Changes In The Reactive Oxygen Species Biology Essay
A survey was carried out in autochthonal hogs to happen out the alterations in the degrees of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase during changing ambient temperatures. Blood samples were collected during moderate, utmost hot and cold atmospheres to reap sera. Mean value of serum SOD during moderate atmosphere was 155.25A±1.47 kU L-1. Moderate average value was considered as control. The average value of serum SOD was significantly ( pa‰¤0.05 ) higher during hot and cold atmospheres as compared to chair average value. Mean value was 2.87 times higher in hot atmosphere and 1.77 times higher in cold atmosphere as compared to chair atmosphere. Increased SOD activities during utmost atmospheres showed the presence of oxidative emphasis. Sexual activity and age effects were important ( pa‰¤0.05 ) in all the atmospheres and were consistent during utmost atmospheres deducing that serum SOD activities showed the interactions of atmosphere with sex and age. Present survey provided informations of SOD in autochthonal hogs which can be used as mention values for future surveies and for diagnostic intents. The original of alterations of SOD activity signified transition of adaptative mechanisms to screen the hogs from changes in ambient temperatures and utilizing this foundation of cognition, antioxidant disposal is recommended during utmost atmospheres.
Cardinal words: Ambient temperatures, cold, hot, hogs, serum, superoxide dismutase
Physiological emphasis can be defined as any external or internal status that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an being. It can be divided into three different facets: environmental emphasis, intrinsic developmental emphasis, and aging. Throughout life all life beings are challenged by alterations in the environment. Fluctuations in O degrees, temperature, and redox province trigger molecular events that enable an being to accommodate, last, and reproduce ( Kagias et al 2012 ) . Reactive O species are extremely reactive in biological systems and include superoxide, hydroxyl extremist, hydrogen peroxide, and fatty acid peroxides. They are produced via normal oxidative metamorphosis and few of them are indispensable for cell signaling tracts and other maps. Oxidative emphasis consequences when the concentration of reactive O species exceeds that of antioxidant system. Antioxidant system keeps their concentration low due to their reactive belongingss. The ability of hogs to neutralize the reactive O species plays a cardinal function in their public assistance and scientists have recommended the application of such methods for the appraisal of farmed animate beings ‘ public assistance ( Brambilla et al 2001 ) . Scientists have worked with assorted parametric quantities to measure oxidative emphasis at laboratory degree as it does non exhibit any symptom ( Kataria et al. , 2010a ) . Oxidative emphasis is known to be associated with assorted wellness upsets. Changes in ambient temperatures is considered as one of the stressors doing oxidative emphasis ( Kataria et al. , 2010b ) .
During utmost atmospheres hogs are exposed to great fluctuations in environmental temperatures seting the physiological mechanisms of these animate beings to jeopardy ensuing in great fiscal loads to fringy hog raisers. Heat emphasis is related with decreased growing, hapless sow public presentation and lessening in carcase quality ( Fernandez et al 2012 ) . For optimal production in hogs it is indispensable to understand the environmental demands of the hogs so that schemes can be made to protect them from jeopardies of the environment. Extreme cold atmosphere besides put these animate beings in problem due to hapless thermoregulatory mechanisms. Chemical reaction to emphasize involves activation of an extended web embracing the cardinal nervous system every bit good as hormone and immune responses.
Antioxidant enzymes are considered as powerful markers of oxidative emphasis since their degrees are modified with development of oxidative emphasis. Superoxide dismutase is considered as on such marker which is used in the animate beings to measure oxidative emphasis ( Kataria et al. , 2010c ) . Superoxide dismutase catalyses the dismutation of superoxide and is important in the defence against oxidative emphasis ( Halliwell and Chirico, 1993 ) .
Dearth of research work sing atmosphere related oxidative emphasis in hogs directs the coevals of mention values of biomarkers of oxidative emphasis in autochthonal strains. It is non considered wise to generalize the values of other species or strain. Veterinary diagnostic research labs must data for timely sensing of oxidative emphasis in hogs. Paucity of research to associate oxidative emphasis with utmost ambient temperatures in the hogs emphasised the demand of a survey to happen out the relation of oxidative emphasis indexs with utmost atmospheres. Therefore the present survey was launched and the aim of our work was to measure the impact of a oxidative emphasis induced due to extreme hot and cold ambient temperatures on the porcine system. As markers, we chose serum superoxide dismutase and determined its degrees during moderate, hot and cold atmospheres. In that context, we besides assessed the possibility of utilizing SOD as a marker of oxidative emphasis in autochthonal hogs.
