Chemical Properties Of A Drug Substance Biology Essay

The overall aim of preformulation testing is to bring forth information utile to the formulator in developing stable and bioavailable dose signifiers which can be mass-produced.25Scope: A elaborate apprehension of the belongingss of the drug substance is indispensable to minimise preparation jobs in ulterior phases of drug development, cut down drug development costs, and diminish the merchandise ‘s clip to market ( i.e.

, from drug substance to drug merchandise ) . However, prior to reexamining the assorted demands that determine the range of preformulation surveies, it is of import to reexamine how the drug find theoretical accounts are quickly altering and why there is a demand for non merely one, but several degrees of preformulation surveies.The first measure in preformulation is to set up a simple analytical method. Most drugs absorb visible radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths ( 190-390 tally ) as they are by and large aromatic and contain dual bonds. Using the UV spectrum of the drug, it is possible to take an analytical wavelength ( frequently Amax ) suitable to quantify the sum of drug in a peculiar solution.4

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A. UV Spectroscopy ( Determination of I»max ) :

Stock solution ( 1000 I?g/ml ) of Drug X was prepared in Phosphate buffer pH 6.

8 with 1 % SLS. This solution was suitably diluted with Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 with 1 % SLS to obtain a concentration of 100 I?g/ml.

The solution was kept in a amalgamate silicon oxide cuvette 10 millimeter. The UV spectrum was recorded in the scope of 200-400 nanometer on Shimadzu dual beam UV-visible spectrophotometer at 1 centimeter, slit breadth. Wavelength of maximal soaking up ( I»max ) is shown in Table 53 and in fig. 16 and 17

B. Preparation of standard curve ( Calibration curve ) of drug Tens:

A standard curve was prepared by fade outing 10 milligram of drug X in 100ml of Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 with 1 % SLS.

It was further diluted with disintegration medium i.e. Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 with 1 % SLS to acquire solutions in concentration scope of 2 to 12 I?g/ml. The optical density of the solution was determined spectrophotometrically at 304 nanometers.

C. IR spectrum reading:

The infrared soaking up spectrum of Drug X was obtained in a KBr phonograph record utilizing a Perkinaˆ?Elmer infrared spectrophotometer. The infrared spectrum of Drug X is shown in Fig.

18 severally. The infrared soaking up bands assignments for Drug X is shown in Table 54 severally.



The solubility survey for Drug X was performed by in acetic acid, H2O, trichloromethane, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, MDC, propanone and quintessence and it is besides reported in table 51.

4. Melting Point

“ The thaw point of a solid is the temperature at which the vapour force per unit area of the solid and the liquid are equal ” i.e. “ Temperature at which the stuff alterations from a solid to a liquid province ” .Rationale for runing point survey: A pure substance thaws at a exactly defined temperature, feature of every crystalline substance and dependant merely on force per unit area ( though the force per unit area dependence is by and large considered insignificant ) . Determining the MP is a simple and fast method used in many diverse countries of chemical science to obtain a first feeling of the pureness of a substance.

This is because even little measures of drosss change the thaw point, or at least clearly enlarge its thaw scope. The trial is still an of import technique for estimating pureness of organic and pharmaceutical compounds.Types of runing point setup: Four types of runing point setups are:Thiele tubingFisher-Johns setup,Gallenkamp ( Electronic ) runing point setup andautomatic thaw point setupObservations: The runing point of Drug X was determined utilizing Bellstone Precision Melting Point Apparatus and was reported.


Bulk densenessTapped densenessCompressibility Index ( CI )Hausner ‘s RatioAngle of ReposeLoss on DryingBulk denseness: Density is defined as weight per unit volume. Bulk denseness, is defined as the mass of the pulverization divided by the majority volume and is expressed as gm/ cm3. The bulk denseness of a pulverization chiefly depends on atom size distribution, ‘particle form and the inclination of atoms to adhere together.

There are two types of majority denseness. The atoms are pack in such a manner so as to go forth big spreads between their surfaces ‘resulting up in light pulverization of low majority denseness. Here the smaller atoms shift between the big atoms ensuing in heavy pulverization of high majority denseness. Bulk denseness is really of import in the size of containers needed for managing, transportation, and storage of natural stuff and blend. It is besides of import to take the size of intermixing equipment.

