Cladosporium is a plant pathogen primarily affecting
Cladosporium is a pigmented mold most often found to be airborne or on rotten organic matter. It is found both indoors and outdoors. Colonies range from a dark green to black color. They are relatively slow-growing. The dark spores are normally one to two celled and occur in long, branching chains that arise from a dark conidiophore. The youngest spores are those found at the top of the chain. The most effective way to distinguish the genus is by the prominent scars on the spores where the adjacent spores were attached. Some species may be resistant to certain types of treated lumber.
Exposure to the spores of this fungus is known to cause respiratory allergies. Symptoms include hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. It causes severe infections when it comes in contact with small cuts or abrasions in the skin. Other aligments include sinusitis, skin lesions, nail fungus, and keratitis. Extended exposure to spores may lead to a suppression of the immune system which allows other opportunistic viruses and bacteria to infect the host.
Colletotrichum musae is a plant pathogen primarily affecting the genus Musa (Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae, it includes bananas and plantains. Around 70 species of Musa are known, with a broad variety of uses), which includes bananas and plantains. It is best known as a cause of anthracnose (the black and brown spots) indicating ripeness on bananasThe importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. C. albicans is opportunistic pathogenic yeast. It is a common member of the human gut flora. It does not proliferate outside the human body.
C. albicans is cause of Candida Related Complex and many undesirable symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, weight gain, and gas. Most people have some of C. albicans in their intestines. Usually it coexists peacefully with the other microorganisms that live there. C. albicans population can get out of control because they are establishing fast growing colonies and biofilms, and starting to dominate human gut. Then they begin to affect human digestion, weaken immune system and even damage intestinal wall, allowing toxic byproducts to escape into bloodstream and spread throughout body.
These toxic byproducts cause damage to body organs and tissues. The major waste product of activity is acetaldehyde. It is a poisonous neurotoxin. It promotes free radical activity in the body. Acetaldehyde is broken down into acetic acid within the liver. This can cause unpleasant symptoms as headaches and nausea. It is a gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic (and can commonly be found existing as a commensal), it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S.
aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Despite much research and development there is no approved vaccine for S. aureus.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus General characteristics Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multi resistance to beta lactum antibiotics, which includes penicillins and the cephalosporins.
Pathogenicity MRSA is an emerging cause of infections outside of health care settings. Skin infection and necrotizing pneumonia have been reported as the cases of infections caused by MRSA. It is a common Gram-negative bacterium.
Cell structure is rod-shaped. P. aeruginosa can cause disease in plants and animals. It is a medically important species. P. aeruginosa is a multidrug resistant pathogen recognized. They have intrinsically advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms. P.
aeruginosa associated with serious illnesses hospital acquired infections. Such as ventilator associated pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes. P. aeruginosa is most notably cystic fibrosis and traumatic burns.
It is also found generally in the immunocompromised. But can infect the immunocompetent. Treatment of P. aeruginosa infections difficult due to its natural resistance to antibiotics. Advanced antibiotic drug regimens are needed adverse effects may result.E.
coli is a Gram-negative, facultative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia. That is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most strains are harmless.
Some serotypes can cause food poisoning. Due to food contamination they are occasionally responsible for product recalls . The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut. Also they can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2. E. coli are preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria.
They have a symbiotic relationship. They expelled into the environment within fecal matter. E. coli grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions. Its numbers decline slowly afterwards.Each class of antimicrobial agents has a unique mode of action. In order to understand how antimicrobial agents work it is necessary to study some basic features of bacterial cell structure and how target sites of antimicrobial agents function in the bacterial cell.
Although the structures of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are similar, there are several key differences prevail between them. These differences are responsible for the ability of an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. However, some agents are active on both types of bacteria and these often are referred to as broad-spectrum agents.
Bacteriostatic agents, such as tetracycline, inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria. Upon exposure to a bacteriostatic agent, cells in a susceptible population stop dividing. However if the agent is removed, the cells once again able to multiply. Bactericidal agents, such as fluoroquinolones, not only inhibit the growth of cells but also trigger pathways within the cell that lead to cell death. The actions of bactericidal drugs are irreversible.Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals. They have protectiveor disease preventive properties.
There are more than thousand known phytochemicals.They are non-essential nutrients, because that they are not required by thehuman body for sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces thesechemicals to protect them. But recent researches demonstrate that they can alsoprotect humans against diseases. There are many phytochemicals and each worksdifferently.
Some possible actions are antioxidant, hormonal action, stimulation ofenzymes, interference with DNA replication, anti-bacterial effect and physicalaction