Cognitive Theory and Task Analysis Essay
AbstractIn the development of a lesson plan, there are certain aspects that are supposed to be brought into play. Task analysis process and the cognitive theory are some of the common guidelines that are used in developing the lesson plan. The paper is analyzing the relationship between the cognitive theory and the task analysis process. It further analyses the pros and cons of the task analysis process with its improvement to the lesson plan. Additionally, the effectiveness of the application of the two perspectives; cognitive theory and the task analysis, in a lesson plan case.
Cognitive Theory and Task AnalysisCognitive theory tries to explain that human behavior is based on understanding the thought processes. This comes from the assumption that humans are logical beings which make decisions that makes a greater sense to them. Activities such as information processing are usually compared with the computer processors to the mental process of human. This means that the memory system is an organized information processor and prior knowledge is an important aspect in learning (Osborne 2003, pp.
63).On the other hand, task analysis, is the analysis in which a task should be accomplished. The task analysis process includes features such as task and element duration, task allocation, mental activities and other unique and important features that ensure the success of a process. This means that it enables a task to be performed in a hierarchical form with specific steps that ensures a goal is achieved.Task analysis is an important aspect in education. It is a model that is employed in a classroom to discover what curriculum should be marched with which capabilities so that the learning process becomes successful and incorporates right modifications. This means that it enables the discovering of tasks that a student has mastered and information process that demands certain tasks so that it enables solving a problematic or easy assignment.From this understanding, it is important to incorporate cognitive theory with the task analysis process to ensure the success of any education plan.
This means that when the cognitive and task analysis come together it forms the cognitive task analysis. Cognitive task analysis brings in together the components of a task that are required for adequate performance. This means that it is important in a scenario in developing a lesson plan because it circumscribes the curriculum that is supposed to be taught and gives a decomposition of the said curriculum to form knowledge and sub-skills that students have to learn (Osborne 2003, pp. 77).This means that the main important objective of cognitive task analysis is to bring in the sense of mental models or knowledge structures which users uses to ensure that a certain task is accomplished with the help of a device an in our case the device is the lesson plan.Task analysis process is important in designing a lesson plan because it brings into consideration the goals and objectives that the students are supposed to understand. This means that it describes and defines the task and subtasks that are supposed to be accomplished by the teacher and the student. Hence, it specifies type of knowledge that should be incorporated: structural, declarative or procedural which characterizes the task.
Additionally, the task analysis process enables the selection of the appropriate outcomes that should be accomplished, and enables the sequencing and prioritizing tasks. It enables the determination of instructional activities and strategies which ensures fostering of learning. This ensures the selection of the right media and defines the learning environments that will lead into construction of the appropriate performance assessment and evaluation tasks.However, task analysis process doesn’t bring into consideration any changes that can be witnessed in the task scenario. The task analysis allows a manual that the users can use but the users have to know what they have to do before using it; “How to do it”. This means that the common technique doesn’t incorporate the ‘how’ which is a beginning of any learning process.In most cases, there are five stages that are in a task analysis process.
The first step in creating a lesson plan is classifying tasks according to the outcomes of the learning. For example, if the outcome is learning addition, then the outcomes should ensure that the students understand addition at the end of the task. Inventorying of tasks is an important step which ensures that identification of tasks is made possible and the right lists of tasks is generated.
Selection of the tasks is prioritizing the tasks into clusters that show the most feasible and appropriate; this is when there are many tasks that are supposed to be performed (Morton 2004, p. 90).Additionally, the tasks are decomposed. This means that identification of tasks and describing the components that ensures that the tasks, objectives and goals are brought into consideration. Finally, the tasks and sub-tasks are sequenced.
This enables the defining of the sequence that the instructor should follow which will best facilitate the learning process.Lesson plan is an important aspect in ensuring that the learning objective yields the appropriate outcome. The lesson plan has incorporated most details that constitute both the cognitive theory and task analysis. This means that the lesson plan has incorporated all details that are required in an instructive lesson plan. This means that the lesson plan is effective when implemented in learning. This shows that it is successful in ensuring that the lesson and the learners achieve the pre-determined outcomes.Furthermore, the lesson plan enables analyzing the knowledge that has been learned due to the evaluation.
In addition, it brings in actions that have worked and what contributed to the success of the tasks which may lead to replication. This means that the objective of the lesson plan achieved its aim, through the successful outcome of the learners understanding the initial goal (Osborne 2003, pp. 133).Task analysis process is important in understanding the cognitive process of the learners and ensures the transfer of the knowledge.
However, there are areas that require improvement. The lesson plan is supposed to be flexible to incorporate any developments during the learning process. A normal lesson plan is rigid and brings in the understanding of the teacher or tutor in developing it, the teacher sometimes may be wrong (Howard 2000, pp. 45).Furthermore, the process neglects the behaviorism aspect of the discipline that is taught. The cognitive process should work hand in hand to ensure that the lesson plan is successful. Task analysis process doesn’t provide ways of managing the observable behaviors that are produced by the learner’s response to the appropriate stimuli.
This means that behaviorism aspect should be introduced so that the reinforcement should be incorporated with the introduction of both negative and positive feedbacks to shape the learning process.Another personal view in improving the task analysis process and cognitive theory in developing the lesson plan is the incorporation of the view of the students and other experts in developing it. Previous lessons enable the indication that the students take when introducing and teaching the lesson. Different tasks come with different ways that the learners can easily employ in understanding the task. Experts in the relevant field are supposed to be called upon in giving the guidelines and supervise how the lesson plan is developed to ensure that all factors that learners incorporate are fixed into the plan.
In the development of a lesson plan there are different perspectives that can be employed. The most frequently employed method is the task analysis process. When the cognitive theory and the task analysis process are brought together in developing a lesson plan, it ensures that all the factors that ensure that the learners achieve the right instructions are incorporated. In any process there are certain benefits that are obtained when a method is employed in a situation, the task analysis process has various pros and cons. Furthermore, there are some adjustments that should be made so that the learners accrue the right information.ReferencesHoward, L. (2000).
What contributes to a good lesson plan? London: Oxford University Press, pp. 45.Morton, P. (2004).
Learning Theories. New York: New York Publishers, pp. 90 – 96Osborne, K. (2003). Implementation of learning process. Jakarta: Prentice hall of Jakarta, pp. 63 – 77Smith, Z. (1998).
Cognitive Task Analysis: A case study. London: McMillan Publishers, pp. 80 – 90.