Bulk denseness = Mass of the pulverization

Bulk volume

It is determined by USP Bulk denseness Tapped denseness setup.Tapped denseness: It is defined as the ratio of mass of the pulverization taken to the volume occupied after specified tapping ( 500i‚® 750 i‚®1250 ) .

Tapped denseness = Mass of pulverization

Tapped volume

It is determined by USP Bulk denseness Tapped denseness setup.Compressibility index ( C.I ) : The squeezability index has been proposed as an indirect step of majority denseness, size and form, surface country, wet content, and coherence of stuffs because all of these can act upon the ascertained squeezability index.

CI =Tapped denseness – Bulk denseness x 100

Tapped denseness

Hausner ‘s ratio: The hausner ‘s ratio has been proposed as an indirect step of majority denseness, size and form, surface country, wet content, and coherence of stuffs because all of these can act upon the ascertained hausner ‘s ratio.

HR = Tapped denseness

Bulk denseness


CI ( % )

Flow character


1.& lt ; 10Excellent1.



456.32-37Very Poor1.46-1.597.& gt ; 38Very Very Poor& gt ; 1.60

Table 5: Limits for squeezability index & A ; Hausner ‘s ratio 30

Angle of rest: The angle of rest has been used to qualify the flow belongingss of solids. Angle of rest is a characteristic related to interparticulate clash or opposition to motion between atoms.

It is defined as, the maximal angle possible between the surface of the heap of the pulverization and the horizontal plane. If more pulverization is added to the heap, it slides down the sides of the heap until the common clash of the atoms bring forthing a surface angle ( I? ) and it is in equilibrium with the gravitative force. The angle of rest was determined by the funnel method suggested by Newman. Angle of rest is determined by the undermentioned expression:

I? = tan-1 ( h/r )

Where,H — — -height of cone.R — — -radius of cone.I? — — -angle of rest



Angle of rest

Flow belongings


36-40Carnival4.41-45Passable5.46-55Poor6.56-65Very Poor7.& gt ; 66Very Very Poor

Table 6: Limits for angle of repose 30

Loss on drying: 31

LOD is besides an of import belongings of blend because it influences the compression and flow belongings, hence hardness and decomposition has been besides affected. Around 1g of blend examined in setup at temperature 60°c, 80°c, 105°c etc.

( depends on API runing point ) . Generally it should be & lt ; 5 % .Procedure: This was determined by weighing 1g. of sample in LOD apparatus Sartorius-MA45 at 80A°C.

Flow belongingss of drug X reported in table 52 and flow belongingss of blend reported in table 59.


A. Plan for ocular observation survey:

Based on the literature survey, composing of API & A ; Excipients in footings of w/w of the mark wt. of tablet may be varied. Weight of API measure + excipient measure will be in the scope of 100-500mg for compatibility survey.API & lt ; 5 % w/w ofTarget wt.5 % & lt ; API & lt ; 50 % w/wof Target wt.API & gt ; 50 % w/w ofTarget wt.API: Dilutant1:101:11:1API: Binder1:11:0.51:0.5API: Disintegrant1:51:11:0.5API: Lubricant/Anti-adherent1:11:0.51:0.2API: Preservative/Colorant1:0.11:0.11:0.05

Table 7: Proportionality of Drug X and excipient for ocular compatibility survey

Charge the certain phials to recommended storage conditions:


Duration ( yearss )


2-8oC15Ocular55A°C15Ocular40A°C/75 % RH15Ocular25A°C/60 % RH15Ocular

Table 8: Recommended storage conditions to bear down phials for compatibility survey



Physical ( Visual )Initial & A ; so 7th & A ; 15th Day.

Table 9: Frequency of rating

Evaluation Standards

Physical observation: ( Visual )

CoatingLiquefactionDiscoloration/Color DevelopmentAny sample screening above physical observation on 55A°C every bit good as lower temperatures, the sample combination will be non taken for farther survey.


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