Materials and methods
The survey was carried out in 270 seemingly healthy autochthonal hogs of either sex, between 6 months to one twelvemonth of age to find serum superoxide dismutase enzyme during moderate ( Mean maximum ambient temperature 28.22A±0.01oC ) , hot ( Mean maximum ambient temperature 45.30A±0.001oC ) and cold ( Mean minimum ambient temperature 1.02A±0.001oC ) atmospheres. Blood samples were collected during butchering from private slaughter houses ( Bikaner, Rajasthan, India ) where all the animate beings were kept in similar conditions of direction. In each atmosphere, 90 blood samples were obtained to reap the serum samples and the animate beings were categorised sex wise as male ( 45 ) and non-pregnant female ( 45 ) and age wise as 6-8 months ( 15 male and 15 female ) ; 8-10 months ( 15 male and 15 female ) and 10-12months ( 15 male and 15 female ) .
Superoxide dismutase was determined by colorimetric method of Winterbourn et Al. ( 1975 ) with the small alteration. The method is based upon the ability of superoxide dismutase to suppress the decrease of nitroblue tetrazolium by superoxide. One unit is defined as that sum of enzyme doing half the maximal suppression of nitroblue tetrazolium decrease. In the alteration, alternatively of the Michaelis-Menten type of secret plan, a additive secret plan was obtained when the mutual values for the per centum suppression of nitroblue tetrazolium ( NBT ) decrease were plotted against the serum samples. This secret plan was found to give precise values for the volumes of samples required for 50 % suppression of NBT decrease. Statistical significance for single parametric quantity between moderate and hot periods was analysed ( Kaps & A ; Lamberson 2004 ) .
Consequences and treatment
Mean A±SEM values are presented in table 1. Moderate average value of serum SOD was 155.25A±1.47 kU L-1. The average value corroborated earlier findings in healthy hogs ( Kataria and Kataria, 2012b ) .The average value of serum SOD was significantly ( pa‰¤0.05 ) higher during hot and cold atmospheres as compared to chair or command. Mean value was 2.87 times higher in hot atmosphere and 1.77 times higher in cold atmosphere as compared to command. The sex and age effects were important ( pa‰¤0.05 ) in all atmospheres. The average values were significantly ( pa‰¤0.05 ) higher in male animate beings than female animate beings. In each atmosphere the age consequence showed a important ( p a‰¤0.05 ) addition in the mean values being highest in the hogs of 10-12 months of age.
Extreme hot and cold atmospheres are known to increase the rate of reactive O species production. Body activates its defence mechanism in footings of antioxidant enzyme activity to scavenge the reactive O species ( Kataria and Kataria, 2012a ) . Probably this could be the ground of higher values of serum SOD during hot and cold atmospheres in hogs. Research workers have assessed the higher activity of SOD in footings of a marker of oxidative emphasis in assorted species during hot ambient temperature ( Bernabucci et al 2002 ; Kataria et al 2010b ; Kataria et al 2010c ; Sakatani et Al 2012 ) .
The function of assorted antioxidants in commanding diseases explains their engagement during the disease province ( Kataria et al 2012 ) . Under certain conditions, antioxidant mechanisms are impaired and reactive O species are increased and antioxidant mechanisms may go deficient to wholly forestall oxidative harm. Mammalian cells may meet oxidative emphasiss that cause devastation of supermolecules and unnatural map ( Jang et al 2008 ) . The flux of reactive O species in the vasculature consequences in the induction and publicity of assorted pathological conditions ( Yang 2006 ) . Earlier workers have used serum SOD as an of import parametric quantity to happen out biotic emphasis ( Kataria et al 2010 a ; Kataria & A ; Kataria 2012a ; Kataria & A ; Kataria 2012b ; Kataria et Al 2012 ) . SOD is one of the chief antioxidant enzymes in mammals, and could cut down H peroxide and organic hydro peroxides. Activities are normally used to measure organic structure antioxidative position ( Knight and Sunde 1987 ) .
Higher activities show physiological upregulation of this enzyme in an effort to extenuate superoxide extremist challenge ( Kahlon and Singh 2003 ) . Higher activity in male hogs suggested higher rate of formation of reactive O species. Influence of age on serum SOD activity was besides observed by earlier workers ( De and Durad 1993 ; Nazifi et Al 2009 ) . Above treatment helped in sum uping that utmost atmospheres generated reactive O species to bring forth oxidative emphasis in hogs. As a defence mechanism serum SOD activity increased enormously.
Changes were observed in the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase during changing ambient temperatures. The development of oxidative emphasis was deduced from the tendency of fluctuation and by comparing them with earlier studies in other carnal species. Magnitude of addition was greater in hot atmosphere than cold atmosphere in the hogs of both sexes and all age groups. Transition of adaptative mechanisms was greater in male in comparing to female hogs and in the animate beings of 10-12 months of age in comparing to relatively younger animate beings. Datas obtained in the survey can be used as mention values for future surveies and for diagnostic intents. The original of alterations of SOD activity signified transition of adaptative mechanisms to screen the hogs from changes in ambient temperatures and utilizing this foundation of cognition, antioxidant disposal is recommended during utmost atmospheres to battle resulting oxidative emphasis.
The writers are grateful to the private hog raisers for leting to roll up blood samples from their hogs to be used in this survey.