CHAPTER documented that children are believed to

CHAPTER IIReview of RelatedLiteratureParenting StylesLocal LiteratureLike most of the most of the countries inAsia, it is important for each Filipino to prioritize value and have strongrelational bonds within their families. But resulting from colonialexperiences, more specifically the influence of Chinese people, Confucianismand Buddhism’s principle of family attachments and obligations have departedfrom the foundation of Filipino’s family and social values.

Understanding parenting in thePhilippines, we start on each parent’s belief on how to properly raise childrenand also their parental behavior.  Thisis called parental enthnotheories according to Harkness and Supper (2006).Toddlers and infants are considered by Filipino parents to don’t have yet acognitive mind, lacking of understanding, and are dominated by their bareemotions that demand to have immediate satisfactions (Dela Cruz et al.

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2001). Keyethnographic studies of indigenous and rural Filipino communities have ?esh outthis conception. In one of the earliest detailed studies on Filipino childraising in a rural community of Tarong in Ilocos, Nydegger and Nydegger (1966)documented that children are believed to come into the world without sense. Itis in ages 4-6 when they have the potential to develop their maturity inunderstanding instruction and guidance. This is the time when children are given household responsibilities andare expected to control their impulsiveness to obey their parents, elders, andolder siblings. Another primary factor in Filipinofamilies is the emphasis of gratification of giving back of children to theirparents.

an expectation that reinforces the family’s interdependence andsupports the value of utang na loob— that is, acknowledging and reciprocating parents’ care and sacri?ces(Medina 2001).While these Filipino parenting behaviorsmay evolve in the years to come, the consequences of these beliefs andbehaviors for Filipino families and children’s development will need to befully examined.Foreign Literature In adolescents aged 15-17, the parentingstyle and a range of personality factors revealed very significant relationship.

These include factors related to character, but also temperament, socialcommunication, mental (in)stability, activity/passivity with a strongbiological basis. There are two types of parents that are identified by Rohner(1980). Accepting parents are those who shows affection physically and verballyand may be a combination of the two so that the child may feel accepted andloved. However, Rejecting parents are those who often shows negative vibes aroundtheir children. They often tend to be aggressive, compare their children andregard them as a burden (Loudováa, 2015).Parenting style has been defined as the standard strategiesthat parents used in child rearing.  Parentswho offers full support with strict control to their children are calledAuthoritative Parents.

While, parents who provides strict control withoutgiving full support to their children are called Authoritarian Parents. anuninvolved parenting style are being supportive while some are being neglectfulwith respect to their childrens decisions. It was proven that having anauthoritative parents have more beneficial effects on adolescents lifestylesthan having an authoritarian parents. (Collins, Maccoby,Steinberg, Hetherington, & Bornstein, 2000) Personality TraitsForeign LiteraturePersonalityTraits are the peoples’ characteristics pattern of thoughts, feelings andbehaviors. Meanwhile, on the Psychological Perspective,  personality traits was described as how theindividuals differ from one another (Diener and Lucas, 2018).

McCrae and Costa( 1987) developed  this mostly used systemof traits which is called the Five-Factor Model and it includes the five broadtraits which are the following: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,Agreeableness and Neuroticism (OCEAN). Inevolutionary perspective, every personality traits has its advantage (Furnham ,2008). It is said that the personality of an individual has an impact on careerchoice (Hussain et al, 2011).  and otherstudies shows that a person’s choice of career can be determined through hispersonality traits. (Hossain et al, 2012).

As defined as the differencesbetween learners, personality has also an advantage in the field of education,it is important because it shapes the learners approach to verbal and differentkinds of learning. . (Rossier, 1975; Busch, 1982; Dawale and Furnham, 1999)                        Furthermore, family is the firstplace of contact once a child is born.

The family specifically the parents arethe ones who has the power to make or to mold a child’s personality. Though variousfactors can influence ones personality development, the family has the most impacton child’s personality development. Parenting is a non-stop process. Theoutcome of successful  or unsuccessfulparenting can be seen in grownup child’s personality. The decisions and thepersonality of this adolescent reflects the parenting he had received (Mullin,2005).Foreign StudiesAccordingto Baumrind (1967), the four parenting styles were identified through thetheory of social development. The four parenting styles are authoritative,neglectful parenting, permissive and authoritarian. The relationship between aparent and child is a complex activity that comprises specific behavior andattitude that may impact a child’s personality.

Demandingness and parentalresponsiveness are the two components of parenting (Fletcher, et al., 2008). Theextent to which parents set a principle for their children and how theirregulation was based is called parental demandingness. Parental responsivenessrefers to emotional quality of parents. The four main parenting styles areauthoritative parenting, neglectful parenting, permissive parenting andauthoritarian parenting.

Authoritative parenting is the combination ofresponsiveness and demandingness. They take consideration of their child’spoint of view and seeks the child’s participation in making decisions but atthe same time they make logical demands and set limits. (Berg, 2011; Weiss& Schwarz, 1996; Zupancic, Podlesek, & Kavcic, 2004). Thistype of parents is supportive and understanding while having their childdisciplined and monitored fairly (Baumrind, 1971).

Neglectful parenting areparents who supports their child with his/her basic needs but detached from thechild’s life. Parents don’t engage a lot with their child and the worst thingabout this is that they may also neglect their child’s needs. They don’tusually spend time with each other instead the parents prefer their child tohave fun on his/her own through watching televisions and playing toys. Thechild’s behavior, the lack of self-control which may affect his/hercommunication skills were the effects of a child who have neglectful parents. Havea small amount of demand from their child, provides interaction and a greatdeal of warmth, rarely disciplines their child because they have lowexpectations of self-control and maturity were the attributes of a permissiveparent. The child was given a higher chance to be free, has a few boundariesand do not stop from doing bad habits unless he/she was physically hurt(Rossman & Rea, 2005).

Parents are fostering and nurturing but as much aspossible they stay away from imposing controls and demands over their child’sbehavior. (Zupancic et al., 2004). They have few limits for their child, sothey often view their child as a friend (Berg, 2011). According to Baumrind(1967), permissive parents tends to be a lot more responsive than demanding.Authoritarian parenting is difficult. They expect their child to act and accepttheir demands without arguing or questioning them and they engage a littlemutual interaction with their child.

Failure to comply with their desire leadsto a punishment, authoritarian parents have a great control on their child’slife. They’re not as responsive as their child. Having authoritarian parentsmay cause a child to be authoritative too. They set their standards very highand they require guidance and obedience (Berg, 2011).  LocalStudiesIn the Philippines, the family plays a very important role inadolescents’ lives and live with their parents into emerging adulthood.

Filipino parents always tell their child to be obedient as a sign of respectand honor to the country (Medina, 2001). Parental style has the biggestcontribution in child’s development. The parental behaviorpatterns are influenced by two factors in terms of the degree and thecombination of two underlying compositions – the demandingness/control andresponsiveness/warmth.

Demandingness/control includes the signs of beingstrict, supervised, having behavioral demands and daily monitoring (Backer-Fulghum et al., 2012).Some researchers believed that parenting behaviors can either be beneficial orat least less harmful when they have an environment that’s giving them lightmood through their cultural ideals (Chao, 1994; Dwairy, 2004).   


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