thiscan be verbal or non-verbal communication very much emphasizing the need to beself-aware when delivering course content, assessment or even on a one to onewith a learner. Interpersonal communication is rule governed, it has been noted by Hartley(1999) that the rules of communication, whilst being unwritten, continuebetween interactions and that they are dependent on a number of factors and canvary on account of familiarity and cultural factors, for example. The rulesassociated with interactional discourses can vary considerable and the varyingrules will be applied in line with the varying context of the discourse (Machinet al., 2014).Whilst effective communicationin teaching and learning is essential, it can been seen that the same skillsare crucial for assessment, regardless of the model of assessment the use offeedback is Important for positive reinforcement for the learner.
Geoff Petty(2014) notions this importance by suggesting three key aspects of feedback namely,goals, medals and missions: Goals: Feedback needs to beexplicit in what the learner is looking to achieve overall.Medals: learners requireinformation about what they have done well usually describing the positiveaspects of itself.Missions: to move forwardthe learner requires clear targets and guidance on how to improve.
Petty(2014)Communicationwithin teaching, learning and assessment is inevitable and essential whetherfor direct contact with teachers, colleagues, learners,managers or key stakeholders, knowing the basics of communication people candevelop as a proffesional