CHRONIC to discuss ongoing lung diseases including

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                          2                       Chronic obstructivepulmonary disease is a phrase used to discuss ongoing lung diseases includingchronic bronchitis, emphysema, refractory asthma, etc. (Kleinschmidt, P. 2014,June 06)  This condition is distinguishedby increasing breathlessness.

Some of  the warning of COPD can be  sputum making also immedicable cough,  and awful life threatning breathing particular individuals, chronic cough an sputum production are the firstsigns that they are at chance for developing the airflow obstruction andshortness of breath that is trait of this disease. in others, shortnes ofbreath may be the first indication of the disease.

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  According to the World Health Organization,COPD was the main cause of death worldwide in 2006. Also millions people passaway from this condition in countries as diverse as different continentals inthe world. ( Jørgen Vestbo, J. (2013, February 15)               Cigarette smoking is, by far,the most important risk factor for COPD. pipes, cigar, and other types oftobacco use and passive exposure to smoke are also risk factors.

other riskfactirs for COPD that have been identified include, exposure to occupationaldusts and chemicals, recurrent lung infections, airway hyperresponsivenes, lowbirth weight, and socioeconomic factors.     COPD is characterized by a chronicinflammatory response throughout the airway, lung tissues, and pulmonaryvasculature. with this chronic inflammatory response, macrophages,T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils are increased in various parts of the lung. Theinflammatory process of COPD lead to repeated cycles of injury and repair ofthe airway wall. The repair   CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                       3process results instructural remodeling of the airway wall with increasing collagen content andscar tissue formation, which narrows the lumen and produces fixed airway obstruction.

        Regardless of the lung diseasepredominating in the patient with COPD, the end result is that progressiveairflow obstruction leads to a chronic ventilation perfusion mismatch withblood flowing past the unaerated lung, resulting in hypoxia. Depending on thelung disease present, various symptoms including barrel chest, cyanosis, andclubbing may occur. (Mosenifar, Z.

2014, October 30)           Several classes of medications areused to decrease symptoms and complications of COPD, although they have notbeen shown to modify the long-term decline in lung function of such patients.Medications commonly used include beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics,corticosteroids, methylxanthines, and a combination of one or more of these drugs.(NHLB,2017) Bronchodilators are the main pharmacotherapy for COPD. They relievebronchospasm, reduce airway obstruction, and improve alveolar ventilation.Oxygen delivery is actually considered a prescription therapy and is to beadministered with great caution. In advanced COPD, oxygen therapy for more than15 hours per day has been shown to improve the patient’s quality of life andsurvival.

         On discharge, the patient with COPDrequires considerable patient and family teaching. patients do well in aclimate with minimal shifts in temperature and humidity, and no extremes ofheat and cold. ( Algusti, A. G. 2017, April).  The patient and family can be taught to avoidenvironmental and occupational irritants, how to use respiratory devices, andhow to correctly use oxygen delivery systems.

In addition, the patient can beinstructed to have good nutrition and avoid excess weight gain or loss and toavoid substances, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drugs. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                           4My patient has a historyof COPD, due to long term smoking, about 25 years. As pharmacotherapy she hasbeen prescribed albuterol 2.5 mg and ipratropium bromide.

during discharge thepatient and family are educated on smoking cessation and management andtreatments for COPD.                                                           SummaryCOPD is characterized byprogressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflowlimitation is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs to noxiousgases. There are many causes and smoking is the primary cause. The patient andthe family should be taught on how manage ang and treat the patient, teach themto avoid environmental irritants and the important of stop smoking.


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