The colonial establishment of European in North America began early as the 1490 into the1500s all the way into the 1700s. By the beginning of the eighteen century, there were three main colonial empires in the New World; the British, French, and Spanish empires. They had various differences in societal, economic, political, and religious outlooks. At the start of the seventeenth century the only colonial outpost on the North America mainland was controlled by Spain. Soon, other colonial empires, like the British and French became to rise.
The Spanish settled mostly in the western and Southern part of the modern day, New Mexico, Texas, and California. Spanish conquest of the Americas began with the first voyage of Columbus in 1492. The Spanish goals were “God, Gold, and Glory. ” This was spading the word of God while seeking gold and glory. The Spanish conquest was based off of their economy. They would conquest natives and enslaved them, making them work on plantations, working in gold and silver mines. The Spanish colonies were different in term of who were in the society.
Spanish colonial efforts were the endeavors of men. Soon, those men marred local Indian women, making the Spanish colonies mixture of Spanish and Indians. God and religion was a major motivator with the Spanish seeking power. Spanish kings saw themselves as staunch defenders of Catholicism dispatched missionary throughout the colonies. The idea of Frontier of Inclusion by the Spanish was now became the main theme, where native people were introduce into colonial society. By 1750 New Spain saw a growing mestizo population as well as Hispanicized Indians from the old missions.
The French colonies were slight unlike the British and Spanish. The French established it colonies the monopoly of trade for fur. The fur-trade was a major factor for the French colonial development. Unlike the English and Spanish, instead of killing or kicking the natives off their lands, the French instead build alliance with natives groups like the Hurons. Most of the colonists in the colonies were mostly hired men who went to work as a trader for the companies. Agents and traders were sent among the native’s people to learn their languages, and customs.
As a result they trade peacefully and the same time builds stronger alliance with natives. . Just like the Spanish, the French also established a Frontier of Inclusion within their colonies. But unlike the Spanish, the French did not depose nor did they enslave natives, instead they build alliance and commerce with commerce with Indians nations, at the same time trying to teach Christianity. Just like the way the Spanish did not sent colonists to their colonies, the French men marred local Indians women and the French society was also a mixture of white European and local Indians all living together.
Unlike the French and the Spanish, the British monarchy could not afford to give financial support to it colonies overseas. Instead, the English government subcontracted the colonization of North America to private firms and individuals looking for risky, but potentially lucrative and investments. British first settlement was in 1607 at Jamestown. Similar to Spanish, however, most of first settlers were male, young indentured servants looking a better future in a land of limitless opportunity.
Like every other colonial establishment, these early English settlers also faced some early struggles, as John Smith describe it in his letter to Queen Anne, conducted to James towne: where I found about eight and thirtie miserable poore and sicke creatures, to keepe possession of all those large territories of Virginia; such was the weaknesse of this poore Commonwealth, as had the Salvages not fed us, we directly had starved. Unlike the Spanish or French who allowed only Christians, the English colonies allowed whoever was looking opportunity for a new life into their colonies.
This was also mainly because the English colonial empire was not looking for traders. As company invests in the tobacco economy there were no needs to build relationship with local Indians like the way the French and Spanish did. Other colonies were founded by religious groups fleeing harassment in England or the continental wars of religion. Groups like the Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers, and Huguenots established communities, which were mostly families’ members.
Unlike the Spanish, the English felt that there needs of include Indians into their societies so there was never a concerted effort to convert the native peoples. Instead they to begin to push or kicked them off their lands (Frontier Exclusion). As their population and differences among the British or English colonies increase the need for laws and government also seem to appear. With the Spanish and French colonies being control and ruled by the royal family and the Roman Catholic Church, the English colonies turn other form of establishing the first form of self-government in the New World.
Many early form of self-government as we know it today were the “Mayflower Compact” which established agreement among settlers, soon other forms of governments were among the English colonies. The seventeenth century, the only presence was in the Southern parts of the “New World”, soon more and more European began to migrant, some did because of wealth and other because of religion freedom. Those key factors helped shape the way the New World is today.